The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times

31 Mar 2017
  Travelling to Flanders

I'm off until April 10th, visiting Flanders. Like I totally need another 2,000 or so photos. :-)

Since I don't want to leave you without any photos, here are some of the raised bog in the Solling in August when the heather was blooming, and two more from the Bruchteiche reservoir near Bad Sooden-Allendorf.

The raised bog in the Solling in August

I wanted to visit the towns of Ghent, Bruges and Antwerp for quite some time. There should be some flamboyant Gothic churches, a really impressive castle (Gravensteen in Ghent) and lots of pretty old houses, some of them along lovely canals. I hope there will be some sunshine.

The heather in bloom

I'll stop in Aix-en-Chapelle (Aachen) on the way, to take a few photos of Charlamagne's famous palatine chapel, and on the way back I put Tongeren - the ancient Atuatuca Tungrorum - on the list, because Romans. *grins* We can't have Aelius Rufus sulk in some bath because he never gets the chance to tell you more about some Roman remains.

A bog pond

Ghent, Bruges and Antwerp were members of the Hanseatic League, grown rich mostly on the trade with wool from England which they turned into fine cloth and sold with a nice profit. It will be interesting to compare them to the Hanseatic towns in Germany which I visited in 2015.

Summer flowers at the Bruchteiche shores

Since I finally caved in an got me a mobile phone - a Lenovo android, to be exact - I might be able to take some additional photos with that one and post them directly on Twitter in the evenings. You can check my Twitter link which leads to my main page on the sidebar. It's not necessary to 'follow' me on Twitter to read my chirpings. :-)

The Bruchteiche near Bad Sooden-Allendorf

See you in two weeks.


21 Mar 2017
  Between the Landgraves of Hessia and the Archbishops of Mainz: Castle Grebenstein

Castle Grebenstein, situated 15 miles north of Kassel, is another of those less well known castle ruins that dot the German landscape. Instead of the keep which is usually the main remaining - and often restored - feature, in case of Grebenstein the great hall, or palas is the best preserved building. And a pretty impressive one at that.

Grebenstein Castle, the palas building

The building is 37 metres long and 12 metres wide, with a cellar and three storeys, still about 13 metres high. One can see remains of the kitchen on cellar level, the solar, some fireplaces and scuncheons with seats (there is enough space for cozy seats in those three metres thick walls), and toilet oriels. It must once have been a pretty palas for a border castle that was mostly run by a chatellain (Burgmann). Though some additions were made when members of the family of the landgraves of Hessia actually lived in the castle at times in the 14th century.

Windows with scuncheon seats in the north wall

The castle stands on a basalt cone some 50 metres above the small town of Grebenstein. One can still see some traces of the trench, but the curtain walls, gate towers and outer bailey have all but disappeared when the ruins were used as quarry since the aftermath of the Thirty Years War. It is actually surprising that the walls of the great hall survived in considerably good shape.

The palas seen from the east (the fomer outer bailey)

There is no comprehensive essay about the history of the castle currently avaliabe, so I had to hunt down whatever information I could find on reliable websites (1). Grebenstein was one of those contested border castles in the area between Thuringia, Hessia and today's Lower Saxony, with bits of land belonging to the archbishop of Mainz, the bishop of Paderborn, or noble families with various feudal bonds (2), among them the Counts of Dassel and Everstein.

The northern palas wall from the outside

Castle Grebenstein is first mentioned in a charte in 1272, but as usual, the actual building of the castle may date further back. A villacatio (a manor) called Grawen is mentioned in a register about tithes owned the monastery of Helmarshausen dating to 1120. So there definitely was a settlement some 50 years prior to the charte; the existence of a fortified structure is therefore a possibility.

The palas seen from the west

The lord holding the castle in the charte mentione above is Count Ludolf V of Dassel, member of a noble family (3) whose main lands, Dassel, castle Nienover, and the Solling forest are some 40 kilometres north of Grebenstein, in close proximity of the lands held by the Everstein of Polle. There were several marriage connections between both families - Ludolf's mother was a Clementia of Everstein, for example.

Interior of the palas, facing west

I could not figure out how and at which feudal terms Ludolf of Dassel came in possession of either the castle or the land to build the Grebenstein, but it surely was a hot spot between the bishop of Paderborn and Landgrave Heinrich I of Hessia, as the charte from 1272 demonstrates. It tries to define the borders of the lands in the area, including the exact extent of those belonging to the Grebenstein, nor does it seem clear who held the feudal rights to which bits of land in some cases. It looks like Ludolf got caught in the middle, and the borders remained undefined for the time being.

Interior, facing east

There seems to have been trouble, though. An agreement between Otto of Rietberg Bishop of Paderborn and the archbishop of Mainz, dating to 1279, says that Otto would try to get Castle Grebenstein into his power so that it would cease to be a centre for "troubles against Mainz" (Otto got a castle in possession of the archbishop as thanks). It is not clear whether the next Ludolf in line (Ludolf VI, 1235-1290) was causing troubles for Mainz on his own account or whether he was acting in the interests of the landgrave of Hessia who was at cahoots with the archbishop Werner of Eppstein as result of the Hessian-Thuringian War of Succession. But despite the intrigues, battles (4) and a threat to have the curtain walls dismantled, Ludolf kept the castle (with the walls intact), though it obviously did indeed become a fief of Mainz, maybe as result of the peace negotiations.

Upper floors in the sunshine

Ludolf VI of Dassel sold several of his ancestral lands and castles. One wonders if he was in financial troubles, but he also had only one surviving daughter, Drudeke (Gertrud), and the line would die out with him, so maybe he didn't see any reason to keep everything for her husband to inherit.

Drudeke married Ludwig III of Everstein (1266-1312); the Grebenstein was one of the possessions she brought to the marriage. Their younger son Otto VIII of Everstein inherited the castle either after his mother's death in 1283 (5), or at a later point before 1293.

The upper floors with the solar

Otto of Everstein was in possession of the castle in 1293, because that year he opened all his castles to Landgrave Heinrich I of Hessia and became his chatellain (Burgmann) for the Grebenstein. In 1297 he sold the castle to Landgrave Heinrich and was replaced as chatellain. Otto of Everstein also renounced his rights to Kugelsburg Castle which he held from Cologne - probably glad to get out of the rivalries between both archbishops.

Since the Grebenstein was a fief of the archbishop of Mainz but there are no complaints about the transaction the sources know of, one can assume that it happend with the agreement of the archbishop. Gerhard II of Eppstein tried to establish a peace with the landgrave of Hessia, which unfortunately didn't survive under his successors.

The north wall seen from halfway up the staircase

Grebenstein Castle - and soon the fortified town as well - became a post of defense of Hessian interests in the area which was dominated by possessions in control of the archbishop of Mainz. Open feud flared up again in 1325 when the archbishop claimed town and castle as homefallen fief after the death of Landgrave Johannes of Lower Hessia, a son of Heinrich I, but his half-brother Otto who had inherited Upper Hessia (around the Lahn river) took over the lands and showed the archbishop the middle finger.

Another attempt to regain the castle was made in 1385 when the archbishop of Mainz laid siege to the Grebenstein, which ended in a defeat for Mainz. Landgrave Hermann II of Hessia had incresed taxes to refill the treasury which looked rather empty after the Star Wars. As a result, the town of Kassel rebelled and hooked up with Mainz.

The north-east angle with the kitchen

Landgrave Hermann II 'the Learned' was born in Grebenstein Castle in 1341. His father was Ludwig the Younger, son of the above mentioned Landgrave Otto. Ludwig's older brother, another Heinrich, became landgrave in 1328; the Grebenstein came into Ludwig's possession as paréage. Hermann was destined for a clerical career, but then all male heirs ahead of him died and he became landgrave in 1376.

It was probably during that time the palas of Grebenstein was expanded to the size and luxury whose remains we can still see today.

Mainz finally had enough and sold all rights to castle and town Grebenstein to landgrave Ludwig II of Hessia (a grandson of Hermann II) in 1463. The castle lost its strategical importance.

The north-west angle

A ledger from 1428 still lists as inhabitants: the bailiff, the treasurer, several servants (churls), 4 guardsmen, 1 porter, 1 wine steward, 1 cook and 1 scullion, 1 baker, 1 cooper, 1 donkey driver (the donkey was needed to carry water and firewood to the castle), 4 farm hands, 1 dairy maid, 1 herdsman and 1 swineherd. Another account lists some victuals that had been brought to the castle: 17 herring and dried cod (stockfish), 8 pounds of honey, 2 lot pepper and 1 lot ginger. The inhabitants - at least those of higher standing - liked their food well spiced.

The southen wall from the outside

Since 1471, the accounts only mention a scribe living in the castle ("one and a half shilling to make fast the window and make shutters for the scribe up in the castle"). About 1540 the castle was used as granary.

Castle and town were destroyed during the Thirty Years War; afterwards the castle was used as quarry to repain the town. The ruins have been preserved at the end of the 20th century. Castle Grebenstein is a hidden little jewel at the Hessian border to which few tourists find they way.

The palace seen against the light

1) In particular this website of a local researcher and the article about Grebenstein in Burgenlexikon.
2) For example Castle Krukenburg and Castle Sichelnstein.
3) The most famous member of the family was Rainald von Dassel (ca. 1115 - 1167), archbishop of Cologne and chancellor of the emperor Friedrich Barbarossa.
4) Particularly the Battle of Fritzlar 1280 where the archbishop was defeated by Landgrave Heinrich I:
5) The geneaology is a bit muddled here. Either Drudeke's date of death or the birth date of her eldest son Ludwig (both 1283) must be wrong since she had three more sons. Otto is the second. Ludwig died in 1322 which means that the Grebenstein must have been part of a portion of Drudeke's heritage that fell to Otto of Everstein. A Danish geneaology - the Dassel family had also married into the Danish nobility - gives 1283 for Ludwig as 'first mentioned' which makes more sense.

The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, the Baltic Countries, and central Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.

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Location: Goettingen, Germany

I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History, interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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Historical Places

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United Kingdom
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Bad Sooden-Allendorf
Historical Town and Graduation Tower
Bruchteiche Reservoir

A Seaside Resort

Lion Benches in the Castle Square
The Quadriga

Mediaeval Erfurt

Mediaeval Goslar
Chapel in the Klus Rock

Churches St.Martin and St.Mary

St. Mary's Church

Church of Our Lady: History

The Temple of Isis and Mater Magna

Mediaeval Paderborn

Mediaeval Quedlinburg
The Chapter Church

The Cathedral: Architecture
Jewish Ritual Bath

The Harbour
The Old Town

Mediaeval Lanes and Old Houses

The Roman Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths
The Porta Nigra

Sites of the Weimar Classicism
The Park at the Ilm

The Old Harbour

Roman and Mediaeval Xanten
The Gothic House


The Keep

Altenstein (Werra)
A Border Castle

Weser River Reivers

Brandenburg (Thuringia)
The Beginnings
Albrecht II of Thuringia

Coburg Fortress

The Marshals of Ebersburg


History of the Keep


Hardeg Castle
The Great Hall


Heldenburg (Salzderhelden)
A Welfen Seat

Hohnstein (Harz)
The Counts of Hohnstein
Between Welfen and Staufen
14th-15th Century

Built to Protect a Chapel

The Counts of Everstein
Later Times

The Counts of Winzenburg
The Lords of Plesse

Polle Castle
An Everstein Stronghold


Reichenbach (Hessia)

Photo Impressions

From Castle to Convention Centre



Stauffenburg (Harz)
A Secret Mistress

A Little Known Ruin in the Harz

Photo Impressions

A Virtual Tour

Revisiting the Weidelsburg

Abbeys and Churches

Early History of the Abbey

A Romanesque Basilica

A Romanesque Church

The Byzantine Crypt

The Stave Church

Remains of the Monastery

Early History of the Abbey
Interior of the Church

The Carolingian Gate Hall

Remains of the Monastery

Scharzfeld (Harz)
The Cave Church

Mediaeval Murals

The Monastery - Introduction

Romanesque Church and a Ducal Burial

Wilhelmshausen (Kassel)
The Romanesque Church

Roman Remains

Augusta Treverorum / Trier
The Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths
The Porta Nigra
The Roman Bridge

Colonia Ulpia Traiana / Xanten
Roman Xanten
The Amphitheatre in Birten

Limes Fort Aalen
The Barracks

Limes Fort Osterburken
The Discovery
The Cohort castellum
The Annex Fort
The Garrisons

Limes Fort Saalburg
A Reconstructed Limes Fort
Shrine of the Standards

Romans in North Rhine-Westphalia
Playmobil Romans, LWL Museum Haltern
Varus Statue, Haltern am See

Romans at the Moselle
The Villa Urbana in Longuich

Romans at the Rhine
Boppard - The Roman Baudobriga
The Villa at Wachenheim

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Neolithic Burials
Neolithic Burials in the Everstorf Forest and Rugia
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age
Bronze and Iron Age Remains at the Werra

Museums / Reconstructed Sites

Palatine Seat Tilleda
The Defenses

Viking Settlement Haithabu
The Nydam Ship

Open Air Museums
European Bread Museum Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Post-Mediaeval Exhibits
Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg



Roman and Medieaval Chester

The Abbey - Introduction
The Old Gaol

Clifford Tower
The Guild Hall
Monk Bar Gate with Richard III Museum
Museum Gardens
Houses in the Old Town
York Minster: Architecture



Conquest to King John
Henry III to the Tudors

Romans to the Tudors
Civil War to the Present

Roman Remains

Eboracum / York
Roman Bath in the Fortress

Wall Fort Birdoswald
The Dark Age Timber Halls

Wall Fort Segedunum
Museum and Viewing Tower
The Baths

Other Roman Sites
The Mithraeum at Brocolita
The Signal Station at Scarborough



Views from the Castle

The Wallace Monument


A Virtual Tour
History: The Early Stewart Kings
History: Royal Dower House

Duart Castle
Guarding the Sound of Mull

An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
The Wars of Independence
The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

Robert the Bruce

Abbeys and Churches

Arriving at Inchcolm Abbey

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Neolithic Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae

Brochs and Cairns
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Introduction

Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort



Castle and Coast

The Ffwrwm
The Roman Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort

The Smallest House in Great Britain



Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

From Romans to Victorians

Beginnings unto Bigod
Edward II to the Tudors
Civil War


Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings

The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

Photo Impressions
The Caves Under the Castle

Roman Remains

Isca Silurum / Caerleon
The Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort



Viking Museum Roskilde
To come


Castles and Fortresses

Akershus Fortress in Oslo
Kings and Pirates
The Time of King Håkon V

Vardøhus Fortress


The Fram Museum in Oslo


Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Gnisvärd Ship Setting


The Vasa Museum in Stockholm



Mediaeval Porvoo



The History of Mediaeval Tallinn



The History of Mediaeval Riga



To come



Gdańsk / Danzig
History of Mediaeval Gdańsk
Mediaeval and Renaissance Gdańsk

The Old Town
Jewish Kraków - Kazimierz and the Ghetto

Wrocław / Breslau
The Botanical Garden
The Wrocław Dwarfs


Ogrodzieniec Castle
A Virtual Tour
First Castle to the Boner Family



Cheb / Eger
The Old Town

Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
Brief History of the Town

Kutná Hora
The Sedlec Ossuary
The Medieaval Town and St.Barbara's Church



The Old Town

Mediaeval Bruges

Mediaeval Ghent

Mediaeval Buildings

Roman Remains

Atuatuca Tungrorum / Tongeren
Roman Remains in the Town



Luxembourg City
A Tour of the Town

City Trips

St.Petersburg (Russia)
Impressions from the Neva River

Strasbourg (France)
A Tour of the Town

Hiking Tours and Cruises


Baltic Sea Coast
Flensburg Firth
Rugia: Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
Rugia: Photo Impressions
Rugia: The Pier of Sellin
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

Lüneburg Heath
Hiking Tours in the Lüneburg Heath

Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Devil's Wall
Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
Oderteich Reservoir
Rappbode Reservoir
Views from Harz mountains

Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Bruchteiche / Bad Sooden Allendorf
Hessian Switzerland

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
The Forest Pasture Project
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Nature Park Reinhardswald
Old Forest at the Sababurg

Thuringian Forests
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

Rivers and Lakes
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut
Weser River Ferry
Weser Skywalk

Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life
Red squirrels

Spring Impressions from Göttingen
Spring in the Hardenberg Castle Gardens
Spring in the Meissner
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake

United Kingdom

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains: Inverness to John o'Groats
Some Photos from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull: Craignure to Fionnphort
Dunollie and Kilchurn: Photo Impressions
Pentland Firth
Summer in Oban

Scotland by Train
West Highland Railway

Views of Snowdownia

Sea Gulls


Coast of Norway: Hurtigruten-Tour
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord

The Baltic Sea

A Baltic Sea Cruise

The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
Beaches at the Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit

Mediaeval History

General Essays

by Country
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Livonia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Bohemia
- Luxembourg
- Flanders

Roman History

The Romans at War
Famous Romans
Roman Life and Religion

Other Times

Neolithicum to Iron Age
Post-Mediaeval History
History and Literature

Mediaeval History

General Essays

Mediaeval Warfare


Late Mediaeval Swords

Mediaeval Art and Craft

Mediaeval Art
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
The Hunting Frieze in Königslutter Cathedral
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Medical Instruments


The History of Feudalism
The Beginnings
Feudalism in the 10th Century

Special Cases
The privilege of the deditio

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings

Hanseatic Architecture
Examples of Brick Architecture
Hall Houses (Dielenhäuser)

Goods and Trade
Stockfish Trade

Towns of the Hanseatic League
Tallinn / Reval

The Order of the Teutonic Knights

Wars and Battles
The Conquest of Danzig
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

The Vikings

Viking Material Culture
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Viking Ships
The Nydam Ship

Essays by Country



List of Mediaeval German Emperors
Anglo-German Marriage Connections

Kings and Emperors

The Salian Dynasty
King Heinrich IV

Staufen against Welfen
Emperor Otto IV

Princes and Lords

House Welfen
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen

The Landgraves of Thuringia
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

Dukes and Princes of other Families
Duke Otto of Northeim
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Feuds and Rebellions

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War
The Star Wars


Kings of England

House Plantagenet
Richard Lionheart in Speyer
King Henry IV's Lithuanian Crusade

Normans, Britons, Angevins

Great Noble Houses
The Dukes of Brittany
The Earls of Richmond

Contested Borders

King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War, Part 1
King David and the Civil War, Part 2

Houses Bruce and Stewart
The Early Stewart Kings

Local Troubles

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding

Scotland and England

The Wars of Independence
Alexander of Argyll
The Fight for Stirling Castle


Welsh Princes

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

Wales and England

A History of Rebellion
Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Kings of Denmark

House of Knýtlinga
Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

The Duchy of Estonia
Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


Kings of Norway

Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

Feuds and Rebellions

Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Troubles and Alliances

Scandinavian Unity
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

(Latvia and Estonia)

Contested Territories

Livonian Towns
The History of Mediaeval Riga
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Lithuanian Princes

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas

The Northern Crusades

The Wars in Lithuania
The Siege of Vilnius 1390


Royal Dynasties

The Jagiełłonian Kings
Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union

The Northern Crusades

The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
The Conquest of Danzig


Royal Dynasties

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
King Sigismund and the Hussite Wars


House Luxembourg
King Sigismund


More to come

Roman History

The Romans at War

Forts and Fortifications

The German Limes
The Cavalry Fort Aalen
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg

The Hadrian's Wall
The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend

Border Life
Exercise Halls
Mile Castles and Watch Towers
Soldiers' Living Quarters
Cavalry Barracks

Campaigns and Battles

The Romans in Germania

The Pre-Varus Invasion in Germania
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn

The Batavian Rebellion
A Short Introduction

Roman Militaria

Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles

Famous Romans

The Late Empire

The Legend of Alaric's Burial

Roman Life and Religion

Religion and Public Life

Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms
Isis Worship
Memorial Stones
The Mithras Cult

Public Life
Roman Transport: Barges
Roman Transport: Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Roman Public Baths

Domestic Life

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots

Other Times

Neolithicum to Iron Age


Development of Civilisation
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
The Hutewald Project in the Solling
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Neolithic Remains
Stone Burials of the Funnelbeaker Culture
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age / Iron Age
The Nydam Ship


Neolithic Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Bronze Age / Iron Age
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Their Function in Iron Age Society


Bronze / Iron Age
The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd / Gotland

Post-Mediaeval History

Explorers and Discoveries

Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

History and Literature


The Weimar Classicism


Geological Landscapes: Germany

Baltic Sea Coast
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

Harz Mountains
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs
Sandstone Formations: Daneil's Cave
Sandstone Formations: Devil's Wall
Sandstone Formations: The Klus Rock

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations
Salt Springs at the Werra

Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

Geological Landscapes: Great Britain

The Shores of Scotland

Geological Landscapes: Baltic Sea

Geology of the Curonian Spit

Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

Fossilized Ammonites
The Loket Meteorite (Czechia)

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