The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times


22 Apr 2019
  Kraków and Wrocław - My Spring Journey 2019, Part 2

The second post of my Travel Return Booty will present the places I visited in Poland.

Krakow, Easter market on the Market Square, seen from the balcony of the Cloth Hall
(St.Mary's Basilica in the background)

It was Palm Sunday in Kraków, an important day for Catholics in Poland, and the weather was fine to boot, so the town was rather crowded, not only with - mostly Polish - tourists, but with pretty much all inhabitants of the city and surroundings. The women and some children were carrying bouquets made of evergreen and spring flowers. It was a pretty sight.

Kraków, Cloth Hall and belfry (left)

Since there were services and prayers going on all day, I didn't have a chance to seen any of the churches from the inside, but I didn't mind - I got plenty of church photos in my collection. There was much else to see, after all.

Kraków, view from the Barbikane to St.Florian's Gate

Like the remains of the town fortifications, the Barbikane and St.Florian's Gate. Not many people purchased a ticket for the tour of their interior, so I had some quiet moments doing one of my favourite things: photographing Mediaeval military architechture. *grin*

Kraków, Wawel Castle in the evening sun

Wawel Castle had been the main seat of the Kings of Poland for centuries and thus has been altered and enlarged several times. The inner yards are open to the public, but access to the rooms is limited to 30 people per hour, so it is a bit tricky to get tickets for the tour (though I approve such precautions to preserve valuable items). Since photographing is not allowed inside, I skipped the Flemish tapestries and pretty furniture.

Kraków, the Wawel Dragon

Outside I met with a fire breathing dragon. The beastie haunted a cave under the castle until a shoemaker - a poor one, of course - fed it with a lamb skin full of sulphur and the dragon exploded (he got married to the princess). The statue dates to 1972 and does indeed breathe fire now and then. I was lucky to catch on of those bursts (though you can obviously trigger them via SMS, how mundane).

Street Café in the Jewish quarter

Kazimierz, the former Jewish Quarter, is a very different part of Kraków. Less frequented by tourists, but popular with young people. Some houses have already been restored and look as pretty as in the Old Town, but others still need new paint or a sandblasting. It gives the place a slightly rundown, but charming atmosphere.

Ogrodzieniec Castle

I also got yet another castle for my collection. There are several castles not far from Kraków; the so called Eagle Nest Trail, a series of castles situated on lime stone cliffs. They were built mostly in the 14th century to protect the border to Silesia which then belonged to the Kingdom of Bohemia. Ogrodzieniec is the most spectacular of the lot.

Ogrodzieniec Castle, the main hall seen from one of the towers

The castle is a veritable labyrinth since the various levels have been made accessible by stairs and metal bridges. I didn't even notice the school class who visited the place at the same time until we met back at the entrance.

Wrocław, gabled houses at the market square

Wrocław (Breslau) was much quieter and relaxed; a nice final part of my tour. The market square (rynek głowny) is one of the finest in Europe. I've seen some pretty ones, esp. the one in Bruges, but I like the market square in Wrocław best.

Wrocław, well in the market square

Even the modern well, the Zdroj Fountain from 1996, which sparkles so prettily in the sunshine, fits. And for one there was no need to photgraph around tourists and Easter market booths. *grin*

Wrocław, the Cathedral Island with the St.John's Cathedral

The second historical centre of Wrocław is the Cathedral Island (Ostrów Tumski) in the Oder river. It is the eldest kernel of the town, dating to the 10th century. The island was given to the Church in 1315. The most famous - and architecturally outstanding - building on the island is the Gothic Cathedral of St. John the Baptist.

Blooming magnolias in the Botanical Garden

The Botanical Garden is also situated on the Cathedral Island. It was a lovely, quiet and restful place filled with the flowers and scents of spring.
 


21 Apr 2019
  Prague and More - My Spring Journey 2019, Part 1

I'm back from my tour through the Czech Republic and Poland, and I did indeed manage to visit some other places, besides the major towns. Here is part one of the customary overview posts.

Prague seen from the Hradčany

Prague was of course the highlight. The town is beautiful, but also pretty stuffed with tourists already in April. I wouldn't want to travel there in summer; you'd probably have to ride a Nimbus 2000 to get any photos without peoples' heads in the foreground, and the queues in front of the Hradčany ticket office will wind down halfway into the Lesser Town.

View to the Hradčany and St.Vitus Cathedral, with the Charles Bridge in the foreground

As it was, I managed enough decent pics to give you a tour of the town in another post or two. I was told that November is a quiet month ... so if you want to get Prague with fog instead of tourists, travel in November. *grin*

Vltava river and Old Town, seen from the Lesser Town

The photo above is a fine example for the reason Prague is called the Golden City - it does have a golden shine in the sunset gleam.

The weather was sunny most of the time, though the temperature couldn't decide whether it was spring already or still winter, it tried something different every day.

Prague, Easter market in the Old Town Square

What I had not counted on was the Easter markets being held in pretty much every square shaped place, which added to the crowded feel. But they were a pretty sight nevertheless. (Note to self: don't travel the week prior to Easter.)

Cheb, the market square

The Mediaeval town of Cheb (Eger) is a much smaller town close to the German border, with a charming old market square plus some other pretty old houses, and an interesting castle.

Cheb castle, the chapel (left) and Black Tower (right)

The castle - then an Imperial palatine seat - dates back to the time of Friedrich Barbarossa. The chapel and the Black Tower are remaining features of that earliest construction from the 12th century. At that time, Cheb belonged to the German Empire.

Loket Castle

Another castle near Cheb is Loket (Elbogen). Its origins date to the 13th century, but it was enlarged in the 1520ies, thus displaying Romanesque and Gothic architectural features. As border castle between Germany and Bohemia, it was the place of several historical events.

Loket castle, inner yard

The castle fell into disrepair after the Thirty Years War; some parts burned down a century later. The remains were used as prison in the 19th century. The castle was eventually restored when it came into possession of the town of Loket in 1993.

Karlovy Vary, timber colonnade

Karlovy Vary (Karlsbad) is a spa town in the same area as Cheb and Loket Castle. It once was one of the most popular spa town in Austria-Hungary (and Germany). Famous German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe went there several times during his life (he'd been to Loket as well, where he got a statue on the main road of the village).

Karlovy Vary, view from the Teplá river to the houses uphill;
with the Mill Colonnade to the right

Until the end of WW1, most of the inhabitants of Karlovy Vary were German speakers. Today, the language I most prominently heard during the few hours of my visit was Russian - they have replaced the German spa visitors, it seems.

Karlštejn Castle

The other Czech castle I visited is situated close to Prague: the iconic Karlštejn. It was founded by Charles IV (of House Luxembourg), Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia, in 1348. Charles was also responsible for several of the buildings on the Hradčany in Prague. The castle was intended to protect the crown jewels of Bohemia, and did so for several centuries.

Karlštejn, the outer bailey

Due to its historical importance, the castle has been restored in the late 19th century. Some neo-Gothic fake elements, like the timber battlements on the towers, have been added in the process. Some important rooms can be seen on a guided tour which I took.

Bone decorations in the Sedlec Ossuary

Sedlec (about an hours drive from Prague) was a 13th century Cistercian monastery which became attractive as burial site when one abbot brought back some earth from Golgotha and sprinkled it over the cemetery. A Gothic chapel was built over the churchyard in 1400; with the cellar used as ossuary for the mass of bones found in the cemetery. The site came into possession of the Schwarzenberg family who employed the woodcarver František Rint to sort the heaps of bones (1870) - the result was that he used a bunch of them for decorations.

St.James Church and Italian Court in Kutna Horá

Kutná Hora (Kuttenberg), the town near the Sedlec monastery, was one of the wealthiest towns in Bohemia in the 13th - 16th centuries due to the nearby silver mines, competing even with Prague. The city centre is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Italian Court during that time included the main mint of Bohemia.

Prague, the Čertovka canal

A quiet spot in busy Prague: The Čertovka canal separating the Kampa island from the Lesser Town.

 


4 Apr 2019
  Eastward Bound - My Spring Tour 2019

I'll be off until Easter visiting Prague and Cheb (Eger) in the Czech Republic, and Krakow and Wrocław (Breslau) in Poland, plus some planned detours to castles and other sites of interest. Let's see what fun places I can squish into my schedule.

The three larger towns each have their river: the Vltava (Moldau) in Prague, the Vistula (Weichsel) in Krakow and the Oder in Wrocław. So there may be a river boat tour in there as well - you know I like those.

Gdańsk, the Motława river with the Crane Gate

I left plenty of reading material in the posts below to tide you over the break. You'll have to get used to some names with odd letters in the time to come, since I'm going to post more about Polish and Czech history in the future. *grin*

Gdańsk, the 'Milk Can' Gate seen from the river

On another note: I have disabled anonymous comments again. I get a dozen spam, troll and just plain silly comments every day, and I don't feel like sorting through several hundred of those upon my return. I apologise for the inconvenience that may cause those of my readers who don't want to register with Google in order to comment on my blog.
 




The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, and central / eastern Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.


This blog is non-commercial.

All texts and photos (if no other copyright is noted) are copyright of Gabriele Campbell.

GDPR Privacy Policy
Contact


My Photo
Name:
Location: Goettingen, Germany

I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
(See here for Archives for mobile devices)



Anchor links lead to the respective sub-category in the sidebar

Roman Remains
- Germany
- Belgium and France
- Great Britain

Mediaeval and Other Places
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Finland
- Russia
- Estonia
- Latvia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Czech Republic
- Belgium
- Luxembourg
- France

Hiking Tours and Cruises
- Germany
- United Kingdom
- Scandinavia
- Baltic Sea



Roman Remains

Germany

Traces of a Failed Conquest

Romans at Lippe and Ems
Roman Exhibitions, Haltern am See
Varus Statue, Haltern am See

Romans at the Weser
The Roman Camp at Hedemünden

The Limes and its Forts

Aalen
The Cavalry Fort - Barracks

Osterburken
The Discovery
The Cohort castellum
The Annex Fort
The Garrisons

Saalburg
Introduction
Main Gate
Shrine of the Standards

Temples and Memorials
Mithras Altars in Germania

Romans at Rhine and Moselle

The Villa Rustica in Wachenheim
Introduction
Baths and Toilets
The Cellar

Roman villae at the Moselle
The Villa Urbana in Longuich

Roman Towns

Augusta Treverorum (Trier)
The Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths
The Porta Nigra
The Roman Bridge

Baudobriga (Boppard)
From Settlement to Fortress

Colonia Ulpia Traiana (Xanten)
History of the Town
The Amphitheatre in Birten

Moguntiacum (Mainz)
The Temple of Isis and Mater Magna


Belgium and France

Roman Towns

Atuatuca Tungrorum (Tongeren)
Roman Remains in Tongeren


Great Britain

Frontiers and Fortifications

The Hadrian's Wall
Introduction
Building the Wall

Wall Forts - Banna (Birdoswald)
The Dark Age Timber Halls

Wall Forts - Segedunum (Wallsend)
Museum, Viewing Tower and Foundations
The Baths

Signal Stations
The Signal Station at Scarborough

Temples and Memorials
The Mithraeum of Brocolita
A Roman Memorial Stone

Roman Towns

Eboracum (York)
Bath in the Fortress
Multiangular Tower

The Romans in Wales

Roman Forts - Isca (Caerleon)
The Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort


Mediaeval and Other Places

Germany

- Towns
- Castles
- Churches and Cathedrals
- Reconstructed Sites / Museums

Towns

Braunschweig
Medieaval Braunschweig
Lion Benches in the Castle Square
The Quadriga

Erfurt
Mediaeval Erfurt

Goslar
Mediaeval Goslar

Heiligenstadt
St.Martin's Church
St.Mary's Church

Lübeck
St. Mary's Church, Introduction

Magdeburg
Magdeburg Cathedral
St.Mary's Abbey - An Austere Archbishop
St.Mary's Abbey - Reformation to Reunion

Paderborn
Mediaeval Paderborn

Quedlinburg
Mediaeval Quedlinburg
The Chapter Church

Speyer
The Cathedral: Architecture
Cathedral: Richard Lionheart in Speyer
Jewish Ritual Bath

Stralsund
The Harbour

Treffurt
A Walk through the Town

Wismar
The Old Harbour

Xanten
Mediaeval Xanten
The Gothic House

Castles

Castles in Bavaria

Coburg Fortress
The History of the Fortress
The Architecture

Castles in the Harz

Ebersburg
Power Base of the Thuringian Landgraves
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Architecture

Harzburg
The Harzburg and Otto IV

Hohnstein
Origins of the Counts of Hohnstein
The Family Between Welfen and Staufen
A Time of Feuds (14th-15th century)

Regenstein
Introduction
The Time of Henry the Lion

Scharzfels
Introduction
History

Other Castles
Stauffenburg

Castles in Hessia

Kugelsburg
The Counts of Everstein
Troubled Times
War and Decline

Weidelsburg
The History of the Castle
The Architecture
The Castle After the Restoration

Castles in Northern Hessia
Grebenstein
Reichenbach
Sichelnstein

Castles in Lower Saxony

Hardenberg
Introduction
Hardenberg Castle Gardens

Plesse
Rise and Fall of the Counts of Winzenburg
The Lords of Plesse
Architecture / Decline and Rediscovery

Castles at the Weser
Bramburg
Krukenburg
Castle Polle
Two Fairy Tale Castles - Sababurg and Trendelburg

Other Castles
Adelebsen Castle - The Keep
Grubenhagen - A Border Castle
Hardeg Castle - The Great Hall
Salzderhelden - A Welfen Seat

Castles in Thuringia

Brandenburg
The Double Castle
Role of the Castle in Thuringian History

Hanstein
Introduction
Otto of Northeim
Heinrich the Lion and Otto IV
The Next Generations

Normanstein
Introduction

Wartburg
A Virtual Tour

Other Castles
Altenstein at the Werra
Castle Scharfenstein

Churches and Cathedrals

Churches in the Harz

Pöhlde Monastery
The Church

Steinkirche near Scharzfeld
Development of the Cave Church

Walkenried Monastery
From Monastery to Museum

Churches in Hessia

Abbey of Lorsch
The Gate Hall

Churches in Lower Saxony

Königslutter
Exterior Decorations
Cloister

Wiebrechtshausen
Nunnery and Ducal Burial

Churches in Thuringia

Göllingen Monastery
Traces of Byzantine Architecture

Churches at the Weser

Bursfelde Abbey
Early History

Helmarshausen Monastery
Remains of the Monastery
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion

Lippoldsberg Abbey
Early History
The Interior

Other Churches
Fredelsloh Chapter Church
Vernawahlshausen - Mediaeval Murals

Reconstructed Sites / Museums

Palatine Seat Tilleda
The Defenses

Viking Settlement Haithabu
Haithabu and the Archaeological Museum Schleswig
The Nydam Ship

Open Air Museums
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Post-Mediaeval Sites

Powder and Steam
Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg


England

Towns

Chester
Roman and Medieaval Chester

Hexham
The Abbey - Introduction
The Old Gaol

York
Clifford Tower
The Guild Hall
The Minster - Architecture
Monk Bar Gate and Richard III Museum
Museum Gardens
The Old Town
Along the Ouse River

Castles

Alnwick
Malcolm III and the First Battle of Alnwick

Carlisle
Introduction
Henry II and William of Scotland
Edward I to Edward III

Richmond
From the Conquest to King John
From Henry III to the Tudors
The Architecture

Scarborough
From the Romans to the Tudors
From the Civil War to the Present
The Architecture


Scotland

Towns

Edinburgh
Views from the Castle

Stirling
The Wallace Monument

Castles

Doune
A Virtual Tour of the Castle
The Early Stewart Kings
Royal Dower House, and Decline

Duart
Guarding the Sound of Mull

Dunstaffnage
An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
The Wars of Independence
The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

Stirling
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle

Abbeys and Churches

Inchcolm Abbey
Arriving at Inchcolm

Other Historical Sites

Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort
Staffa

Pre-Historic Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae


Wales

Towns

Aberystwyth
Castle and Coast

Caerleon
The Ffwrwm

Conwy
The Smallest House in Great Britain

Castles

Beaumaris
The Historical Context
The Architecture

Caernarfon
Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

Cardiff
From the Romans to the Victorians

Chepstow
Beginnings unto Bigod
From Edward II to the Tudors
Civil War, Restoration, and Aftermath

Conwy
The History of the Castle
The Architecture

Criccieth
Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings

Manorbier
The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

Pembroke
Pembroke Pictures
The Caves Under the Castle


Denmark

Towns

Copenhagen
To come


Norway

Towns

Oslo
The Fram Museum in Oslo

Castles and Fortresses

Arkershus Fortress in Oslo
Introduction
Akershus at the Time of King Håkon V
Architectural Development

Vardøhus Fortress
Defending the North for Centuries


Sweden

Towns

Stockholm
The Vasa Museum

Historical Landscapes

Gotland
Gnisvärd Ship Setting


Finland

Towns

Porvoo
Mediaeval Porvoo


Russia

Towns

St. Petersburg
Isaac's Cathedral
Smolny Cathedral
Impressions from the The Neva River


Estonia

Towns

Tallinn
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Latvia

Towns

Riga
To come


Lithuania

Historical Landscapes

The Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit


Poland

Towns

Gdańsk / Danzig
The History of Mediaeval Gdańsk
Mediaeval and Renaissance Gdańsk

Wrocław / Breslau
The Botanical Garden
The Wrocław Dwarfs


Czech Republic

Towns

Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
Brief History of the Town

Kutná Hora
The Sedlec Ossuary


Belgium

Towns

Antwerp
The Old Town

Bruges
Mediaeval Bruges

Ghent
Mediaeval Ghent

Tongeren
Roman and Mediaeval Remains


Luxembourg

Towns

Luxembourg City
A Tour of the Town


France

Towns

Strasbourg
A Tour of the Town


Hiking Tours and Cruises

Germany

The Baltic Sea Coast
The Flensburg Firth
Rugia - Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
Rugia - Seaside Ressort Binz
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
Oderteich Reservoir
Rappbode Reservoir
Views from Harz mountains

Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Hessian Switzerland

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
The Hutewald Forest
The Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Thuringian Forests
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

Rivers and Lakes
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
The Moselle
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut
Weser River Ferry
Weser Skywalk

Wildlife
Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life

Seasons
Spring in the Botanical Garden Göttingen
Spring at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Spring in the Rossbach Heath (Meissner)
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Winter Wonderland - Views from my Balcony


United Kingdom

Mountains and Valleys
West Highland Railway

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains - Inverness to John o'Groats
Some Photos from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull - Craignure to Fionnphort
Pentland Firth
Castles Seen from Afar (Dunollie and Kilchurn)
Staffa
Summer Days in Oban
Summer Nights in Oban

Wild Wales - With Castles
Views of Snowdownia
Views from Castle Battlements

Wildlife
Sea Gulls


Scandinavia

The Hurtigruten-Tour / Norway
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Wildlife
Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord


The Baltic Sea

A Baltic Sea Cruise

The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
Beaches at the Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit






Roman History
General Essays

Provinces
- Germania
- Gallia Belgica
- Britannia

Mediaeval History
General Essays

By Country
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Russia
- Livonia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Bohemia

Other Times
- Prehistoric Times
- Post-Mediaeval History
-
Miscellanea
- Geology


Roman History

General Essays

The Romans at War

Forts and Fortifications
Exercise Halls
Mile Castles and Watch Towers
Soldiers' Living Quarters
Cavalry Barracks

Roman Militaria

Armour
Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapons
Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum
Daggers
Swords

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles

Life and Religion

Religion
The Mithras Cult
Isis Worship
Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms

Public Life
Roman Transport - Barges
Roman Transport - Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots

Miscellaneous Essays

The Legend of Alaric's Burial


Germania

Wars and Frontiers

Maps
Romans in Germania

Traces of the Pre-Varus Conquest
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn
Introduction

Along the Limes
The Cavalry Fort Aalen
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg


Gallia Belgica

The Batavians

The Batavian Rebellion
A Short Introduction


Britannia

Roman Frontiers in Britain

The Hadrian's Wall
Introduction
The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend


Mediaeval History

General Essays

Mediaeval Art and Craft

Mediaeval Art
Carved Monsters
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Medieaval Craftmanship
Goldsmithery
Medical Instruments

Mediaeval Warfare

Mediaeval Weapons
Swords
Trebuchets

Castles and Fortifications
Dungeons and Oubliettes

Essays about Specific Topics

Feudalism

The History of Feudalism
The Beginnings
Feudalism in the 10th Century

Privileges and Special Relationships
The Privilege of the deditio
A Note on handgenginn maðr

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings

Hanesatic Architecture
Examples of Brick Architecture

Goods and Trade
Stockfish Trade

The Order of the Teutonic Knights

Wars and Battles
The Conquest of Danzig
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

The Vikings

Viking Ships
The Nydam Ship


Germany

Geneaology

List of Mediaeval German Emperors

Geneaologies
Anglo-German Marriage Connections
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors

Kings and Emperors

The Salian Dynasty
King Heinrich IV

House Welf and House Staufen
Emperor Otto IV, Introduction

Princes and Lords

Princes
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto of Northeim
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Famous Feuds

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War - Introduction
The Star Wars


England

Kings of England

King Henry IV
King Henry's Lithuanian Crusade

Normans, Britons, Angevins

Great Fiefs - The Honour of Richmond
The Dukes of Brittany and the Honour of Richmond
The Earldom of Richmond and the Duchy of Brittany

Contested Borders

Northumbria
King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


Scotland

Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War, Part 1
King David and the Civil War, Part 2

Houses Bruce and Stewart
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle
The Early Stewart Kings

Scottish Nobles and their Quarrels

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding


Wales

Welsh Princes

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

Rebels

A History of Rebellion
From Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Denmark

Kings of Denmark

House of Knýtlinga
Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

The Duchy of Estonia
Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


Norway

Kings of Norway

Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

A Time of Feuds

Famous Nobles and their Feuds
Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Sweden

Troubles and Alliances

Scandinavian Unity
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union


Russia

The History of St.Petersburg
(to come)


Livonia
(Latvia and Estonia)

Towns of the Hanseatic League

Tallinn
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Lithuania

The Northern Crusades

The Wars in Lithuania
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

Lithuanian Princes

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas


Poland

The Northern Crusades

The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
The Conquest of Danzig

Royal Dynasties

The Jagiełłonian Kings
Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union


Bohemia
(Including Silesia and Moravia)

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
(to come)


Other Times

Prehistoric Times

Germany

Development of Civilisation
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Orkney

Neolithic Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Scandinavia

Gotland
The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd


Post-Mediaeval History

Explorers and Discoveries

Explorers
Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

Discoveries
Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

Biographies

European Nobility
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus


Miscellanea

History in Literature and Music

History in Literature

Biographies of German Poets and Writers
Theodor Fontane

Historical Ballads by Theodor Fontane
(Translated by me)
Archibald Douglas
Gorm Grymme
Sir Walter Scott in Abbotsford
The Tragedy of Afghanistan

History in Opera

Belcanto and Historicism
Maria Padilla - Mistress Royal
The Siege of Calais in Donizetti's Opera

Not so Serious History

Romans
Building Hadrian's Wall
Playmobil Romans

Mediaeval Times
Kings Having a Bad Hair Day
The Case of the Vanished Wine Cask

Other
Rules for Writing Scottish Romances
Tourist Kitsch in St.Petersburg


Geology

Geological Landscapes

The Baltic Sea
Geology of the Curonian Spit
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

The Harz
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in the Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations

Solling-Vogler
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

The Shores of Scotland
Staffa

Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

Fossilized Ammonites
The Loket Meteorite


05/05 / 08/05 / 09/05 / 11/05 / 12/05 / 02/06 / 03/06 / 04/06 / 05/06 / 08/06 / 09/06 / 10/06 / 11/06 / 12/06 / 01/07 / 02/07 / 03/07 / 04/07 / 05/07 / 06/07 / 07/07 / 08/07 / 09/07 / 10/07 / 11/07 / 12/07 / 01/08 / 02/08 / 03/08 / 04/08 / 05/08 / 06/08 / 07/08 / 08/08 / 09/08 / 10/08 / 11/08 / 12/08 / 01/09 / 02/09 / 03/09 / 04/09 / 05/09 / 06/09 / 07/09 / 08/09 / 09/09 / 10/09 / 11/09 / 12/09 / 01/10 / 02/10 / 03/10 / 04/10 / 05/10 / 06/10 / 07/10 / 08/10 / 09/10 / 10/10 / 11/10 / 12/10 / 01/11 / 02/11 / 03/11 / 04/11 / 05/11 / 06/11 / 07/11 / 08/11 / 09/11 / 10/11 / 11/11 / 12/11 / 01/12 / 02/12 / 03/12 / 04/12 / 05/12 / 06/12 / 07/12 / 08/12 / 09/12 / 10/12 / 11/12 / 12/12 / 01/13 / 02/13 / 03/13 / 04/13 / 05/13 / 06/13 / 07/13 / 08/13 / 09/13 / 10/13 / 11/13 / 12/13 / 01/14 / 02/14 / 03/14 / 04/14 / 05/14 / 06/14 / 07/14 / 08/14 / 09/14 / 10/14 / 11/14 / 12/14 / 01/15 / 02/15 / 03/15 / 04/15 / 05/15 / 06/15 / 07/15 / 08/15 / 09/15 / 10/15 / 11/15 / 12/15 / 01/16 / 02/16 / 03/16 / 04/16 / 05/16 / 06/16 / 07/16 / 08/16 / 09/16 / 10/16 / 11/16 / 12/16 / 01/17 / 02/17 / 03/17 / 04/17 / 05/17 / 06/17 / 07/17 / 08/17 / 09/17 / 10/17 / 11/17 / 12/17 / 01/18 / 02/18 / 03/18 / 04/18 / 05/18 / 06/18 / 07/18 / 08/18 / 09/18 / 10/18 / 11/18 / 12/18 / 02/19 / 03/19 / 04/19 / 05/19 / 06/19 / 07/19 / 08/19 / 09/19 /


Powered by Blogger