Another Tower in York
This one - today known as Clifford Tower - we can thank William the Conqueror for. Well, not the tower as we see it today, but the first installment of a motte and bailey castle he had built in 1069. Since William and his Normans weren't the most popular guys in the area, the wooden, earth wall fortified castle saw a lot of action and some destruction and rebuilding in the following years.
Clifford Tower, York
The castle was still a timber construction when King Henry II received King William's homage for Scotland in 1175. It was in 1244, with a big bunch of Scots milling at the borders (again), that King Henry III visited the castle and ordered it to be rebuilt in stone. It took some 20 years to accomplish; the bailey received a curtain wall and two gateways, and the motte was crowned with a stone keep, then called King's Tower. A model of the tower, displayed inside the keep
King Edward I used the castle to keep his treasury while campaigning against the Scots in 1298, and so did his son Edward II in 1322. Ed II had problems not only with the Scots but with assorted rebels in his own realm. He defeated some of them at the Battle of Boroughbridge and had them executed at York. One, a Sir Roger Clifford, was hanged in chains outside the King's Tower which then was named Clifford's Tower. It's not clear whether he was hanged and the body displayed that way, or whether he was hanged there by his wrists to slowly die and rot which would be a writer's choice (*grin*). Whatever way, it was a demeaning punishment for a nobleman. Maybe Alianore
knows more about the incident.Clifford Tower, inside view
Our dear Queen Isabella has been to York, as did her daughter-in-law Philippa who married Edward III in the York Minster in 1328. During those times, the castle served as administrative seat, but already in 1358 the heavy stone keep was damaged because the ground gave way. Another shot of the tower, this time against the sun
In 1484 the castle was in such poor repair that King Richard III ordered parts to be replaced, but since he didn't find a horse in the battle at Bosworth, his orders were never executed.