The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times


13 Jan 2024
  Photo Parade 2023

A bit of fun at the beginning of the new year. I’m following several German travel blogs, and that way came across the annual Photo Parade (Fotoparade) on Michael’s blog Erkunde die Welt (Discover the World). He’s been doing it for several years now, and the replies of the contributors have offered a whole bunch of new blogs for me to browse. Since photos are omnilingual (and there’s DeepL and Google Translate as well), I thought it would be nice to participate.

Michael offers several key words every year, and you should try to find photos – taken in that year – that match the categories. I’m not traveling as much as the majority of the participants, but in 2023, I visited at least three towns (Bad Sooden-Allendorf, Einbeck and Kiel) plus the longer tour of Lithuania I had planned since 2020, so here’s my try:

Category: Landscape (Landschaft)
Curonian Spit

The Curonian Spit is one of my favourite landscapes in Lithuania, so it’s no wonder I took the chance for another visit of a different part of the spit; this time near Juodkrantė. It was a warm, sunny day with some wind going that created pretty waves on the Baltic Sea. I walked some distance along the shore and returned through the pine forest to the lagoon side of the spit, to catch the ferry back to Klaipeda.

Category: Yummy (Lecker)

I don’t take pictures of food, so that one was a bit difficult. I finally decided to present a photo of an 18th century kitchen in a farm house in the Open Air Museum Rumšiškes (near Kaunas).
Open Air Museum Rumšiškes, kitchen in a small farm

The museum, created despite Sovjet pushbacks in 1966, today encompasses almost 200 ha, with houses transfered from all regions of Lithuania, dating from the 18th to early 20th century. Some exhibits could only be added after Lithuania became an independent state, since many aspects of Lithuanian history were not officially popular during Sovjet times.
Rumšiškes, farmhouse with orchard and garden

Some of the houses, dating to a time when the majority of Lithuanians still lived in rural villages and farms, were rather simple structures with only the most necessary commodities. A fireplace and kitchen, however small, were part of those. There also are larger farms with several outbuildings, orchards, herb gardens and a bath house. They make for pretty photo motives.

Category: Water (Wasser)
Werra weir at Bad Sooden-Allendorf

Water is an easy category to match. I love being near water and I love photographing it. This one shows a weir on the river Werra in Bad Sooden-Allendorf, a small but pretty town known for its half-timbered houses, in northern Hessia.
Baltic Sea

Another photo from the Curionian Spit. I was standing in the surf, photographing the incoming waves. I was wearing my jeans rolled up to my knees, but got them a bit wet nevertheless *grin* ‒ those waves were tricky and looked more gentle than they turned out to be. But it was fun.

Category: Blue (Blau)
Firth of Kiel, sailing ships mooring in one of the marinas

A sunny September day in the Firth of Kiel (Kieler Förde), a 17 km long firth that opens into the bay of Kiel and the Baltic Sea. There is a passenger ferry going from Kiel to the town of Laboe at the end of the firth, criscrossing the waters to connect the various suburbs and villages on both shores. It is a nice tour that offers various views of marinas, dockyards, pretty landscapes and charming spa villages.
The Meridianas in Klaipeda

The Meridianas was built in Finnland in 1948 as training sailing ship. She was put out of use as sailing ship in 1968 and converted into a restaurant on the Danė river in Klaipeda. She began to show structural problems in the 1990ies and had to undergo repairs. Ownership changed a few times, but since 2012, the refurbished Meridianas is again serving as restaurant, located in a new berth on the river.

Category: Cold (Kalt)

Since the weather was always warm when I was traveling, I don’t have 'cold' photos with snow and ice in my 2023 files. But I did take one that covers the category in a different way: The memorial tablet of the Vilnius Ghetto.

I actually missed the tablet when I passed the first time, too intent of the motives that lay ahead. I noticed it the second evening and felt cold for a moment, despite the balmy air. The area is such a lovely place today that it came as a bit of a shock to learn of its gruesome and sad history.
Vilnius, memorial tablet of the ghetto

Vilnius had a Jewish population of about 55,000 (28%) prior to WW2, which earned it the moniker 'Jerusalem of the East'. When the German army occupied the town in August 1941, the killing of Jews began. A few weeks later, on September 6, the remaining Jews were forced to move into ghettos. The ghettos – a small one for what the Nazis called ‘unproductive individuals’, old and sick people not fit for labour – and a large ghetto were set up in an area of the town that had been predominantly inhabited by Jews.

The small ghetto only existed for a few weeks; it was closed already in October 1941; the majority of the 11.000 inhabitants were killed and the rest was moved into the large ghetto. The large ghetto, which housed about 29,000 people under extreme conditions (the site was overcrowded, people suffered from hunger, cold, illness ...) existed until 24th September 1943. The remaining Jews were either sent to concentration camps in German-occupied Poland and Estonia, or killed in a mass execution in the forest of Paneriai near Vilnius.
Vilnius, lane in the former ghetto

The Jewish community never recovered; there are about 5,000 Jews living in Vilnius today; a tenth of the pre-war population. The former Jewish quarter is now one of the prettiest places in Vilnius, narrow lanes and old houses, with little shops, cafés, restaurants, and lots of young people around – the winter semester had already started in Lithuania in September, and everyone was out during evenings that still held memories of summer.

Category: Black and White (Schwarz/Weiss)
A street with half-timbered houses in Einbeck

Einbeck is another of those German towns with many surviving half-timbered houses. I played around with the filters a bit and made the photo look like an old postcard – except for the too modern cars. I had been in Einbeck before, on the way to Salzderhelden, and took some random photos, but this time I went in search of the prettiest places and most interesting history.

The categories above are the main categories, but Michael presents some extra ones for those who want to play some more.

Category: Hot (Heiß)
Chimneys on the ferry from Klaipeda to Kiel

One way to get from Germany to Lithuania is the freight and passenger ferry that goes from Kiel to Klaipeda on a daily schedule. It takes a night (in a comfortable cabin, if you want) and a day on sea, but I prefer that way of traveling to flying. Also, I love the sea. The ferry also transports a whole lot of trucks and containers; you can see some on the photo (those white boxes between the chimneys).

Category: View (Ausblick)
View of Vilnius' old town

For this category, I picked two photos I took from the Gediminas' Tower, remains of an old castle in Vilinius that sits on top of a hill overlooking the town.
View of Vilnius' modern city

More photos of Vilnius are here. It’s one of those ‘Back with Booty’-posts that are a tradition on my blog for most of my travels, giving some first impressions, since it often takes time to write more detailed posts about the places I’ve visited. More photos about Lithuania can also be found here.

Category: Animal (Tierisch)
Ducks on Lake Galvė

I’m no animal photographer, but I take the occasional shot when I come across some beasties or birdies that don’t move too fast. So here’s a raft of ducks, probably hoping for some bread crumbs magically appearing from the direction of the shore.

Category: Colours (Bunt)
A boat on the shore of Lake Galvė

Lithuania has five National Parks. I’ve managed to visit two so far: Curonian Spit and Trakai Historical National Park, which centers around Lake Galvė. It is the largest lake in the park, with 21 islands – the famous Trakai Castle is located on one of them. It’s a 4 km walk from the train station to the castle, most of the way along the lake, offering lots of pretty views, especially on a sunny day.

Categoy: Heart (Herz)

Nothing heart-shaped, but again, a symbolic photo: A view of the hill forts of Kernavė and the Pajauta valley, the first capital and once the heart of Lithuania.
The hill forts of Kernavė, with the Pajauta valley in the background

Kernavė was the first capital of Lithuania until the settlement in the Pajauta valley was destroyed by the Teutonic Knights in 1390, whereafter the capital moved to Vilnius, though the hill forts were in use for longer. Its history goes back as far as the 9th millennia BC, as the finds in the alluvial soil of the valley show, therefore, Kernavė is known as 'Lithuanian Troy'. The five hills are still visible and make for quite impressive landmarks, though the castles on their summits have disappeared. The finds of the valley are displayed in a museum on the site, and a Mediaeval village has been reconstructed in the vicinity.

Category: Modern
Simonas Daukantas Bridge in Kaunas

The Simonas Daukantas Bridge crosses the Nemunas river that runs through Kaunas. It was built in 1988 by the architect Agimantas Sprindy and is named for Simonas Daukantas (1793-1864), a Lithuanian historian and writer who was one of the first ideologists of the national revival during a time when Lithuania belonged to the Russian Empire.

The bridge is a tension bridge held by cables. The supporting arch in the middle of the bridge is covered with granite plaster and black marble inlays, and counts as one of the landmarks of Kaunaus. On top of the somewhat abstract arch is a decoration known as 'Gediminas’ Pillars' that has been in use in Lithuanian heraldry since the 13th century.

Category of my own: Castles

Those who follow my blog regularly should have known, lol. I collect castles.
Trakai Island Castle, Lithuania

The castle was built by Duke Kęstutis in the 14th century and expanded by his son Vytautas after he had reconciled with his cousin in 1409 und became grand duke of Lithuania. The predominantly brick architecture was influenced by Vytautas’ visits to brick castles of the Teutonic Knights in Livonia (= Latvia and Estonia) and Poland, albeit the foundations and parts of the towers are constructed of stone. Vytautas also added the 35 metres high keep. The outer curtain walls were strengthened and three more towers added in mid-15th century. The style of the castle is predominantly Gothic, with some Romanesque elements; the brick parts have been restored in the 1960ies.
The Stork Tower (Storchenturm) in Einbeck, Germany

Not exactly a castle, but part of the remaining Mediaeval town fortifications of Einbeck. The Stork Tower is a half tower (Schalenturm in German), which means it is open to the town side, albeit protected by timber railings. There also were floors to partition the tower into storeys. Most of the Einbeck town fortifications were built in the 15th century and strengthened in later times. The Stork Tower still rises to its original height of 22 metres. It even survived the siege of the town by the imperial army of Octavio Piccolomini in 1641 (during the Thirty Years War). The name changed to Stork Tower after a pair of storks nested there for several years; before it was known as Crow Tower (Krähenturm).

Category: Favourites
The lighthouse 'Friedrichsort' (Kiel Firth) in the evening

I like the way the light plays here – the photo was taken from the ferry sailing into Kiel Harbour. There had been a signal fire on the little island in the narrowest past of the firth since 1815. In 1866, it was replaced by the first lighthouse which stood there for about a hundred years. A new lighthouse was built in 1971, because the old one was only 14,5 metres in high, and a larger one was needed; the present tower rises to 31,7 metres. Today, the lighthouse not only signals the smallest part of the firth and its shallows, but also the entrance to the Kiel Canal (Nord-Ostee-Kanal) at Kiel-Holtenau.
Afternoon sun on the Baltic Sea

And finally the afternoon sun reflecting on the Baltic Sea – photo taken during the ferry crossing from Klaipeda to Kiel.
 
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The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, the Baltic Countries, and central Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.


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Location: Goettingen, Germany

I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History, interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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Historical Places

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England
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Estonia
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Lithuania
Poland
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City Trips

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Germany
United Kingdom
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Historical Places

Germany

Towns

Bad Sooden-Allendorf
Historical Town and Graduation Tower
Bruchteiche Reservoir

Binz
A Seaside Resort

Braunschweig
Lion Benches in the Castle Square
The Quadriga

Erfurt
Mediaeval Erfurt

Goslar
Mediaeval Goslar
Chapel in the Klus Rock

Heiligenstadt
Churches St.Martin and St.Mary

Lübeck
St. Mary's Church

Magdeburg
Church of Our Lady: History

Mainz
The Temple of Isis and Mater Magna

Paderborn
Mediaeval Paderborn

Quedlinburg
Mediaeval Quedlinburg
The Chapter Church

Speyer
The Cathedral: Architecture
Jewish Ritual Bath

Stralsund
The Harbour
The Old Town

Treffurt
Mediaeval Lanes and Old Houses

Trier
The Roman Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths
The Porta Nigra

Weimar
Sites of the Weimar Classicism
The Park at the Ilm

Wismar
The Old Harbour

Xanten
Roman and Mediaeval Xanten
The Gothic House

Castles

Adelebsen
The Keep

Altenstein (Werra)
A Border Castle

Bramburg
Weser River Reivers

Brandenburg (Thuringia)
The Beginnings
Albrecht II of Thuringia

Coburg Fortress
History
Architecture

Ebersburg
The Marshals of Ebersburg
Architecture

Grebenstein
History

Grubenhagen
History of the Keep

Hanstein
Introduction

Hardeg Castle
The Great Hall

Hardenberg
History

Heldenburg (Salzderhelden)
A Welfen Seat

Hohnstein (Harz)
The Counts of Hohnstein
Between Welfen and Staufen
14th-15th Century

Krukenburg
Built to Protect a Chapel

Kugelsburg
The Counts of Everstein
Later Times

Plesse
The Counts of Winzenburg
The Lords of Plesse
Architecture

Polle Castle
An Everstein Stronghold

Regenstein
History

Reichenbach (Hessia)
History

Sababurg
Photo Impressions

Scharfenstein
From Castle to Convention Centre

Scharzfels
History
Architecture

Sichelnstein
History

Stauffenburg (Harz)
A Secret Mistress

Stapelburg
A Little Known Ruin in the Harz

Trendelburg
Photo Impressions

Wartburg
A Virtual Tour

Weidelsburg
History
Architecture
Revisiting the Weidelsburg

Abbeys and Churches

Bursfelde
Early History of the Abbey

Fredelsloh
A Romanesque Basilica

Gehrden
A Romanesque Church

Göllingen
The Byzantine Crypt

Hahnenklee
The Stave Church

Helmarshausen
Remains of the Monastery

Lippoldsberg
Early History of the Abbey
Interior of the Church

Lorsch
The Carolingian Gate Hall

Pöhlde
Remains of the Monastery

Scharzfeld (Harz)
The Cave Church

Vernawahlshausen
Mediaeval Murals

Walkenried
The Monastery - Introduction

Wiebrechtshausen
Romanesque Church and a Ducal Burial

Wilhelmshausen (Kassel)
The Romanesque Church

Roman Remains

Augusta Treverorum / Trier
The Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths
The Porta Nigra
The Roman Bridge

Colonia Ulpia Traiana / Xanten
Roman Xanten
The Amphitheatre in Birten

Limes Fort Aalen
The Barracks

Limes Fort Osterburken
The Discovery
The Cohort castellum
The Annex Fort
The Garrisons

Limes Fort Saalburg
A Reconstructed Limes Fort
Shrine of the Standards

Romans in North Rhine-Westphalia
Playmobil Romans, LWL Museum Haltern
Varus Statue, Haltern am See

Romans at the Moselle
The Villa Urbana in Longuich

Romans at the Rhine
Boppard - The Roman Baudobriga
The Villa at Wachenheim

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Neolithic Burials
Neolithic Burials in the Everstorf Forest and Rugia
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age
Bronze and Iron Age Remains at the Werra

Museums / Reconstructed Sites

Palatine Seat Tilleda
The Defenses

Viking Settlement Haithabu
The Nydam Ship

Open Air Museums
European Bread Museum Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Post-Mediaeval Exhibits
Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg


England

Towns

Chester
Roman and Medieaval Chester

Hexham
The Abbey - Introduction
The Old Gaol

York
Clifford Tower
The Guild Hall
Monk Bar Gate with Richard III Museum
Museum Gardens
Houses in the Old Town
York Minster: Architecture

Castles

Carlisle
History

Richmond
Conquest to King John
Henry III to the Tudors
Architecture

Scarborough
Romans to the Tudors
Civil War to the Present
Architecture

Roman Remains

Eboracum / York
Roman Bath in the Fortress

Wall Fort Birdoswald
The Dark Age Timber Halls

Wall Fort Segedunum
Museum and Viewing Tower
The Baths

Other Roman Sites
The Mithraeum at Brocolita
The Signal Station at Scarborough


Scotland

Towns

Edinburgh
Views from the Castle

Stirling
The Wallace Monument

Castles

Doune
A Virtual Tour
History: The Early Stewart Kings
History: Royal Dower House

Duart Castle
Guarding the Sound of Mull

Dunstaffnage
An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
The Wars of Independence
The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

Stirling
Robert the Bruce

Abbeys and Churches

Inchcolm
Arriving at Inchcolm Abbey

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Neolithic Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae

Brochs and Cairns
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Introduction

Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort
Staffa


Wales

Towns

Aberystwyth
Castle and Coast

Caerleon
The Ffwrwm
The Roman Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort

Conwy
The Smallest House in Great Britain

Castles

Beaumaris
History
Architecture

Caernarfon
Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

Cardiff
From Romans to Victorians

Chepstow
Beginnings unto Bigod
Edward II to the Tudors
Civil War

Conwy
History
Architecture

Criccieth
Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings

Manorbier
The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

Pembroke
Photo Impressions
The Caves Under the Castle

Roman Remains

Isca Silurum / Caerleon
The Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort


Norway

Castles and Fortresses

Akershus Fortress in Oslo
Kings and Pirates
The Time of King Håkon V
Architecture

Vardøhus Fortress
History

Museums

The Fram Museum in Oslo


Denmark

Museums

Viking Museum Roskilde
To come


Sweden

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Gotland
Gnisvärd Ship Setting

Museums

The Vasa Museum in Stockholm


Finland

Towns

Porvoo
Mediaeval Porvoo


Estonia

Towns

Tallinn
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Latvia

Towns

Riga
The History of Mediaeval Riga


Lithuania

Towns

Vilnius
Photo Impressions


Poland

Towns

Gdańsk / Danzig
History of Mediaeval Gdańsk
Mediaeval and Renaissance Gdańsk

Kraków
The Old Town
Jewish Kraków - Kazimierz and the Ghetto

Wrocław / Breslau
The Botanical Garden
The Wrocław Dwarfs

Castles

Ogrodzieniec Castle
A Virtual Tour
First Castle to the Boner Family


Czechia

Towns

Cheb / Eger
The Old Town

Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
Brief History of the Town

Kutná Hora
The Sedlec Ossuary
The Medieaval Town and St.Barbara's Church


Belgium

Towns

Antwerp
The Old Town

Bruges
Mediaeval Bruges

Ghent
Mediaeval Ghent

Tongeren
Mediaeval Buildings

Roman Remains

Atuatuca Tungrorum / Tongeren
Roman Remains in the Town


Luxembourg

Towns

Luxembourg City
A Tour of the Town


City Trips

St.Petersburg (Russia)
Impressions from the Neva River

Strasbourg (France)
A Tour of the Town


Hiking Tours and Cruises

Germany

Baltic Sea Coast
Flensburg Firth
Rugia: Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
Rugia: Photo Impressions
Rugia: The Pier of Sellin
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

Lüneburg Heath
Hiking Tours in the Lüneburg Heath

Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Devil's Wall
Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
Oderteich Reservoir
Rappbode Reservoir
Views from Harz mountains

Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Bruchteiche / Bad Sooden Allendorf
Hessian Switzerland

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
The Forest Pasture Project
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Nature Park Reinhardswald
Old Forest at the Sababurg

Thuringian Forests
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

Rivers and Lakes
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut
Weser River Ferry
Weser Skywalk

Wildlife
Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life
Red squirrels

Seasons
Spring Impressions from Göttingen
Spring in the Hardenberg Castle Gardens
Spring in the Meissner
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake


United Kingdom

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains: Inverness to John o'Groats
Impressions from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull: Craignure to Fionnphort
Dunollie and Kilchurn: Photo Impressions
Pentland Firth
Staffa
Summer in Oban

Scotland by Train
West Highland Railway

Wales
Views of Snowdownia

Wildlife
Sea Gulls


Scandinavia

Coast of Norway: Hurtigruten-Tour
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Wildlife
Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord


The Baltic Sea

A Baltic Sea Cruise

The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
Beaches at the Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit



Mediaeval History

General Essays

by Country
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Livonia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Bohemia
- Luxembourg
- Flanders

Roman History

The Romans at War
Famous Romans
Roman Life and Religion

Other Times

Neolithicum to Iron Age
Post-Mediaeval History
History and Literature
Geology


Mediaeval History

General Essays

Mediaeval Warfare

Sieges
Trebuchets

Weapons
Late Mediaeval Swords

Mediaeval Art and Craft

Mediaeval Art
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
The Hunting Frieze in Königslutter Cathedral
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Craftmanship
Goldsmithery
Medical Instruments

Feudalism

The History of Feudalism
The Beginnings
Feudalism in the 10th Century

Special Cases
The privilege of the deditio

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings

Hanseatic Architecture
Examples of Brick Architecture
Hall Houses (Dielenhäuser)

Goods and Trade
Stockfish Trade

Towns of the Hanseatic League
Riga
Stralsund
Tallinn / Reval

The Order of the Teutonic Knights

Wars and Battles
The Conquest of Danzig
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

The Vikings

Viking Material Culture
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Viking Ships
The Nydam Ship


Essays by Country

Germany

Geneaology

List of Mediaeval German Emperors
Anglo-German Marriage Connections

Kings and Emperors

The Salian Dynasty
King Heinrich IV

Staufen against Welfen
Emperor Otto IV

Princes and Lords

House Welfen
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen

The Landgraves of Thuringia
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

Dukes and Princes of other Families
Duke Otto of Northeim
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Feuds and Rebellions

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War
The Star Wars


England

Kings of England

House Plantagenet
Richard Lionheart in Speyer
King Henry IV's Lithuanian Crusade

Normans, Britons, Angevins

Great Noble Houses
The Dukes of Brittany
The Earls of Richmond

Contested Borders

Northumbria
King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


Scotland

Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War, Part 1
King David and the Civil War, Part 2

Houses Bruce and Stewart
The Early Stewart Kings

Local Troubles

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding

Scotland and England

The Wars of Independence
Alexander of Argyll
The Fight for Stirling Castle


Wales

Welsh Princes

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

Wales and England

A History of Rebellion
Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Denmark

Kings of Denmark

House of Knýtlinga
Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

The Duchy of Estonia
Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


Norway

Kings of Norway

Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

Feuds and Rebellions

Rebels
Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Sweden

Troubles and Alliances

Scandinavian Unity
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union


Livonia
(Latvia and Estonia)

Contested Territories

Livonian Towns
The History of Mediaeval Riga
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Lithuania

Lithuanian Princes

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas

The Northern Crusades

The Wars in Lithuania
The Siege of Vilnius 1390


Poland

Royal Dynasties

The Jagiełłonian Kings
Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union

The Northern Crusades

The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
The Conquest of Danzig


Bohemia

Royal Dynasties

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
King Sigismund and the Hussite Wars


Luxembourg

House Luxembourg
King Sigismund


Flanders

More to come


Roman History

The Romans at War

Forts and Fortifications

The German Limes
The Cavalry Fort Aalen
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg

The Hadrian's Wall
Introduction
The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend

Border Life
Exercise Halls
Mile Castles and Watch Towers
Soldiers' Living Quarters
Cavalry Barracks

Campaigns and Battles

Maps
The Romans in Germania

The Pre-Varus Invasion in Germania
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn
Introduction

The Batavian Rebellion
A Short Introduction

Roman Militaria

Armour
Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapons
Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum
Daggers
Swords

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles


Famous Romans

The Late Empire

Alaric
The Legend of Alaric's Burial


Roman Life and Religion

Religion and Public Life

Religion
Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms
Isis Worship
Memorial Stones
The Mithras Cult

Public Life
Roman Transport: Barges
Roman Transport: Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Architecture
Roman Public Baths

Domestic Life

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots


Other Times

Neolithicum to Iron Age

Germany

Development of Civilisation
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
The Hutewald Project in the Solling
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Neolithic Remains
Stone Burials of the Funnelbeaker Culture
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age / Iron Age
The Nydam Ship

Scotland

Neolithic Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Bronze Age / Iron Age
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Their Function in Iron Age Society

Scandinavia

Bronze / Iron Age
The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd / Gotland


Post-Mediaeval History

Explorers and Discoveries

Explorers
Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

Discoveries
Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)


History and Literature

Germany

The Weimar Classicism
Introduction


Geology

Geological Landscapes: Germany

Baltic Sea Coast
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

Harz Mountains
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs
Sandstone Formations: Daneil's Cave
Sandstone Formations: Devil's Wall
Sandstone Formations: The Klus Rock

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations
Salt Springs at the Werra

Solling-Vogler
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

Geological Landscapes: Great Britain

The Shores of Scotland
Staffa

Geological Landscapes: Baltic Sea

Lithuania
Geology of the Curonian Spit

Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

Fossilized Ammonites
The Loket Meteorite (Czechia)



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