The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times

13 Jan 2024
  Photo Parade 2023

A bit of fun at the beginning of the new year. I’m following several German travel blogs, and that way came across the annual Photo Parade (Fotoparade) on Michael’s blog Erkunde die Welt (Discover the World). He’s been doing it for several years now, and the replies of the contributors have offered a whole bunch of new blogs for me to browse. Since photos are omnilingual (and there’s DeepL and Google Translate as well), I thought it would be nice to participate.

Michael offers several key words every year, and you should try to find photos – taken in that year – that match the categories. I’m not traveling as much as the majority of the participants, but in 2023, I visited at least three towns (Bad Sooden-Allendorf, Einbeck and Kiel) plus the longer tour of Lithuania I had planned since 2020, so here’s my try:

Category: Landscape (Landschaft)
Curonian Spit

The Curonian Spit is one of my favourite landscapes in Lithuania, so it’s no wonder I took the chance for another visit of a different part of the spit; this time near Juodkrantė. It was a warm, sunny day with some wind going that created pretty waves on the Baltic Sea. I walked some distance along the shore and returned through the pine forest to the lagoon side of the spit, to catch the ferry back to Klaipeda.

Category: Yummy (Lecker)

I don’t take pictures of food, so that one was a bit difficult. I finally decided to present a photo of an 18th century kitchen in a farm house in the Open Air Museum Rumšiškes (near Kaunas).
Open Air Museum Rumšiškes, kitchen in a small farm

The museum, created despite Sovjet pushbacks in 1966, today encompasses almost 200 ha, with houses transfered from all regions of Lithuania, dating from the 18th to early 20th century. Some exhibits could only be added after Lithuania became an independent state, since many aspects of Lithuanian history were not officially popular during Sovjet times.
Rumšiškes, farmhouse with orchard and garden

Some of the houses, dating to a time when the majority of Lithuanians still lived in rural villages and farms, were rather simple structures with only the most necessary commodities. A fireplace and kitchen, however small, were part of those. There also are larger farms with several outbuildings, orchards, herb gardens and a bath house. They make for pretty photo motives.

Category: Water (Wasser)
Werra weir at Bad Sooden-Allendorf

Water is an easy category to match. I love being near water and I love photographing it. This one shows a weir on the river Werra in Bad Sooden-Allendorf, a small but pretty town known for its half-timbered houses, in northern Hessia.
Baltic Sea

Another photo from the Curionian Spit. I was standing in the surf, photographing the incoming waves. I was wearing my jeans rolled up to my knees, but got them a bit wet nevertheless *grin* ‒ those waves were tricky and looked more gentle than they turned out to be. But it was fun.

Category: Blue (Blau)
Firth of Kiel, sailing ships mooring in one of the marinas

A sunny September day in the Firth of Kiel (Kieler Förde), a 17 km long firth that opens into the bay of Kiel and the Baltic Sea. There is a passenger ferry going from Kiel to the town of Laboe at the end of the firth, criscrossing the waters to connect the various suburbs and villages on both shores. It is a nice tour that offers various views of marinas, dockyards, pretty landscapes and charming spa villages.
The Meridianas in Klaipeda

The Meridianas was built in Finnland in 1948 as training sailing ship. She was put out of use as sailing ship in 1968 and converted into a restaurant on the Danė river in Klaipeda. She began to show structural problems in the 1990ies and had to undergo repairs. Ownership changed a few times, but since 2012, the refurbished Meridianas is again serving as restaurant, located in a new berth on the river.

Category: Cold (Kalt)

Since the weather was always warm when I was traveling, I don’t have 'cold' photos with snow and ice in my 2023 files. But I did take one that covers the category in a different way: The memorial tablet of the Vilnius Ghetto.

I actually missed the tablet when I passed the first time, too intent of the motives that lay ahead. I noticed it the second evening and felt cold for a moment, despite the balmy air. The area is such a lovely place today that it came as a bit of a shock to learn of its gruesome and sad history.
Vilnius, memorial tablet of the ghetto

Vilnius had a Jewish population of about 55,000 (28%) prior to WW2, which earned it the moniker 'Jerusalem of the East'. When the German army occupied the town in August 1941, the killing of Jews began. A few weeks later, on September 6, the remaining Jews were forced to move into ghettos. The ghettos – a small one for what the Nazis called ‘unproductive individuals’, old and sick people not fit for labour – and a large ghetto were set up in an area of the town that had been predominantly inhabited by Jews.

The small ghetto only existed for a few weeks; it was closed already in October 1941; the majority of the 11.000 inhabitants were killed and the rest was moved into the large ghetto. The large ghetto, which housed about 29,000 people under extreme conditions (the site was overcrowded, people suffered from hunger, cold, illness ...) existed until 24th September 1943. The remaining Jews were either sent to concentration camps in German-occupied Poland and Estonia, or killed in a mass execution in the forest of Paneriai near Vilnius.
Vilnius, lane in the former ghetto

The Jewish community never recovered; there are about 5,000 Jews living in Vilnius today; a tenth of the pre-war population. The former Jewish quarter is now one of the prettiest places in Vilnius, narrow lanes and old houses, with little shops, cafés, restaurants, and lots of young people around – the winter semester had already started in Lithuania in September, and everyone was out during evenings that still held memories of summer.

Category: Black and White (Schwarz/Weiss)
A street with half-timbered houses in Einbeck

Einbeck is another of those German towns with many surviving half-timbered houses. I played around with the filters a bit and made the photo look like an old postcard – except for the too modern cars. I had been in Einbeck before, on the way to Salzderhelden, and took some random photos, but this time I went in search of the prettiest places and most interesting history.

The categories above are the main categories, but Michael presents some extra ones for those who want to play some more.

Category: Hot (Heiß)
Chimneys on the ferry from Klaipeda to Kiel

One way to get from Germany to Lithuania is the freight and passenger ferry that goes from Kiel to Klaipeda on a daily schedule. It takes a night (in a comfortable cabin, if you want) and a day on sea, but I prefer that way of traveling to flying. Also, I love the sea. The ferry also transports a whole lot of trucks and containers; you can see some on the photo (those white boxes between the chimneys).

Category: View (Ausblick)
View of Vilnius' old town

For this category, I picked two photos I took from the Gediminas' Tower, remains of an old castle in Vilinius that sits on top of a hill overlooking the town.
View of Vilnius' modern city

More photos of Vilnius are here. It’s one of those ‘Back with Booty’-posts that are a tradition on my blog for most of my travels, giving some first impressions, since it often takes time to write more detailed posts about the places I’ve visited. More photos about Lithuania can also be found here.

Category: Animal (Tierisch)
Ducks on Lake Galvė

I’m no animal photographer, but I take the occasional shot when I come across some beasties or birdies that don’t move too fast. So here’s a raft of ducks, probably hoping for some bread crumbs magically appearing from the direction of the shore.

Category: Colours (Bunt)
A boat on the shore of Lake Galvė

Lithuania has five National Parks. I’ve managed to visit two so far: Curonian Spit and Trakai Historical National Park, which centers around Lake Galvė. It is the largest lake in the park, with 21 islands – the famous Trakai Castle is located on one of them. It’s a 4 km walk from the train station to the castle, most of the way along the lake, offering lots of pretty views, especially on a sunny day.

Categoy: Heart (Herz)

Nothing heart-shaped, but again, a symbolic photo: A view of the hill forts of Kernavė and the Pajauta valley, the first capital and once the heart of Lithuania.
The hill forts of Kernavė, with the Pajauta valley in the background

Kernavė was the first capital of Lithuania until the settlement in the Pajauta valley was destroyed by the Teutonic Knights in 1390, whereafter the capital moved to Vilnius, though the hill forts were in use for longer. Its history goes back as far as the 9th millennia BC, as the finds in the alluvial soil of the valley show, therefore, Kernavė is known as 'Lithuanian Troy'. The five hills are still visible and make for quite impressive landmarks, though the castles on their summits have disappeared. The finds of the valley are displayed in a museum on the site, and a Mediaeval village has been reconstructed in the vicinity.

Category: Modern
Simonas Daukantas Bridge in Kaunas

The Simonas Daukantas Bridge crosses the Nemunas river that runs through Kaunas. It was built in 1988 by the architect Agimantas Sprindy and is named for Simonas Daukantas (1793-1864), a Lithuanian historian and writer who was one of the first ideologists of the national revival during a time when Lithuania belonged to the Russian Empire.

The bridge is a tension bridge held by cables. The supporting arch in the middle of the bridge is covered with granite plaster and black marble inlays, and counts as one of the landmarks of Kaunaus. On top of the somewhat abstract arch is a decoration known as 'Gediminas’ Pillars' that has been in use in Lithuanian heraldry since the 13th century.

Category of my own: Castles

Those who follow my blog regularly should have known, lol. I collect castles.
Trakai Island Castle, Lithuania

The castle was built by Duke Kęstutis in the 14th century and expanded by his son Vytautas after he had reconciled with his cousin in 1409 und became grand duke of Lithuania. The predominantly brick architecture was influenced by Vytautas’ visits to brick castles of the Teutonic Knights in Livonia (= Latvia and Estonia) and Poland, albeit the foundations and parts of the towers are constructed of stone. Vytautas also added the 35 metres high keep. The outer curtain walls were strengthened and three more towers added in mid-15th century. The style of the castle is predominantly Gothic, with some Romanesque elements; the brick parts have been restored in the 1960ies.
The Stork Tower (Storchenturm) in Einbeck, Germany

Not exactly a castle, but part of the remaining Mediaeval town fortifications of Einbeck. The Stork Tower is a half tower (Schalenturm in German), which means it is open to the town side, albeit protected by timber railings. There also were floors to partitonate the tower into storeys. Most of the Einbeck town fortifications were built in the 15th century and strengthened in later times. The Stork Tower still rises to its original height of 22 metres. It even survived the siege of the town by the imperial army of Octavio Piccolomini in 1641 (during the Thirty Years War). The name changed to Stork Tower after a pair of storks nested there for several years; before it was known as Crow Tower (Krähenturm).

Category: Favourites
The lighthouse 'Friedrichsort' (Kiel Firth) in the evening

I like the way the light plays here – the photo was taken from the ferry sailing into Kiel Harbour. There had been a signal fire on the little island in the narrowest past of the firth since 1815. In 1866, it was replaced by the first lighthouse which stood there for about a hundred years. A new lighthouse was built in 1971, because the old one was only 14,5 metres in high, and a larger one was needed; the present tower rises to 31,7 metres. Today, the lighthouse not only signals the smallest part of the firth and its shallows, but also the entrance to the Kiel Canal (Nord-Ostee-Kanal) at Kiel-Holtenau.
Afternoon sun on the Baltic Sea

And finally the afternoon sun reflecting on the Baltic Sea – photo taken during the ferry crossing from Klaipeda to Kiel.

22 Sept 2023
  Lithuanian Impressions 2 – Vilnius, with Trakai and Kernavė

The hightlight of the tour was Vilnius, of course. There will be more detailed posts (I got enough photos, lol), so here’s just a little teaser.
View over Vilnius’ old town from Gediminas’ Tower

Vilnius is a town of churches, Roman-Catholic, Orthodox, and a few Protestant ones. Most of them have been altered at a time when the Baroque flourished in Lithuania, but there are some Gothic ones as well, and others keep traces of older architecture.
Vilnius Cathedral

The Cathedral Basilica of St Stanislaus and St Ladislaus of Vilnius, as it is officially called, goes back to a church built by King Mindaugas in 1251. A few foundations of that one remain. Next was a Gothic church from 1429 – some pillars can still be seen – altered in the early 16th century after a fire. More fires in 1610 and 1654 led to the Baroque restorations that today dominate the church.
Vilnius, St.Nicholas Church

The first church named after St. Nicholas was commissioned by the Orthodox wife of Duke Algirdas in 1350. It was rebuilt in Baroque style in 1740 and later in neo-Byzantine style (1840). Since Vilnius was under Russian rule since the Nothern War (ended 1721) until WW1, the town has several Orthodox churches.
Church of St.Anne and Bernardine Church (in the background)

This one – the ensemble of the Churches of St.Anne and of St.Bernardine – is the most stunning example of Gothic brick architecture that remains mostly unaltered on the outside (the interior shows some Baroque elements). St.Anne dates to 1495 and is a fine example of the flamboyant Gothic style. The Church of St.Francis and St.Bernard shows the older Gothic brick architecture style. It was built by Bernadine monks as part of a monastery.
Church of St.Casimir

The Church of St.Casimir is the oldest original Baroque church in Vilnius, built in 1618. A cupola was added in the middle of the 18th century.

Those are just a few examples of the churches in Vilnius. I visited several more, though at some point I stopped hunting them down; there are too many; and most of them predominantly Baroque which gives the city a homogenous appearance, but it’s not my favourite style.
Gates of Dawn

The Gates of Dawn are the last remaining gate of the former town fortifications; the others were destroyed in the late 18th century. It was built around 1520 – you can still see its defensive purpose on the outside. On the inside, the most interesting feature is a chapel in the second floor, open to the outside and dedicated to an icon of the Blessed Virgin Mary. It is an important place for pilgrims even today.
Vilnius, Gediminas’ Tower

Gediminas‘ Tower is the most outstanding remains of the Upper Castle in Vilnius. The first castle was constructed in timber by Gediminas (1275-1341) and rebuilt in bricks and stone by Grand Duke Vytautas in 1410 (you may remember him from this post). Most of the castle is in ruins, but the tower was repaired in 1933; some more remains of the castle have been preserved as well.
Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania

The palace, located in the Lower Castle, was built in the 15th century and saw its peak as living quarters of several grand dukes of Lithuania and kings of Poland (both countries becoming a union at the time) in the 16th-17th centuries. The palace was demolished in 1801, but finally restored in the Renaissance style of its main period in 2018.
Vilnius, lane in the old town

There are some small lanes in the old town, somewhat outside the main tourist routes along the showy streets, with cafes, restaurants, small shops and such. Some of those were part of the Jewish quarter of Vilnius until the German occupation in summer 1941 when the quarter was turned into a ghetto and most Jews in Vilnius were killed.
Vilnius, houses at the Town Hall Square

We’ll leave Vilnius with a view of the Town Hall Square and move to the town of Trakai (an easy day trip from Vilnius). What attracted me – and lost of other tourists – well ....
Trakai Castle

A castle, of course. *grin* Trakai Island Castle is the best preserved castle in Lithuania, and an important site in its history during the Middle Ages.
Trakai, the keep and the great hall

The castle was built by Duke Kęstutis in the 14th century and expanded – esp. the inner ward with the 35 metres high keep and the great hall with its several storeys – by his son Vytautas after he had reconciled with his cousin (the castle had been besieged several times during their quarrels) in 1409. The outer curtain walls were strengthened and three major towers added in mid-15th century.
Galleries in the inner yard

Trakai suffered the fate of many castles in later times when it would no longer protect against modern weapons, and fell into decline. It was reconstructed in the years 1951-1961 (against Russian opposition, since the Sovyet government disliked the idea of rebuilding a national icon).
Trakai Castle, the main gate, seen from the outer ward

I took a guided boat tour on the lake to get some photos from different angles, and because it was a nice, sunny day and a boat tour just the right thing to do after a 4 kilometres walk to get there from the train station.
Wooden houses in Trakai

The town of Trakai inlcudes an ethnic minority of Crimean Karaites, a Jewish group that speaks a Turk language and was considered apostate by the Yiddish speaking diaspora. They settled there in 1398 after Vytautas defeated the Golden Horde, and were considered a semi-autonomous group during most of history since; even the Hitler government accorded them a non-Jewish status (though many were killed nevertheless). The pretty, colourfully painted wooden houses represent their style of building.
The hills of Kernavė with the river Neris in the background

Kernavė in the Pajauta Valley was the first known capital of Lithuania, mentioned in a chronicle from 1279. It was destroyed in the wars with the Teutonic Knights in 1390 and not rebuilt – at the time, Vilnius had already become another major town with a castle – though smaller settlements remained on the hill forts. But what must have been a devastating event for the grand dukes of Lithuania turned out a blessing for archaeologists. The remains of the city were covered by an alluvial layer of the river Neris and thus well preserved.
Between the Kernavė hills

Excavations began in the 1980ies, and in 2004, Kernavė was included into the UNESCO World Heritage list. Settlement on the site goes far beyond the time of Kernavė as Lithuanian capital; there are finds dating as far back as the 9th millennia BC. Many of the finds are shown in the local museum, though the most outstanding feature are the five hill forts which once protected the settlement.
Kernavė, partly reconstructed Mediaeval town

The area of almost 195 hectares includes the town and the impressive defensive line of five hill forts. But due to the many layers of civilization, settlements of different periods, burial sites, defense structures etc. that can be found in the soil at the river, Kernavė is considered the ‘Lithuanian Troy’.
Some of the houses

Some of the houses of the Mediaeval town have been reconstructed on a higher site, out of any floods of the river Neris. They follow finds of timber remains, post holes and other traces. As in Rumšiškes, the entire archaeological site was visited by but a few tourists, so I could take photos free of time travelers.
Kernavė; pretty bling in the museum

Those pieces of silver and gold alloy, some with glass beads and other additions, were part of headbands; they were sewn onto leather or cloth. The finds date to the 13th-14th century.

The next day was the beginning of the long journey back first to Klaipeda and then to Kiel by ferry. A slow way to travel, but more fun than flying.

17 Sept 2023
  Lithuanian Impressions 1 – Klaipeda, Kaunas, Rumšiškes

It’s quite some time we last had a real Back with Booty post due to that Evil C and some private reasons. But this year I did a longer tour outside Germany and spent two weeks in Lithuania.
Klaipeda, Theatre Square

One way to get to Lithuania is to take the ferry from Kiel to Klaipeda, so Klaipeda (formerly the German Memel) was my first stop on the way.
Pretty lane in Klaipeda

Klaipeda is predominantly a rather large harbour city, but it has an old town with some charming cobblestone lanes and older houses. Usually a quiet place, it sometimes gets swarmed by cruise tourists for a few hours.
At the river Danė

The river Danė runs through the town, offering some nice photo motives, especially when the sun came out the second day and would never leave during the rest of my tour (except at night, of course).
Remains of Klaipeda Castle (Memelburg)

Klaipeda had a castle dating to the 13th century, founded by the Teutonic Knights, but today only some ruins remain, and an earthen wall that had been re-fortified in the 18th century. The keep of the castle is presently being recontructed.
Beach on the Curonian Spit

It is only a short crossing from Klaipeda to the Curonian Spit with its dunes, pine forests and lovely beaches with fine sand – and not so many visitors in September. A nice place to walk around.
Kaunas, Laisvės alėja (Liberty Avenue)

Next stop on the tour was the city of Kaunas; the second largest city in Lithuania after Vilnius, at the confluence of the Neris and the Nemunas rivers.

Of course, I’ll post more about all the places I’ve visited; this is only a short teaser post that won’t cover all the interesting buildings.
Kaunas, the town hall

The town hall of Kaunas is a mix of Gothic and Renaissance elements. Its outstanding feature is a 53 metres high tower which gave the building the nickname ‘White Swan’. Unfortunately, most of it was scaffolded in.
Kaunas, St. Michael’s Church

Another pretty white building. This church was built in early 19th century in the neo-Byzantine style as orthodox church for the Russian garrison. Today it is a Catholic church.
Lane in the Old Town of Kaunas

The settlement at the river confluence dates back to the 11th century and received town rights in 1408. The area was contested between the Lithuanian grand dukes and the Teutonic Knights, so it comes as no surprise that there is a castle.
Kaunas, remains of the castle

The history of the castle is complicated; it was built by the grand dukes, taken by the Teutonic Knights, destroyed, reconquered and rebuilt .... The present remains represent mostly the castle from the late 14th century with some older foundations.
Kaunas Castle

The castle was considerably larger than the – partly reconstructed – remains, but the earthen and stone walls and the keep give an impression what it must have looked like in the later Middle Ages.
Rumšiškes Open Air Museum; market square in the 19th century town

An interesting and very photographable (is that a word, lol?) place is the Open Air Museum of Lithuania in Rumšiškes, not far from Kaunas. A pleasant way to spend a sunny, warm afternoon by walking around (the complete way is almost 8 km) and look at old houses.
A house in the Rumšiškes museum

The museum was opened in 1966 and has been expanded over time. It represents town houses, farmsteads and other buildings from the 18th to early 20th century – all of them have been transplanted from their original sites.
A farmstead

The museum encompasses 195 ha, with houses from all regions of Lithuania, including the matching interior furnishing. Most of the houses are still open – in summer, people in period dress would show historcial crafts and ways of working a farm, smithy etc. – but in September, there was not much activity.
Village lane

On the positive side, I met barely a dozen other visitors during my visit of several hours, which made for an almost private hike through forests and fields with extra motives.
Rumšiškes, view out of a farmhouse

The second part of my Lithuanian Impressions about my visit to Vilnius and some other places will follow in the next days.

The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, the Baltic Countries, and central Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.

This blog is non-commercial.

All texts and photos (if no other copyright is noted) are copyright of Gabriele Campbell.

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Location: Goettingen, Germany

I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History, interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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Historical Places

- Towns
- Castles
- Abbeys and Churches
- Roman Remains
- Neolithicum and Bronze Age
- Museums
City Trips

Hiking Tours and Cruises

United Kingdom
Baltic Sea

Historical Places



Bad Sooden-Allendorf
Historical Town and Graduation Tower
Bruchteiche Reservoir

A Seaside Resort

Lion Benches in the Castle Square
The Quadriga

Mediaeval Erfurt

Mediaeval Goslar
Chapel in the Klus Rock

Churches St.Martin and St.Mary

St. Mary's Church

Church of Our Lady: History

The Temple of Isis and Mater Magna

Mediaeval Paderborn

Mediaeval Quedlinburg
The Chapter Church

The Cathedral: Architecture
Jewish Ritual Bath

The Harbour
The Old Town

Mediaeval Lanes and Old Houses

The Roman Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths
The Porta Nigra

Sites of the Weimar Classicism
The Park at the Ilm

The Old Harbour

Roman and Mediaeval Xanten
The Gothic House


The Keep

Altenstein (Werra)
A Border Castle

Weser River Reivers

Brandenburg (Thuringia)
The Beginnings
Albrecht II of Thuringia

Coburg Fortress

The Marshals of Ebersburg


History of the Keep


Hardeg Castle
The Great Hall


Heldenburg (Salzderhelden)
A Welfen Seat

Hohnstein (Harz)
The Counts of Hohnstein
Between Welfen and Staufen
14th-15th Century

Built to Protect a Chapel

The Counts of Everstein
Later Times

The Counts of Winzenburg
The Lords of Plesse

Polle Castle
An Everstein Stronghold


Reichenbach (Hessia)

Photo Impressions

From Castle to Convention Centre



Stauffenburg (Harz)
A Secret Mistress

A Little Known Ruin in the Harz

Photo Impressions

A Virtual Tour

Revisiting the Weidelsburg

Abbeys and Churches

Early History of the Abbey

A Romanesque Basilica

A Romanesque Church

The Byzantine Crypt

The Stave Church

Remains of the Monastery

Early History of the Abbey
Interior of the Church

The Carolingian Gate Hall

Remains of the Monastery

Scharzfeld (Harz)
The Cave Church

Mediaeval Murals

The Monastery - Introduction

Romanesque Church and a Ducal Burial

Wilhelmshausen (Kassel)
The Romanesque Church

Roman Remains

Augusta Treverorum / Trier
The Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths
The Porta Nigra
The Roman Bridge

Colonia Ulpia Traiana / Xanten
Roman Xanten
The Amphitheatre in Birten

Limes Fort Aalen
The Barracks

Limes Fort Osterburken
The Discovery
The Cohort castellum
The Annex Fort
The Garrisons

Limes Fort Saalburg
A Reconstructed Limes Fort
Shrine of the Standards

Romans in North Rhine-Westphalia
Playmobil Romans, LWL Museum Haltern
Varus Statue, Haltern am See

Romans at the Moselle
The Villa Urbana in Longuich

Romans at the Rhine
Boppard - The Roman Baudobriga
The Villa at Wachenheim

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Neolithic Burials
Neolithic Burials in the Everstorf Forest and Rugia
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age
Bronze and Iron Age Remains at the Werra

Museums / Reconstructed Sites

Palatine Seat Tilleda
The Defenses

Viking Settlement Haithabu
The Nydam Ship

Open Air Museums
European Bread Museum Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Post-Mediaeval Exhibits
Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg



Roman and Medieaval Chester

The Abbey - Introduction
The Old Gaol

Clifford Tower
The Guild Hall
Monk Bar Gate with Richard III Museum
Museum Gardens
Houses in the Old Town
York Minster: Architecture



Conquest to King John
Henry III to the Tudors

Romans to the Tudors
Civil War to the Present

Roman Remains

Eboracum / York
Roman Bath in the Fortress

Wall Fort Birdoswald
The Dark Age Timber Halls

Wall Fort Segedunum
Museum and Viewing Tower
The Baths

Other Roman Sites
The Mithraeum at Brocolita
The Signal Station at Scarborough



Views from the Castle

The Wallace Monument


A Virtual Tour
History: The Early Stewart Kings
History: Royal Dower House

Duart Castle
Guarding the Sound of Mull

An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
The Wars of Independence
The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

Robert the Bruce

Abbeys and Churches

Arriving at Inchcolm Abbey

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Neolithic Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae

Brochs and Cairns
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Introduction

Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort



Castle and Coast

The Ffwrwm
The Roman Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort

The Smallest House in Great Britain



Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

From Romans to Victorians

Beginnings unto Bigod
Edward II to the Tudors
Civil War


Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings

The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

Photo Impressions
The Caves Under the Castle

Roman Remains

Isca Silurum / Caerleon
The Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort



Viking Museum Roskilde
To come


Castles and Fortresses

Akershus Fortress in Oslo
Kings and Pirates
The Time of King Håkon V

Vardøhus Fortress


The Fram Museum in Oslo


Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Gnisvärd Ship Setting


The Vasa Museum in Stockholm



Mediaeval Porvoo



The History of Mediaeval Tallinn



The History of Mediaeval Riga



To come



Gdańsk / Danzig
History of Mediaeval Gdańsk
Mediaeval and Renaissance Gdańsk

The Old Town
Jewish Kraków - Kazimierz and the Ghetto

Wrocław / Breslau
The Botanical Garden
The Wrocław Dwarfs


Ogrodzieniec Castle
A Virtual Tour
First Castle to the Boner Family



Cheb / Eger
The Old Town

Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
Brief History of the Town

Kutná Hora
The Sedlec Ossuary
The Medieaval Town and St.Barbara's Church



The Old Town

Mediaeval Bruges

Mediaeval Ghent

Mediaeval Buildings

Roman Remains

Atuatuca Tungrorum / Tongeren
Roman Remains in the Town



Luxembourg City
A Tour of the Town

City Trips

St.Petersburg (Russia)
Impressions from the Neva River

Strasbourg (France)
A Tour of the Town

Hiking Tours and Cruises


Baltic Sea Coast
Flensburg Firth
Rugia: Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
Rugia: Photo Impressions
Rugia: The Pier of Sellin
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

Lüneburg Heath
Hiking Tours in the Lüneburg Heath

Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Devil's Wall
Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
Oderteich Reservoir
Rappbode Reservoir
Views from Harz mountains

Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Bruchteiche / Bad Sooden Allendorf
Hessian Switzerland

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
The Forest Pasture Project
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Nature Park Reinhardswald
Old Forest at the Sababurg

Thuringian Forests
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

Rivers and Lakes
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut
Weser River Ferry
Weser Skywalk

Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life
Red squirrels

Spring Impressions from Göttingen
Spring in the Hardenberg Castle Gardens
Spring in the Meissner
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake

United Kingdom

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains: Inverness to John o'Groats
Some Photos from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull: Craignure to Fionnphort
Dunollie and Kilchurn: Photo Impressions
Pentland Firth
Summer in Oban

Scotland by Train
West Highland Railway

Views of Snowdownia

Sea Gulls


Coast of Norway: Hurtigruten-Tour
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord

The Baltic Sea

A Baltic Sea Cruise

The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
Beaches at the Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit

Mediaeval History

General Essays

by Country
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Livonia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Bohemia
- Luxembourg
- Flanders

Roman History

The Romans at War
Famous Romans
Roman Life and Religion

Other Times

Neolithicum to Iron Age
Post-Mediaeval History
History and Literature

Mediaeval History

General Essays

Mediaeval Warfare


Late Mediaeval Swords

Mediaeval Art and Craft

Mediaeval Art
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
The Hunting Frieze in Königslutter Cathedral
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Medical Instruments


The History of Feudalism
The Beginnings
Feudalism in the 10th Century

Special Cases
The privilege of the deditio

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings

Hanseatic Architecture
Examples of Brick Architecture
Hall Houses (Dielenhäuser)

Goods and Trade
Stockfish Trade

Towns of the Hanseatic League
Tallinn / Reval

The Order of the Teutonic Knights

Wars and Battles
The Conquest of Danzig
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

The Vikings

Viking Material Culture
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Viking Ships
The Nydam Ship

Essays by Country



List of Mediaeval German Emperors
Anglo-German Marriage Connections

Kings and Emperors

The Salian Dynasty
King Heinrich IV

Staufen against Welfen
Emperor Otto IV

Princes and Lords

House Welfen
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen

The Landgraves of Thuringia
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

Dukes and Princes of other Families
Duke Otto of Northeim
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Feuds and Rebellions

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War
The Star Wars


Kings of England

House Plantagenet
Richard Lionheart in Speyer
King Henry IV's Lithuanian Crusade

Normans, Britons, Angevins

Great Noble Houses
The Dukes of Brittany
The Earls of Richmond

Contested Borders

King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War, Part 1
King David and the Civil War, Part 2

Houses Bruce and Stewart
The Early Stewart Kings

Local Troubles

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding

Scotland and England

The Wars of Independence
Alexander of Argyll
The Fight for Stirling Castle


Welsh Princes

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

Wales and England

A History of Rebellion
Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Kings of Denmark

House of Knýtlinga
Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

The Duchy of Estonia
Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


Kings of Norway

Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

Feuds and Rebellions

Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Troubles and Alliances

Scandinavian Unity
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

(Latvia and Estonia)

Contested Territories

Livonian Towns
The History of Mediaeval Riga
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Lithuanian Princes

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas

The Northern Crusades

The Wars in Lithuania
The Siege of Vilnius 1390


Royal Dynasties

The Jagiełłonian Kings
Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union

The Northern Crusades

The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
The Conquest of Danzig


Royal Dynasties

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
King Sigismund and the Hussite Wars


House Luxembourg
King Sigismund


More to come

Roman History

The Romans at War

Forts and Fortifications

The German Limes
The Cavalry Fort Aalen
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg

The Hadrian's Wall
The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend

Border Life
Exercise Halls
Mile Castles and Watch Towers
Soldiers' Living Quarters
Cavalry Barracks

Campaigns and Battles

The Romans in Germania

The Pre-Varus Invasion in Germania
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn

The Batavian Rebellion
A Short Introduction

Roman Militaria

Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles

Famous Romans

The Late Empire

The Legend of Alaric's Burial

Roman Life and Religion

Religion and Public Life

Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms
Isis Worship
Memorial Stones
The Mithras Cult

Public Life
Roman Transport: Barges
Roman Transport: Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Roman Public Baths

Domestic Life

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots

Other Times

Neolithicum to Iron Age


Development of Civilisation
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
The Hutewald Project in the Solling
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Neolithic Remains
Stone Burials of the Funnelbeaker Culture
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age / Iron Age
The Nydam Ship


Neolithic Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Bronze Age / Iron Age
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Their Function in Iron Age Society


Bronze / Iron Age
The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd / Gotland

Post-Mediaeval History

Explorers and Discoveries

Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

History and Literature


The Weimar Classicism


Geological Landscapes: Germany

Baltic Sea Coast
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

Harz Mountains
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs
Sandstone Formations: Daneil's Cave
Sandstone Formations: Devil's Wall
Sandstone Formations: The Klus Rock

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations
Salt Springs at the Werra

Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

Geological Landscapes: Great Britain

The Shores of Scotland

Geological Landscapes: Baltic Sea

Geology of the Curonian Spit

Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

Fossilized Ammonites
The Loket Meteorite (Czechia)

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