The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times

19 Jul 2020
  Silver Mines and Hussite Wars – A Walk through the Historical Kutná Hora, Czechia

I seldom participate in guided tours when traveling since I prefer more freedom, but sometimes it's the better option than spending too much time trying to get to a place by public transport. The visit to the Sedlec Ossuary and the town of Kutná Hora in Czechia was one of those tours.

Kutná Hora, view from St. Barbara's Church to the old town, with St.James Church (left) and Italian Palace (right)

Kutná Hora (historically also known by its German name Kuttenberg) is a town about 70 kilometres east of Prague. Some time after the Cistercians founded the abbey at Sedlec in 1142, silver and other ore was discovered in the area, and the monks brought in German miners from their mother house in Waldsassen (Upper Palatinate) who settled in Kuttenberg. The settlement is first mentioned in a charte from 1286, but existed at least some twenty years prior.

At the end of the 13th century, Kutná Hora had developed into the second largest town after Prague and became of great historical importance when King Wenceslas II of Bohemia granted the town the right to mint coin, the famous 'Prague Groschen'. Despite some setback during the Hussite Wars, Kutná Hora remained a prospering town until the mid-16th century when the silver deposits dried out. The town centre is part of the UNESCO World Heritage since 1995. (More about its history below.)

Zoom in to St. Barbara's Church (choir side) from the Italian Court

One of the symbols of the town's former wealth is the St.Barbara's Church, where our walk began. The church has been built on a hill overlooking the town, on ground that did not belong to the Abbey of Sedlec – who owned most of the land in the area – to demonstrate the wealth and independence of the burghers of Kutná Hora. The church is dedicated to St.Barbara, patron saint of miners.

St.Barbara, Kutná Hora, westwork

Construction started in 1388, but it took until 1512 for the building to be finished – one of the reasons of the delay was the Hussite Wars and the resulting financial problems – and the church turned out smaller than originally planned, which is still pretty impressive.

The competition of Kutná Hora with Prague became evident in the chosing of the first architects: Petr Parleř, leader of the royal workshop, who also built the St.Vitus Cathedral in Prague (photo below), and his son Jan. The Paleř family hailed from Swabia and had been involved in the construction of a number of outstanding Gothic churches like the Minster of Ulm and the cathedral in Cologne.

St. Barbara, main nave with view to the altar

Since I mentioned the Hussite Wars several times and because they play an important role in Czech history, I'll give you a brief overwiew here: The Hussite movement started with some ideas by the reformer Jan Hus (1369-1415), who in turn was influenced by John Wycliffe, (ca. 1320-1384) scholastic philosopher at the University of Oxford. Hus formulated what was to become the Four Articles of Prague which demanded freedom to preach, celebration of the communion under both kinds (bread and wine – sub utraque specie, which gave the name to the Utraquists, the major branch of the Hussite movement) as well as Church service in the native language, poverty of the clergy and expropriation of church poroerty, and punishment of the deadly sins even for kings and magnates. As result, Jan Hus was condemned a heretic and ended on a pyre in 1415.

St.Vitus Cathedral in Prague,
work of the same architects who were involved in the construction of St.Barbara in Kutná Hora

I need to introduce a major player here: King Sigismund of House Luxembourg (1368-1437). He got more jobs than he could juggle: Prince Elector of Brandenburg (since 1388, though he gave that title and position to Friedrich of Hohenzollern in 1410), King of Hungary (since 1387; 1), King of Germany since 1411 (2), titular king of Bohemia since 1419, though it would take until 1436 for the Czech Estates to acknowledge him; and Holy Roman Emperor since 1433.

Sigismund played an influential role in the Council of Constance (1414-1418) which had been assembled to deal with the Papal schism – three popes were definitely two too many – and some other problems like the conflict between the Teutonic Knights and the Polish Crown, and the heresies spread by the followers of Wycliffe and Jan Hus. Sigismund – who had granted Hus safe conduct – had no interest to see Hus executed; he wanted Hus to renounce his more audacious claims and preferably disappear in some monastery, thus turning the faucet off the movement. But Hus refused and stood by his belief, so the Church turned him over to the secular powers as convicted heretic. He was burned during Sigismund's absence.

Vladislav Hall in Prague Castle (an example of helical vaulting);
the work of Benedikt Rejt who also constructed he helical vault of St. Barbara in Kutná Hora (see below)

Sigismund was right: Jan Hus' death sparked a rise in the Hussite movement, causing unrest in Bohemia which culminated in the first Defenestration of Prague, when a Hussite crowd threw several members of the city council out a window of the town hall in Prague to their death in 1419. Open war broke out.

The Hussite armies, a mix of the population from peasants to the nobility, led by Jan Žižka and Prokop the Bald, were not well equipped (except for the knights), but they had the advantage of numbers and fought with religious fervour. The Catholic troops were usually smaller and less motivated, except for those at the borders to Brandenburg, Saxony and the Upper Palatinate who suffered from the Hussite raids. Most of the battles and skirmishes ended in favour of the Hussite or at a stalemate. . I won't detail the battles and skirmishes here, though.

Both Sigismund and the Papal Legate Cardinal Henry of Beaufort (3) tried in vain to raise a special tax in Germany to hire a mercenary army large enough to deal with the Hussite troops for good. Most German magnates saw the war less as a crusade, but more as a Bohemian problem.

Old houses in Kutná Hora

Kutná Hora was involved in a battle in 1421 during which the monastery at Sedlec was burned, and again in 1437, when a party of Hussite fugitives sought shelter in a nearby castle that was eventually conquered. Most Catholic German burghers were driven out of the town during the wars. Mining came almost to a standstill (many of the miners had been Germans), minting of coins was afflicted by the lack of silver, trade construction of St.Barbara's Church was interrupted and trade suffered. The town was damaged by a fire as well (see below).

St.Barbara in Kutná Hora, flying buttresses and soaring spires

Of course, politics and diplomacy played a role, too. There was a complicated net of duties, obligations, ambitions and the occasional betrayal going on in the background. The Hungarians thought Sigismund spent too much time in Germany, the Germans thought he spent too much time in Italy and wasn't really keen on dealing with the Hussites in the first place, the Bohemians didn't want him as king – Sigismund had to flee the country after a hasty coronation following the death of his brother Wenceslaus in August 1419. Not to mention the Hundred Years War flaring up again in the west (4).

To mention just one example involving people already known to my regular readers: Sigismund's brother-in-law Władysław Jagiełło (see footnote 1), who first supported Sigismund with troops, turned around after Sigismund negotiated a treaty Jagiełło considered in favour of the Teutonic Knights at the Council of Constance. Thus Jagiełło was ready to accept the Bohemian Crown the Czech Estates offered him; the plot ony failed due to the fact that the Polish Estates would only accept a king who had his main residence in Kraków, not Prague. In return, Sigismund proposed that Jagielłło's cousin Vytautas, grand duke of Lithuania, should be crowned king, which would have driven a wedge between the men. Vytautas' death in October 1430 put an end to that scheme.

St.Barbara, main nave, view towards the organ (west side)

In the end, the decline of the Hussite movement was mostly due to the quarreling parties within the Hussites. After years of war, the high nobility and the burghers of the towns in particular, deemed the damage caused in the economy too great and sought reconciliation and peace. On the other side, the Catholic alliances were aware that they could not put an end to the movement in the field. Sigismund was one of those arguing strongly for negotiations – he knew his Bohemians, after all.

After the moderate Utraquists joined with the Catholic side; the more radical Taborites were defeated at the battle of Lipany in 1434. The Council of Basel (1431-1449) granted the Hussites some concessions like the communion with wine and the liturgy in Czech in Bohemia. Sigismund was finally acknowledged as King of Bohemia in 1436.

Later, the Protestant movement would find fertile ground in tolerant Bohemia at an early stage, and the Thirty Years War would start with another Defenestration of Prague.

St. Barbara, upper gallery

Let's return to the church of St.Barbara. The guided visit offered a rare chance to access the upper gallery of the church. I've seen a lot of churches – though usually not with a guided tour – and seldom had the luck to get to a place which in most churches is closed to the public. It made for a fascinating view down into the naves and gave a much better feel of the actual height of a Gothic church. Soaring indeed.

View from the upper gallery

Jan Paleř changed the plan to add additional naves on both sides, turning the church into a five nave basilica. A transept obviously was never planned. The ambitious construction was put more or less on hold during the Hussite Wars, but nevertheless, the church was consecrated in 1403. This doesn't mean it was in any way complete, but churches usually were built in segments rather than horizontally, so the choir part with the altar was finished and could be used for services and prayers (this technique is also the reason the church was later cut off on the west side to half its originally intended length).

St. Barbara, another shot of the main nave

Economy had suffered greatly during the Hussite Wars. It would take until the 1480ies to stabilize, and the burghers of Kutná Hora and patrons of the church would have enough surplus money again. The first architect of the second period, Matěj Rejsek, was a sculptor, not a mason, and soon got into trouble with the Guild of Masons, but he left behind some fine decorative elements like the tracery vaulting.

Repairs of the oldest part had also become necessary, because the local sandstone that had been used was more like musselkalk and not very durable. The rest of the cathedral was built with a sandstone of higher density.

Helical vaulting of the ceiling in the main nave

The next architect responsible for the construction of St. Barbara was Benedikt Rejt (1450-1540). He too, was involved in works in Prague and had the luck that he could bring some of the finest masons with him when building of the Hradčany was interrupted. His most ambitious project at St.Barbara was the helical vaulting of the main nave without any pillars and archs to support the vast expanse. He had done something similar in the Vladislav Hall in the Prague Castle (photo above).

Rejt took up the plans of Rejsek and brought them to another level of complicated and decorative. Rejt's first attempt collapsed, but he eventually managed to finish the work, making the main nave of St. Barbara the largest unsupported vaulted space north of the Alps.

Side nave with remains of frescoes

By the end of the 16th century, the church was finished, with eight chapels of trapezoid layout in the side naves and arcades, the ambitious helical vaulting and the three peaked roof. But by that time, the silver mines, the main source for the town's wealth, became less productive and money for the church dried up. Instead of the great entrance hall planned by Rejt, the building was basically cut off at the west side, and a much simpler westwork was added to give it a look of completion. But the church never got towers.

With the arrival of the Jesuits in Kutná Hora in 1621, the Baroque style came into fashion. Several features of the church interior, like altars and statues, are of the Baroque style, but the Gothic style remains predominant, including the remains of some frescoes.

Jesuit College, with some of the sculptures and the vineyard

When leaving the church on the way towards the town, the Barborská ulice passes the Jesuit College. It was built after the Thirty Years War – which had hit Bohemia particularly hard – as life slowly turned back to normal, mining resumed – albeit not on the former scale – and trade connections were reestablished. After the collapse of Bohemian Protestantism during the war, it was the Catholic Jesuits who dominated the spiritual life and the education. The College was built for that reason and would attract a number of well known philosophers and theologians of the time. It is a fine example of a laid back Baroque facade with a set of sculptures on the other said of the artificial bridge. Architect was the Italian Domenico de Orsini; the musselkalk sculptures of saints and historical persons were crafted by Franz Baugut 1703-1717.

Kutná Hora, view to the town and the Hrádek (left)

The original settlement of Kutná Hora must have looked more like a gold rush frontier town, after the rumour of silver mines attracted people from as far as outside Bohemia. The largest group were Germans who brought advanced technology and some of the (in)famous German order, establishing sort of a local government. A charte from 1327 lists the members of the town council – there are only German names.

Things began to change when King Václav II (Wenceslas II; 1278-1305) of the Přemyslid dynasty issued a code for the technical and administrative conditions for operating mines, the Ius Regale Montanorum, in 1300. Soon thereafter, Kutná Hora became the seat of the mint of Bohemia, with the right to strike the so-called Prague Groschen The mint was first located in the Hrádek, the castle, which dates to the very early 14th century. Later, the mint moved to the Italian Court (see below).

The castle was built to protect the new settlement and the entrance to the main mine. It was bought by a rich patrician, Jan Smíšek, after the Hussite Wars, and turned into a Gothic palace; later it came into possession of the Jesuites. Today, the Hrádek locates a minting museum, but – one of the disadvantages of a guided tour – there was no time to visit the place.

Market Square with Plague Column

The kings of the Luxembourg dynasty that provided Bohemia with several generations of kings from John the Blind († 1346) of Crecy fame to Sigismund († 1437) would grant the town a number of privileges. Kutná Hora became the financial centre of the country, and the town changed from an assemblage of huts and hovels to a well laid out place with half timbered houses on stone foundations, churches, town hall, a hospital and other features. The timber fortifications were replaced by stone walls; they soon had to be extended due to the growth of the town which competed with the Old Town of Prague at the time.

A landmark is the Gothic St.James church (see the first photo of this post) with its single high tower – there was no money for a second one – built 1320-80 by the Cistercians). It was not included in the tour, but St.Barbara more than made up for it. As said above, increasing conflicts between the town magistrates and the Cistercian monastery in Sedlec led to the construction of St.Barbara's Church outside the town and range of monastic jurisdiction (though it was later included in the town walls).

The Gothic Stone House

Several of the old houses that today display a Baroque or Classicist style exterior, have a Gothic foundation. There is also a labyrinth of mines and drainage shafts under the town.

One particularly fine example of an original Gothic house remains, dating to a time before the Hussite Wars. The decorated facade was added in 1490 by a mason named Briccius Gauske from Görlitz in Germany. It is assumed that Gauske is also the mason who built the Gothic fountain.

The Gothic Fountain

It had been assumed that the well was the work of Matěj Rejsek who was involved in the construction of St.Barbara, but recent research deems Gauske to be the more likely candidate. The well was financed by Jan Smíšek, the then owner of the Hrádek; it was built in 1493-1495.

The extensive mining had led to a sinking of the groundwater level, which caused problems with the town's water supply. Water had to be brought into the town from the mountains by a system of pump works and wooden pipes over several kilometres, and was then collected in several wells. The Gothic Fountain is one of those. It was in use until 1890.

The market square, different angle

Let's get back to the Hussite Wars once again. The German patriciate of Kuntá Hora – predominantly Catholic – at first supported King Sigismund. But in May 1421, war reached up with the town. The monastery of Sedlec was burned, most miners captured and many German burghers expelled or killed. A fire destroyed part of the town, mining and coin minting came to a standstill, and with it the source of wealth of the town. It would take until 1469 before coins were again minted in Kutná Hora.

Minting and storage of silver and coins had moved to the so-called Italian Court already during the 14th century. The site became the centre of minting of the Kingdom of Bohemia. The original building was more like a castle to protect the valuable materials, but was expanded into a royal residence at the end of the 14th century, again by the royal Masons' Guild from Prague. The treasury was kept in a chamber under the royal chapel.

The Italian Palace

Kutná Hora continued to play an important role in Czech history. Vladisalv Jagiello was elected king during a meeting of the Diet of Bohemia in the Italian Court in 1471.

The Hussite Wars may have been over, but the problems between Catholics and Hussites continued to fester. After Sigsimund's death, he was succeeded by the Catholic King Albert II of Habsburg and his son Ladislaus, who had both sworn to respect the ancient compacts but tried every way out of them. The Hussite faction was led by George (Jiří) of Poděbrad, member of a patrician Bohemian family and a veteran of the Hussite Wars in which he had participated as boy of fourteen. Poděbrad defeated the troops of King Albert, and in March 1458, the Estates of Bohemia elected him king. He tried to keep peace with the Catholic Church as long as both sides stuck to the Compact (which the pope often didn't). Georg of Poděbrady died in March 1471, naming Vladislav, the son of Casimir IV Jagiełło, his heir (5).

Vladislav, himself a Catholic, was obliged to acknowledge the rights of the Hussites. It was in Kutná Hora where, long after a peace conclusion had been reached at Basel, freedom of religion was finally confirmed during a diet of the Czech Utraquists and Catholics in 1485. Catholic and Utraquist faiths were declared equal in front of the law and religious peace proclaimed for the Czech lands. The first Czech translation of the Bible was printed here in 1489.

Italian Palace, detail of the old walls

The mining and coin production were now in the hands of Bohemian financiers who held the important positions in the town council and the mining court. Most of them were entrepreneurs willing to risk more than the former German patricians, so it is no wonder that corruption and frauds took place. Social tensions between the patriciate the the miners rose, and eventually culminated in riots that lasted from 1494 to 1496.

In addition, the miners had to dig more deeply, down to 500 metres, to still access silver veins; the danger of groundwater flooding increased. In 1543, the main mine had to be closed. Deep scale mining would have required more expensive equipment than the town could afford. It was the beginning of the decline of Kutná Hora.

The lack of high quality silver decreased the quality of the Prague Groschen, still the main coin produced in Kutná Hora. Its production was terminated in 1547. The groschen was replaced by a thaler which was considered inferior. Nevertheless, the town could continue to mint coins due to imported silver and still looked prosperous on the surface for several decennia.

The end of the role of the Italian Court came with the revocation of minting rights by Imperial decree in 1724. The building decayed, but was restored in 1904 and remains a landmark of Kutná Hora.

Pretty lane in Kutná Hora

The Thirty Yeas War started in Bohemia, and struck Bohemia particularly hard. After the Battle of the White Mountain in November 1620, the King of Bohemia, Friedrich of the Palatinate – the 'Winter King' – had to flee Bohemia, together with his wife Elizabeth Stuart. The Habsburg monarchy started the re-catholization of the hence tolerant province; all Lutherans, Utraquists and Calvinists should convert or emigrate.

At first, the authorities of Kutná Hora tried to maintain the freedom of worship, to prevent the mass exodus of Lutheran miners, but to no avail. The emperor sent in Spanish troops and the Jesuits; the burghers and other inhabitants had to no choice but to convert or emigrate.

Moreover, the town was twice raided and severely damaged by Swedish troops (1639 and 1643) during the waves of the war that swept through the lands. At the end of the Thirty Years War, the mines were abandoned, many houses stood empty or were in ruins, though St.Barbara's Church had escaped severe damage.

Restored Mediaeval passage

Nevertheless, Kutná Hora recovered to some extent and was still one of the bigger towns in Bohemia at the beginning of the 19th century. But it failed to introduce the industrialisation, either in modern mining methods or the establishment of other factories.

That had one advantage, though. The pretty old town – rebuilt after the Thirty Years War – was preserved in good shape and joined the list of UNESCO Heritage in 1995. Today, it is a minor tourist attraction for visitors of Czechia, not crowded as Prague, but a pretty destination for a day tour.

Painted facade of a house in Kutná Hora

1) Sigismund's wife, Maria of Anjou, inherited the throne from her father Louis who was King of Hungary 1342-1382, and King of Poland via his mother, Elizabeth of Poland, since 1370. His younger daughter Hedwig/Jadwiga would inherit the Polish throne and marry Władysław Jagiełło who became King of Poland by right of his wife, the same way his brother-in-law Sigismund became King of Hungary.
2) The German Prince Electors had deposed Sigismund's older brother Wenceslaus – nicknamed 'the Lazy' – in 1400 due to incompetence, end elected Rupert of the Palatinate of House Wittelsbach. After Rupert's death in 1410, they went back to House Luxembourg which in the end had more political clout, power and money than a local magnate. Wenceslaus remained King of Bohemia until his death in 1419.
3) He was a brother of King Henry IV of England.
4) Sigismund visited King Henry V in England after the Battle of Agincourt (1415), trying to negotiate a reconciliation with France, and signed the Treaty of Canterbury which acknowledged the English claims to France.
5) Vladislav was only King of Bohemia proper; the duchies of Moravia, Silesia and Lusatia had been occupied by Matthias Corvinus, the King of Hungary (and another king who rose from the local nobility after the death of Sigismund). Vladislav and Matthias divided the Crown of Bohemia at the Peace of Olomouc in 1479.

Jörg Hoensch: Die Luxemburger – eine spätmittelalterliche Dynastie gesamteuropäischer Bedeutung 1308-1473, Stuttgart 2000
Martin Kintzinger: Sigismund (1410/1411-1437), in Bernd Schneidmüller, Stefan Weinfurter (ed.): Die Deutschen Herrscher des Mittelelalters – Historische Porträts von Heinrich I bis Maximilian I, München 2003, p. 462-485.
Jan Kulich: St.Barbara's Church in Kutná Hora, Liblice, 2013.

Comments: Post a Comment

<< Home

The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, the Baltic Countries, and central Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.

This blog is non-commercial.

All texts and photos (if no other copyright is noted) are copyright of Gabriele Campbell.

GDPR Privacy Policy

My Photo
Location: Goettingen, Germany

I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History, interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
(See here for Archives for mobile devices)

Historical Places

- Towns
- Castles
- Abbeys and Churches
- Roman Remains
- Neolithicum and Bronze Age
- Museums
City Trips

Hiking Tours and Cruises

United Kingdom
Baltic Sea

Historical Places



Bad Sooden-Allendorf
Historical Town and Graduation Tower
Bruchteiche Reservoir

A Seaside Resort

Lion Benches in the Castle Square
The Quadriga

Mediaeval Erfurt

Mediaeval Goslar
Chapel in the Klus Rock

Churches St.Martin and St.Mary

St. Mary's Church

Church of Our Lady: History

The Temple of Isis and Mater Magna

Mediaeval Paderborn

Mediaeval Quedlinburg
The Chapter Church

The Cathedral: Architecture
Jewish Ritual Bath

The Harbour
The Old Town

Mediaeval Lanes and Old Houses

The Roman Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths
The Porta Nigra

Sites of the Weimar Classicism
The Park at the Ilm

The Old Harbour

Roman and Mediaeval Xanten
The Gothic House


The Keep

Altenstein (Werra)
A Border Castle

Weser River Reivers

Brandenburg (Thuringia)
The Beginnings
Albrecht II of Thuringia

Coburg Fortress

The Marshals of Ebersburg


History of the Keep


Hardeg Castle
The Great Hall


Heldenburg (Salzderhelden)
A Welfen Seat

Hohnstein (Harz)
The Counts of Hohnstein
Between Welfen and Staufen
14th-15th Century

Built to Protect a Chapel

The Counts of Everstein
Later Times

The Counts of Winzenburg
The Lords of Plesse

Polle Castle
An Everstein Stronghold


Reichenbach (Hessia)

Photo Impressions

From Castle to Convention Centre



Stauffenburg (Harz)
A Secret Mistress

A Little Known Ruin in the Harz

Photo Impressions

A Virtual Tour

Revisiting the Weidelsburg

Abbeys and Churches

Early History of the Abbey

A Romanesque Basilica

A Romanesque Church

The Byzantine Crypt

The Stave Church

Remains of the Monastery

Early History of the Abbey
Interior of the Church

The Carolingian Gate Hall

Remains of the Monastery

Scharzfeld (Harz)
The Cave Church

Mediaeval Murals

The Monastery - Introduction

Romanesque Church and a Ducal Burial

Wilhelmshausen (Kassel)
The Romanesque Church

Roman Remains

Augusta Treverorum / Trier
The Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths
The Porta Nigra
The Roman Bridge

Colonia Ulpia Traiana / Xanten
Roman Xanten
The Amphitheatre in Birten

Limes Fort Aalen
The Barracks

Limes Fort Osterburken
The Discovery
The Cohort castellum
The Annex Fort
The Garrisons

Limes Fort Saalburg
A Reconstructed Limes Fort
Shrine of the Standards

Romans in North Rhine-Westphalia
Playmobil Romans, LWL Museum Haltern
Varus Statue, Haltern am See

Romans at the Moselle
The Villa Urbana in Longuich

Romans at the Rhine
Boppard - The Roman Baudobriga
The Villa at Wachenheim

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Neolithic Burials
Neolithic Burials in the Everstorf Forest and Rugia
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age
Bronze and Iron Age Remains at the Werra

Museums / Reconstructed Sites

Palatine Seat Tilleda
The Defenses

Viking Settlement Haithabu
The Nydam Ship

Open Air Museums
European Bread Museum Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Post-Mediaeval Exhibits
Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg



Roman and Medieaval Chester

The Abbey - Introduction
The Old Gaol

Clifford Tower
The Guild Hall
Monk Bar Gate with Richard III Museum
Museum Gardens
Houses in the Old Town
York Minster: Architecture



Conquest to King John
Henry III to the Tudors

Romans to the Tudors
Civil War to the Present

Roman Remains

Eboracum / York
Roman Bath in the Fortress

Wall Fort Birdoswald
The Dark Age Timber Halls

Wall Fort Segedunum
Museum and Viewing Tower
The Baths

Other Roman Sites
The Mithraeum at Brocolita
The Signal Station at Scarborough



Views from the Castle

The Wallace Monument


A Virtual Tour
History: The Early Stewart Kings
History: Royal Dower House

Duart Castle
Guarding the Sound of Mull

An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
The Wars of Independence
The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

Robert the Bruce

Abbeys and Churches

Arriving at Inchcolm Abbey

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Neolithic Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae

Brochs and Cairns
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Introduction

Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort



Castle and Coast

The Ffwrwm
The Roman Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort

The Smallest House in Great Britain



Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

From Romans to Victorians

Beginnings unto Bigod
Edward II to the Tudors
Civil War


Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings

The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

Photo Impressions
The Caves Under the Castle

Roman Remains

Isca Silurum / Caerleon
The Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort


Castles and Fortresses

Akershus Fortress in Oslo
Kings and Pirates
The Time of King Håkon V

Vardøhus Fortress


The Fram Museum in Oslo



Viking Museum Roskilde
To come


Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Gnisvärd Ship Setting


The Vasa Museum in Stockholm



Mediaeval Porvoo



The History of Mediaeval Tallinn



The History of Mediaeval Riga



Photo Impressions



Gdańsk / Danzig
History of Mediaeval Gdańsk
Mediaeval and Renaissance Gdańsk

The Old Town
Jewish Kraków - Kazimierz and the Ghetto

Wrocław / Breslau
The Botanical Garden
The Wrocław Dwarfs


Ogrodzieniec Castle
A Virtual Tour
First Castle to the Boner Family



Cheb / Eger
The Old Town

Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
Brief History of the Town

Kutná Hora
The Sedlec Ossuary
The Medieaval Town and St.Barbara's Church



The Old Town

Mediaeval Bruges

Mediaeval Ghent

Mediaeval Buildings

Roman Remains

Atuatuca Tungrorum / Tongeren
Roman Remains in the Town



Luxembourg City
A Tour of the Town

City Trips

St.Petersburg (Russia)
Impressions from the Neva River

Strasbourg (France)
A Tour of the Town

Hiking Tours and Cruises


Baltic Sea Coast
Flensburg Firth
Rugia: Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
Rugia: Photo Impressions
Rugia: The Pier of Sellin
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

Lüneburg Heath
Hiking Tours in the Lüneburg Heath

Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Devil's Wall
Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
Oderteich Reservoir
Rappbode Reservoir
Views from Harz mountains

Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Bruchteiche / Bad Sooden Allendorf
Hessian Switzerland

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
The Forest Pasture Project
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Nature Park Reinhardswald
Old Forest at the Sababurg

Thuringian Forests
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

Rivers and Lakes
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut
Weser River Ferry
Weser Skywalk

Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life
Red squirrels

Spring Impressions from Göttingen
Spring in the Hardenberg Castle Gardens
Spring in the Meissner
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake

United Kingdom

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains: Inverness to John o'Groats
Impressions from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull: Craignure to Fionnphort
Dunollie and Kilchurn: Photo Impressions
Pentland Firth
Summer in Oban

Scotland by Train
West Highland Railway

Views of Snowdownia

Sea Gulls


Coast of Norway: Hurtigruten-Tour
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord

The Baltic Sea

A Baltic Sea Cruise

The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
Beaches at the Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit

Mediaeval History

General Essays

by Country
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Livonia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Bohemia
- Luxembourg
- Flanders

Roman History

The Romans at War
Famous Romans
Roman Life and Religion

Other Times

Neolithicum to Iron Age
Post-Mediaeval History
History and Literature

Mediaeval History

General Essays

Mediaeval Warfare


Late Mediaeval Swords

Mediaeval Art and Craft

Mediaeval Art
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
The Hunting Frieze in Königslutter Cathedral
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Medical Instruments


The History of Feudalism
The Beginnings
Feudalism in the 10th Century

Special Cases
The privilege of the deditio

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings

Hanseatic Architecture
Examples of Brick Architecture
Hall Houses (Dielenhäuser)

Goods and Trade
Stockfish Trade

Towns of the Hanseatic League
Tallinn / Reval

The Order of the Teutonic Knights

Wars and Battles
The Conquest of Danzig
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

The Vikings

Viking Material Culture
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Viking Ships
The Nydam Ship

Essays by Country



List of Mediaeval German Emperors
Anglo-German Marriage Connections

Kings and Emperors

The Salian Dynasty
King Heinrich IV

Staufen against Welfen
Emperor Otto IV

Princes and Lords

House Welfen
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen

The Landgraves of Thuringia
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

Dukes and Princes of other Families
Duke Otto of Northeim
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Feuds and Rebellions

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War
The Star Wars


Kings of England

House Plantagenet
Richard Lionheart in Speyer
King Henry IV's Lithuanian Crusade

Normans, Britons, Angevins

Great Noble Houses
The Dukes of Brittany
The Earls of Richmond

Contested Borders

King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War, Part 1
King David and the Civil War, Part 2

Houses Bruce and Stewart
The Early Stewart Kings

Local Troubles

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding

Scotland and England

The Wars of Independence
Alexander of Argyll
The Fight for Stirling Castle


Welsh Princes

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

Wales and England

A History of Rebellion
Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Kings of Denmark

House of Knýtlinga
Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

The Duchy of Estonia
Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


Kings of Norway

Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

Feuds and Rebellions

Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Troubles and Alliances

Scandinavian Unity
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

(Latvia and Estonia)

Contested Territories

Livonian Towns
The History of Mediaeval Riga
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Lithuanian Princes

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas

The Northern Crusades

The Wars in Lithuania
The Siege of Vilnius 1390


Royal Dynasties

The Jagiełłonian Kings
Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union

The Northern Crusades

The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
The Conquest of Danzig


Royal Dynasties

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
King Sigismund and the Hussite Wars


House Luxembourg
King Sigismund


More to come

Roman History

The Romans at War

Forts and Fortifications

The German Limes
The Cavalry Fort Aalen
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg

The Hadrian's Wall
The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend

Border Life
Exercise Halls
Mile Castles and Watch Towers
Soldiers' Living Quarters
Cavalry Barracks

Campaigns and Battles

The Romans in Germania

The Pre-Varus Invasion in Germania
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn

The Batavian Rebellion
A Short Introduction

Roman Militaria

Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles

Famous Romans

The Late Empire

The Legend of Alaric's Burial

Roman Life and Religion

Religion and Public Life

Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms
Isis Worship
Memorial Stones
The Mithras Cult

Public Life
Roman Transport: Barges
Roman Transport: Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Roman Public Baths

Domestic Life

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots

Other Times

Neolithicum to Iron Age


Development of Civilisation
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
The Hutewald Project in the Solling
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Neolithic Remains
Stone Burials of the Funnelbeaker Culture
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age / Iron Age
The Nydam Ship


Neolithic Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Bronze Age / Iron Age
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Their Function in Iron Age Society


Bronze / Iron Age
The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd / Gotland

Post-Mediaeval History

Explorers and Discoveries

Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

History and Literature


The Weimar Classicism


Geological Landscapes: Germany

Baltic Sea Coast
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

Harz Mountains
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs
Sandstone Formations: Daneil's Cave
Sandstone Formations: Devil's Wall
Sandstone Formations: The Klus Rock

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations
Salt Springs at the Werra

Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

Geological Landscapes: Great Britain

The Shores of Scotland

Geological Landscapes: Baltic Sea

Geology of the Curonian Spit

Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

Fossilized Ammonites
The Loket Meteorite (Czechia)

Powered by Blogger