The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times


26 Oct 2020
  Stapelburg Castle – A Little Known Ruin in the Harz

I came across that one a few years ago during one of the Harz tours I did with my father. The ruins of the Stapelburg – only the ringwall, bits of the curtain wall and part of the palas, the great hall, remain – are situated on a hill between Bad Harzburg and Ilsenburg on the northern foothills of the Harz. The land there is already rather flat, so the 60 metres hight hill stands out and offers a good view to Wernigerode and Halberstadt, and even the Brocken mountain on clear days.
Stapelburg - remains of the palas building

A good place for a castle. Yet it was not easy to find much information about the Stapelburg; I could not even figure out if the preserved remains date to the first period (13th - 14th century) or the second phase of its use in the 16th century (which is more likely). The well house and a cellar have been recently restored.
Palace with well house

Its early history is not known – like the early history of many castles that are first mentioned in chartes in the 12th or 13th century but must have existed before. The Stapelburg may well be one of the foundations of the Salian emperors and dating to the 11th century. It could have been part of the chain of castles Heinrich IV erected in the Harz and enfeoffed to nobles like the Wernigerode family who originated in Swabia and moved north with Heinrich IV.
Remains of the curtain wall with foundations of other buildings

The name Adalbert of Wernigerode is indeed connected with the castle. The problem is that a whole bunch of counts of Wernigerode were named Adalbert between 1121 and 1319, so it is difficult to establish a timeline. The first traceable mention of the castle beyond local tales is a charte from 1306 (at that time the count of Wernigerode was indeed another Adalbert), in which it is called a 'fortified castle' (vestes slot).
Palace wall seen from the outside

The name 'Stapel' means 'border' but also 'pillar of jurisdiction' (Gerichtssäule), a border marking that included a toll station. The castle may have proteced one of those erected to control travelers and merchants entering the lands of the counts of Wernigerode. The castle may have been named after such a place.
View through the palas gate to yard

The first castle had an unusual design. Judging by archaeological traces it was a rotund construction, not the usual square or rectangular pattern. An influence from the crusades is possible; there are some castles in Germany following an octogonal or round design, like the chapel in the Krukenburg. The double ringwall with its dykes and earthern walls is still well visible in the landscape.
Remains of the ringwall moat

Some counts of Wernigerode seemed to have been of a belligerent disposition and got into feuds with the counts of Regenstein (another old post in need of a rewrite *sigh*) and of Hohnstein, and thus incurred the wrath of the bishop of Magdeburg and the dukes of Braunschweig. Count Conrad of Wernigerode was captured during a skirmish, and his brother Dietrich had to acknowledge the bishop of Magdeburg as feudal overlord (1381) and agree to a Landfrieden - peace of the land (1384).
The palace in Wernigerode, seat of the Counts of Wernigerode

But Dietrich of Wernigerode attacked the castle of Regenstein again two years later and thus broke his oath. What happened then is not entirely clear: Some sources say he accepted a call to a thing process near the Stapelburg where Count Boso of Regenstein, the bishop of Magedburg and some other nobles condemned him to death an executed him on the spot. That would be somewhat unusual for the late 14th century. Another version has it that Dietrich of Wernigerode was waylaid near the Stapelburg and assassinated by men of the counts of Regenstein and Hohnstein. I think this the more likely variant. His brother Heinrich later donated an altar in memory of Dietrich of Wernigerode.
Stapelburg, palace walls from the outside

The counts of Wernigerode got into financial troubles and had to pawn out the Stapelburg several times. In 1394, they sold the castle to the Chapter of Halberstadt. The Wernigerode family died out in the male line but due to an inheritance treaty, they were succeeded by the related Stolberg family and became known as counts of Stolberg-Wernigerode. Count Botho of Stolberg received the Stapelburg as pawn from the Chapter of Halberstadt in 1432.
The cathedral in Halberstadt, seat of the Chapter of Halberstadt which held the Stapelburg several times during its history

But the Chapter of Halberstadt redeemed the pawn which shifted possession a few times in the years to come. None of the owners cared to repair the castle. Finally, it came back to the Stolberg family in 1509 – it was again in the hands of the Chapter of Halberstadt which was under the administration of archbishop of Magdeburg at the time – who pledged themselves to repair the castle. But Botho of Stolberg and his father did not have the means to achieve the necessary repairs and modernisations.
Stapelburg, the well

In 1559, the pawn was forfeit and returned the archbishop of Magdeburg who installed Heinrich von Bila, of an old noble family with possessions in Thuringia and Saxony, and member of the Imperial Chamber Court (Reichskammergericht). The counts of Stolberg refused his installment, but hat to give in after a big quarrel.
View to the village Stapelburg

Heinrich von Bila gave the castle a House Makeover, built a new palace and housing for a garrison of 14 soldiers and a captain with their families, and repaired the curtain walls. He also founded the village at the foot of the hills, first called Bilashausen but today known as Stapelburg.
Closeup of the palace wall

Heinrich von Bila's son either had no interest in the castle, or his father had spent too much in the house makeover, so he sold the castle to Statius of Münchhausen in 1596. Münchhausen was a nobleman turned mercantilist and industrialist who collected castles, invested in iron mining and smelting, and built palaces in the style of the so-called Weser-Renaissance. In the end, he ruined himself by speculation and had to sell the Stapelburg to the Chapter of Halberstadt in 1625 (yes, Halberstadt again; I don't make that up).
View through the gate out of the castle

The Chapter gave the castle to one of its members, Eberhard von Münchhause, of a different branch of the family. He lived in the castle during the Thirty Years War – that is, when it was not occupied by either Wallenstein's army (which plundered the village) or the Swedes. After the war, he sold the rundown place to a family von Stedern, obviously with agreement of the Chapter of Halberstadt. The family lived in the castle for a few decennies; their members were buried in the church of the village.
Curtain wall with view to the Harz mountains

In 1722, King Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia annuled the feudal position of the Chapter of Halberstadt. The counts of Stolberg used the chance to get the Stapelburg back, more for its symbolical value, I suppose. A few lawyers got rich, the castle declined further, but in the end, it came into the hands of the counts of Stolberg in 1727, as part of the county of Stolberg-Wernigerode.
Closeup of the palace windows

The castle was no longer habitable and was used as quarry by the villagers. What the counts got were some picturesque ruins. Well, they had better palaces in Stolberg and Wernigerode. Today, only an outer wall on the southern side which must have been part of the fomer palas or great hall, and a few minor bits of the curtain walls remain, as well as distinct traces of the double moat in the landscape.
Way through the double moats

The Stapelburg was close to the border and part of the restricted zone during the time of the GDR and thus forbidden to visit. Of course, the castle declined further during that time. After the reunion, the ruins were repaired to prevent further decline, a well house and a cellar were reconstructed. There is a regular Mediaeval festival in the summer to garner some interest in the ruins.
The palas with the stage in the foreground

There is a society who cares for the ruins, the Interessengemeinschaft Burgberg e.V. (which has a website with some historical information; another source can be found here).
 


18 Oct 2020
  Impressions from Rugia – The Pier of Sellin

Just some pretty photos today. One of the iconic motives on Rugia – besides the Königsstuhl and Kap Arkona – is the Pier of Sellin.
The pier of Sellin

I went there on a late afternoon and thus got some nice photos with a play of light and shadow. It was October, and the sun was pretty low already; a lovely end to a nice day out (once the morning rains had been blown away).
Closeup of the buildings on the pier

When bathing vacations at the sea became popular, a pier was built in Sellin in 1906. It was 508 metres long and included a restaurant. The original plans were for a bridge of 60 metres length, but it was deemed insufficient considering the increasing number of visitors.
View from the pier to the town

The pier was exposed to the forces of nature, though. It was damaged by pack ice in 1918 and again in 1924. In between, a fire broke out at the bridge head. Therefore a new pier was built in 1925; it included a platform and a concert hall.
View to the outer part of the pier

The winter of 1941/42 was the coldest in Europe in the 20th century; the Baltic Sea completely frozen. Again, the bridge was almost destroyed by ice (nor was it the only one along the coast to suffer that fate), only the house at the bridge head survived. But those were not the times to bother about repairing a collapsed pier.
On the pier

The bridge house was a popular dance hall from the 1950ies to the 1970ies, but repairs were neglected (that was the GDR, after all), so the house and the remains of the pier had to be demolished in 1978. Sellin was without its landmark.
View to the hills at Sellin

It would take until the German Reunification for the pier to be rebuilt – the president Richard von Weizsäcker took an interest in the endeavour. The new bridge would follow a modernised version of the one from 1905; though it is 'only' 394 metres long today (compared to its original 508 metres); still the longest pier on the Rugia island. The official opening of the pier and the restaurant took place in April 1998.
View to the sea

A diving gondola has been installed at the outer end of the pier. It goes down 4 metres into the sea and offers a view of the submarine life.
Another view to the pier of Sellin

The pretty white-coloured buildings on the bridge – the Imperial Pavilion (Kaiserpavillon) and the Palm Tree Garden – are a landmark of Sellin and Rugia today. They look really pretty in the evening sun.
 


27 Sept 2020
  Revisiting the Harz – A Little Autumn Tour

I had planned a spring journey to Lithuania and Latvia that fell victim to Corona, though I hope I can do it some other time. But with traveling within Germany being rather safe now, I decided to sneak in a little autumn tour and went to one of my favourite destinations for a few days – visiting Goslar and Quedlingburg in the Harz, including some hiking. I've visited both towns before, but during day trips that didn't leave me as much time – this time I got a lot of photos, so I'll be able to write virtual town tours that got some real illustrations. For now, let's have a brief look in the style of my Travel Booty posts.
Goslar, seen from the Rammelsberg mountain

The Harz mountain range is rich in silver and ore and thus has been cultivated since the Bronze Age. Mining became important in the Middle Ages, settlements developed in the valleys, cattle was sent grazing on the slopes and trees were used – and later replanted – for building, mining and firewood. The Harz today is a cultural landscape, but with parts that remain but little altered, or are allowed to reset to their natural state; those now encompass the Harz National Park.
Goslar, the palatine castle

Let's start with a well known building that more or less represents Goslar: The iconic palatine castle is a 19th century reconstruction based on the remains of the 11th century building, one of the main seats of the Salian emperors. They traveled around in their realm, but the main feasts like Easter, Christmas and such were usually celebrated in prominent palatine castles. The buildings had undergone various uses after the palace was no longer needed as royal seat after 1252, and was somewhat worse for the wear.
Goslar, the market square

That photo of the market square was taken out of the window of my hotel room. In some places in the Harz, local slate shingles are not only used for roofing, but to protect the walls against the harsh climate as well.

The burghers of Goslar benefitted from the rich silver mines in the Rammelsberg mountain, and the town thrived, as the fine houses in the square demonstrate. It became a free Imperial city in 1290 and later joined the Hanseatic League. Goslar lost its independence only in the 16th century.
Goslar, old houses at the Abzucht brook

Goslar declined in the 18th century, several fires destroyed parts the town. But enough of the Mediaeval and Early Modern buildings remained, and the increasing interest of the Hohenzollern emperors in old architecture led to a restoration boom in the mid- to late 19th century. Today, the old town and palatine castle hold UNESCO World Heritage status.
Goslar, more pretty half timbered houses

The Rammelsberg has not only offered an important silver mine for centuries (mining has been discontinued only in 1988 because it became unprofitable), but also some nice hiking trails that offer views towards Goslar in the parts were the forest opens up to hillside grazings.
The Maltermeister Tower

The Maltermeister Tower on the Rammelsberg was built some time before 1548 to protect the mines. It was also used as belfry for a bell to warn the miners and the town of approaching danger and to signal the begin of a shift. It was the quarter of the Maltermeister, the administrator of the wood used for the mines; that wood was measured in bushels, German Malter.
The Herzberg Pond

On my way back, I passed the Herzberg Pond, a lovely spot of sparkling water among verdant hills. The pond is not natural, but considerably old; it was created as part of the Upper Harz Water Regale (Oberharzer Wasserregal) in 1561 by an earth and grass dam. It has been used as woodland swimming pool since 1926, after the mining technology no longer needed the water wheels. Pity I didn't bring s swimsuit; the water looked really cool and inviting.
Hiking trail on the Rammelsberg

The Upper Harz Water Regale is a system of resevoirs, dams and ditches that dates back to the Middle Ages. Water was needed to drive the water wheels in the mines which pumped up the groundwater in the deeper mines – fighting water with water. The Harz water regale is one of the largest mining water systems in the world. It is a cultural monument since 1978. Today, the ponds and reservoirs are used for reecreational purposes.
Quedlinburg, view to the chapter church and the palace

Another view from my hotel room, this time in Quedlinburg. The scaffolding on the cathedral has wandered a bit – last time I was there it covered the towers – but it is still the same one; repairs will continue until 2025 or so, I was told. Well, two visits still provided me with some photos of the parts not scaffolded in and closed to the public.
Quedlinburg, view from the palace garden to the old town

Quedlinburg, another town listed as UNESCO World Heritage, is first mentioned in a charte by Heinrich I (the Fowler) dating from 922, as location of one of the many palatine castles spread across Germany during the Middle Ages and often used during the Easter celebrations. Heinrich I and several of his successors were entombed in Quedlinburg.
Quedlinburg, old houses with the chapter church and palace in the background

Heinrich's widow Queen Mathilde obtained a grant from her son, Otto I, to establish a canoness chapter which she led for 30 years. In 994, Otto III granted the chapter the right of market, mint and tolls and thus laid the foundation for the development of the town. The town experienced an economical rise in the following centuries and gained more independence from the abbess of the chapter, the nominal lady of the town. In 1426, Quedlinburg joined the Hanseatic League.
Quedlinburg, the town hall

During that time, the burghers began to build those beautiful half timbered houses some of which have survived and been restored. The representative town hall was built in 1310; in 1616 a Renaissance portal was added, and there are later changes from the 19th century that affect mostly the interior.
Quedlinburg, Finkenherd Square

Luckily, the value of the historical substance of Quedlinburg's old town was reocgnised during GDR time (too often, old houses were dismantled and replaced with modern buildings instead) and specialists from Poland were called in to restore the half-timbered buildings. Quedlinburg became an East German show piece for state visitors.
St.Wiperti, the crypt

St.Wiperti is a fine example of the Romanesque style. Heinrich I had the church erected on the foundations of an even older one. The exact relationship between the chapter church on the castle hill and St.Wiperti are still discussed; obviously the Ottonian and Salian emperors used both during their sojourns in Quedlinburg. But while the chapter church was occupied by ladies, St.Wiperti was a Premonsterian monastery for a time, and might also have been used by the royal clerical staff.
Hiking trail in the Bode Valley

Since the Bode Valley is not far from Quedlinburg, I took the chance to have another hike in one of my favourite landscapes. I've bloogged about the valley here. This time I went further up the slope and walked to the Bodekessel, a little waterfall that washed out a cave in the cliffs (though the view down is so overgrown with shrubs that I could not catch a decent photo). The way consists of stones and small boulders, which makes hiking along that path 'interesting'.
The Bodekessel

I had some time left upon return to Thale, so I decided to take the cabin lift to the Witches' Dance Floor, one of the many cliff tops surrounding the valley. Well, I'm not good with heights to begin with and didn't count on the wind that made the tiny cabin sway like a drunken sailor, but I survived. Better than a broomstick, anyway. The way down was less stressful and I could enjoy the view of the valley beneath a bit more.
View from the Witches' Dance Floor

The Hexentanzplatz is a granite plateau overlooking the Bode Valley and several other cliffs. The site has been a popular tourist spot since the late 19th century (with a theatre, a zoo, an overpriced restaurant etc.), though it had been in use before, for example as a pagan cult site prior to the Christianisation of the Saxon tribes. At at this time of the year and with the Chinese tourist groups missing, it wasn't so crowded. The view was definitely worth the visit (and ride in the cabin lift).
The Bode river

Argh, Blogger has totally changed its backend layout, supposedly 'improving' it, but it's a mess more difficult to use than before, including the way the HTML code from my files transfers to the site. Had to adjust several bits of code to this post. Why can't those programmers leave working stuff alone.
 


6 Sept 2020
  Death by Porridge – The Daneil Cave in the Harz: Legends and Geology

There are several large and a number of smaller caves in the Harz mountain range, from the dripstone caves in the karst area to those in the Buntsandstein layer in the northern Harz. One of the latter became famous for serving as abode to a gang of robbers in the late 16th century. The so-called Daneil's Cave lies in the Huy, a forested ridge between Quedlinburg and Halberstadt (today Saxony-Anhalt). And of course, legends developed around a historical kernel. The cave may have been a hermit's cell in the Middle Ages, and later it was used by brigands – legendary and real.

View to the Daneil's Cave

There once lived an evil brigand chief in a cave in the Huy. His men would put up wires with little bells across the paths that announced the arrival of an unfortunate merchant, journeyman or farmer, and sometimes a maid on her way to the market in Halberstadt. The robbers would then attack the unsuspecting victims, kill them and bury their bodies in the forest, and make away with their gold and goods back to the cave. The had put their horses's shoes on backside forward and thus deceived their pursuers.

View out of the cave

One day a lovely maid names Susanne walked along the fateful path to the town to pay her father's tithes to the bishop in Halberstadt. The robbers caught her for the coin she carried, but when Daneil beheld her beauty, he forbade them to kill the girl and instead forced her to be his wife and swear a holy oath never to betray their secret cave.

So Susanne lived with Daneil and his men, cooked, washed and cleaned for them. She bore Daneil several children, but never saw them again; the cruel man did not want a baby's crying to betray their hideout. After a long while, Daneil allowed Susanne to go for walks in the forest around the cave, and it was then that she saw the wires and bells and witnessed the brigands killing a merchant, and she knew at what price the gold and gems were bought.

Beech forest surrounding the cave

Scared, Susanne ran through the forest all the way to Halberstadt, but she had sworn an holy oath and dared not confess to people what had happened to her. Instead, she sank on her knees in front of the stone statue of Roland, protector of justice, and told him everything. But a member of the town council stood near a window in the hall and heard tale. He called for a priest who absolved Susanne of her oath, so she could freely speak of her ordeals and the brigands' lair.

The Roland Statue at the Town Hall in Halberstadt
Erected in 1433, the statue symbolizes the rights of market, coin and toll which the town held since the 10th century, and free trade (Halberstadt became member of the Hanseatic League in 1367).


The next day, a detachment of soldiers was sent to the cave, but Daneil, alerted by Susanne's absence, had sealed the cave so well that the soldiers could not fight a way in. Then they called all the burghers of Halberstadt and the inhabitants of the surrounding villages to bring flour and heat large cauldrons of water.

The was a small hole in the roof of the cave, and people began to pour porridge into the opening. After a while the laughter of the bandits changed to cries of pain, and then everything fell silent. When the cave was opened, they found Daneil and his men suffocated by porridge.

Daneil's Cave

The existence of Daneil is a legend and his end, while spectacular, not realistic, but the cave did serve as hideout for bandits at times.

One notorious fellow who spent some time in the cave was a man nicknamed Thousand Devil of Halberstadt (Tausendteufel von Halberstadt). He was finally captured in 1600 and brought before the bishop of Halberstadt and Duke Heinrich Julius of Braunschweig-Lüneburg. His real name was Simon Bingelhelm, and he and his men were responsible for a fair number of thefts from churches in Halberstadt, Quedlinburg and other towns, the arson of Drübeck Abbey, numerous murders and some rapes. Their activities stretched as far as Aschersleben and Salzwedel.

Passages in the cave

Simon was put to the torture and finally confessed to 71 crimes, some of which took place near the cave in the Huy. Most of them were actual crimes, but some ludicrous stories about stealing Christian children he then sold to a Jew (and killed in case the Jew wasn't interested) likely have been told under torture; they confirm the prejudices that Jews used Christian infants for nefarious purposes rather than presenting facts. There may be a tie-in with Susanne's disappearing or dead babies from the legend.

Simon was dragged to the court square by hooks and executed by quartering on June 2, 1600.

Entrance to the cave with hewn stones to the left

The cave has been washed out of a rock face of the Buntsandstein (another word English has pilfered from German; for geological details see below) during the Neogene or the Ice Ages. It consists of three connected chambers which have their own openings respective entrances. Traces like holes for beams, doorframes and wooden partitions are proof that the caves have indeed been inhabited and enlaregd by human hands. Today, the cave is classed as nature reserve.

Interior of the cave with Buntsandstein layers

The Buntsandstein where the cave is located developed as sedimentary rock during the Lower Triassic about 252 to 247 million years ago.

Even further back, the tectonic movements had pushed the continents of Euramerica (Laurussia), Gondwana, and some smaller plates together into the supercontinent Pangaea. The last steps of that process happened in the early Devonian, ca. 420 -390 million years ago. Part of the process was the Variscan orogeny which formed a number of mountain systems in North America and Europe, including the mountain ranges for example in Pembroke, the Ardennes and the Bohemian massiv in the east – and those mountains know as the German mittelgebirge like the Black Forest, Taunus, the Rhine massif and the Harz.

View into the cave

During the late Permian, the Zechstein Sea flooded what is now northern Germany – as well as lowland Britain, Denmark and northern Poland – as result of the melting of glaciers and polar ice caps (260 – 252 million years ago), but Pangaea still stuck together. Remains of the Zechstein Sea can be found in the Karst landscapes in the southern Harz.

By the time of the Lower Triassic, the Variscan mountain ranges had eroded, but they left kernels of old rocks behind (like the granite that later rose to the surface again in the Ilse's Rock, or the quartz veined granite of the Rosstrappe Cliffs and the greywacke in the lower layers in the Bode Valley; see this post).

Buntsandstein layers near the cave

At the end of the Permian, the Paleo-Thetys Ocean broke through in what is now southern Poland and flooded the Germanic Basin in an alluvial fan formation. This happened several times through the next millions of years, so the clastic material settled down and solidified in layers. The overall climate was continental and therefore arid, so there was little erosion and chemical weathering, therefore the Buntsandstein developed in a rather pure variant with few inclusions. The Bunter than can be found in the respective geological strata in Britain developed the same way.

Outside wall of the cave

During the Middle Triassic, the global sea levels rose and a tropical sea now filled the Germanic Basin. It left behind a layer of musselkalk, the solidified version of reefs with chalcoid inhabitants like corals and mussels.

The Triassic is named for the three layers of different sedimentary rocks: Buntsandstein, musselkalk and Keuper, black shale mixed with dolostones that was deposed in the Upper / Late Triassic (237-200 million years ago). Pangaea broke up and the climate became more humid, with monsoon like rains, and the sedimentary rocks mirror that change. The rain and the development of rivers led to a larger erosion that also afflicted the Buntsandstein and musselkalk strata; a development that continued during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods when the continents as we know them formed.

View out of the cave

During the Cretaceous (150-65 million years ago), the Harz began to rise again in what is called the Saxon Orogeny; a subdivision of the Alpine Orogeny. During the process, the Northern Harz Boundary Fault (Harznordrandverwerfung) developed. It forms the border between the Harz proper and the German Basin or Norddeutsche Tiefebene (a part of the older Germanic Basin). The Harz Block was thrust over the Triassic and Jurassic strata of the southern part of the basin and tilted those formations, while in the block itself granite and greywacke that even predate the Permian were uplifted. This process goes on today.


It is the geological reason for the Buntsandstein formations originating in the Germanic Basin that today can be found in the northern foothills of the Harz, including Daneil's Cave.

 




The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, and central / eastern Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.


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I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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Hardenberg (Lower Saxony)
Introduction
Hardenberg Castle Gardens

Harzburg (Harz Mountains)
The Harzburg and Otto IV

Hohnstein (Harz Mountains)
Origins of the Counts of Hohnstein
The Family Between Welfen and Staufen
A Time of Feuds (14th-15th century)

Kugelsburg (Hessia)
The Counts of Everstein
Troubled Times
War and Decline

Plesse (Lower Saxony)
Rise and Fall of the Counts of Winzenburg
The Lords of Plesse
Architecture / Decline and Rediscovery

Regenstein (Harz Mountains)
Introduction
The Time of Henry the Lion

Scharzfels (Harz Mountains)
Introduction
History

Wartburg (Thuringia)
A Virtual Tour

Weidelsburg (Hessia)
The History of the Castle
The Architecture
The Castle After the Restoration

Collected Posts about Castles

Castles in the Harz Mountains
Stapelburg
Stauffenburg

Castles in Northern Hessia
Grebenstein
Reichenbach
Sichelnstein
Sababurg and Trendelburg

Castles in Lower Saxony
Adelebsen Castle: The Keep
Grubenhagen: A Border Castle
Hardeg Castle: The Great Hall
Salzderhelden: A Welfen Seat

Castles at the Weser
Bramburg: River Reivers
Krukenburg: Castle and Chapel
Castle Polle: An Everstein Seat

Castles in Thuringia
Altenstein at the Werra
Castle Normanstein: Introduction
Castle Scharfenstein

Abbeys and Churches

Bursfelde Abbey
The Early History

Helmarshausen Monastery
Remains of the Monastery
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion

Königslutter Cathedral
The Exterior Decorations

Lippoldsberg Abbey
The Early History
The Interior of the Church

Walkenried Monastery
From Monastery to Museum

Collected Posts about Churches

Early Mediaeval Churches
Göllingen Monastery: Traces of Byzantine Architecture
Lorsch Abbey: The Carolingian Gate Hall

Churches in the Harz Mountains
Pöhlde Monastery: The Remaining Church
Steinkirche (Scharzfeld): Development of the Cave Church

Churches in Lower Saxony
Wiebrechtshausen: Nunnery and Ducal Burial

Churches at the Weser
Fredelsloh Chapter Church
Vernawahlshausen: Mediaeval Murals

Reconstructed Sites / Museums

Stone Settings and Tombs
Neolithic Burials in the Everstorf Forest and on Rugia

Open Air Museums
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Palatine Seat Tilleda
The Defenses

Viking Settlement Haithabu
Haithabu and the Archaeological Museum Schleswig
The Nydam Ship

Post-Mediaeval Sites
Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg


England

Towns

Chester
Roman and Medieaval Chester

Hexham
The Abbey - Introduction
The Old Gaol

York
Clifford Tower
The Guild Hall
The Minster - Architecture
Monk Bar Gate and Richard III Museum
Museum Gardens
The Old Town
Along the Ouse River

Castles

Alnwick
Malcolm III and the First Battle of Alnwick

Carlisle
Introduction
Henry II and William of Scotland
Edward I to Edward III

Richmond
From the Conquest to King John
From Henry III to the Tudors
The Architecture

Scarborough
From the Romans to the Tudors
From the Civil War to the Present
The Architecture


Scotland

Towns

Edinburgh
Views from the Castle

Stirling
The Wallace Monument

Castles

Doune
A Virtual Tour of the Castle
The Early Stewart Kings
Royal Dower House, and Decline

Duart
Guarding the Sound of Mull

Dunstaffnage
An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
The Wars of Independence
The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

Stirling
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle

Abbeys and Churches

Inchcolm Abbey
Arriving at Inchcolm

Other Historical Sites

Neolithic Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae

Brochs and Cairns
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Introduction

Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort
Staffa


Wales

Towns

Aberystwyth
Castle and Coast

Caerleon
The Ffwrwm

Conwy
The Smallest House in Great Britain

Castles

Beaumaris
The Historical Context
The Architecture

Caernarfon
Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

Cardiff
From the Romans to the Victorians

Chepstow
Beginnings unto Bigod
From Edward II to the Tudors
Civil War, Restoration, and Aftermath

Conwy
The History of the Castle
The Architecture

Criccieth
Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings

Manorbier
The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

Pembroke
Pembroke Pictures
The Caves Under the Castle


Denmark

Towns

Copenhagen
To come


Norway

Towns

Oslo
The Fram Museum in Oslo

Castles and Fortresses

Arkershus Fortress in Oslo
Introduction
Akershus at the Time of King Håkon V
Architectural Development

Vardøhus Fortress
Defending the North for Centuries


Sweden

Towns

Stockholm
The Vasa Museum

Historical Landscapes

Gotland
Gnisvärd Ship Setting


Finland

Towns

Porvoo
Mediaeval Porvoo


Russia

Towns

St. Petersburg
Isaac's Cathedral
Smolny Cathedral
Impressions from the The Neva River


Estonia

Towns

Tallinn
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Latvia

Towns

Riga
The History of Mediaeval Riga


Lithuania

Historical Landscapes

The Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit


Poland

Towns

Gdańsk / Danzig
The History of Mediaeval Gdańsk
Mediaeval and Renaissance Gdańsk

Kraków
The Old Town
Jewish Kraków - Kazimierz and the Ghetto

Wrocław / Breslau
The Botanical Garden
The Wrocław Dwarfs

Castles

Ogrodzieniec Castle
A Virtual Tour
From the First Castle to the Boner Family


Czechia

Towns

Cheb / Eger
Pretty Houses in the Old Town

Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
Brief History of the Town

Kutná Hora
The Sedlec Ossuary
Walk through the Town, with St.Barbara's Church


Belgium

Towns

Antwerp
The Old Town

Bruges
Mediaeval Bruges

Ghent
Mediaeval Ghent

Tongeren
Roman and Mediaeval Remains


Luxembourg

Towns

Luxembourg City
A Tour of the Town


France

Towns

Strasbourg
A Tour of the Town


Hiking Tours and Cruises

Germany

The Baltic Sea Coast
The Flensburg Firth
Rugia - Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
Rugia - Seaside Ressort Binz
Rugia - The Pier of Sellin
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
Oderteich Reservoir
Rappbode Reservoir
Views from Harz mountains

Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Hessian Switzerland

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
Forest Pasture - Hutewald Project
The Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Nature Park Reinhardswald
The Old Forest at the Sababurg

Thuringian Forests
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

Rivers and Lakes
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
The Moselle
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut
Weser River Ferry
Weser Skywalk

Wildlife
Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life
Red squirrels

Seasons
Spring in the Botanical Garden Göttingen
Spring at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Spring in the Rossbach Heath (Meissner)
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Winter Wonderland - Views from my Balcony


United Kingdom

Mountains and Valleys
West Highland Railway

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains - Inverness to John o'Groats
Some Photos from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull - Craignure to Fionnphort
Pentland Firth
Castles Seen from Afar (Dunollie and Kilchurn)
Staffa
Summer Days in Oban
Summer Nights in Oban

Wild Wales - With Castles
Views of Snowdownia
Views from Castle Battlements

Wildlife
Sea Gulls


Scandinavia

The Hurtigruten-Tour / Norway
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Wildlife
Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord


The Baltic Sea

A Baltic Sea Cruise

The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
Beaches at the Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit






Roman History
General Essays

Provinces
- Germania
- Gallia Belgica
- Britannia

Mediaeval History
General Essays

By Country
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Livonia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Bohemia

Other Times
- Prehistoric Times
- Post-Mediaeval History
-
Miscellanea
- Geology


Roman History

General Essays

The Romans at War

Forts and Fortifications
Exercise Halls
Mile Castles and Watch Towers
Soldiers' Living Quarters
Cavalry Barracks

Roman Militaria

Armour
Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapons
Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum
Daggers
Swords

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles

Life and Religion

Religion
The Mithras Cult
Isis Worship
Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms

Public Life
Roman Transport - Barges
Roman Transport - Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots

Miscellaneous Essays

The Legend of Alaric's Burial


Germania

Wars and Frontiers

Maps
Romans in Germania

Traces of the Pre-Varus Conquest
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn
Introduction

Along the Limes
The Cavalry Fort Aalen
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg


Gallia Belgica

The Batavians

The Batavian Rebellion
A Short Introduction


Britannia

Roman Frontiers in Britain

The Hadrian's Wall
Introduction
The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend


Mediaeval History

General Essays

Mediaeval Art and Craft

Mediaeval Art
Carved Monsters
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Medieaval Craftmanship
Goldsmithery
Medical Instruments

Mediaeval Warfare

Mediaeval Weapons
Swords
Trebuchets

Castles and Fortifications
Dungeons and Oubliettes

Essays about Specific Topics

Feudalism

The History of Feudalism
The Beginnings
Feudalism in the 10th Century

Privileges and Special Relationships
The Privilege of the deditio
A Note on handgenginn maðr

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings

Hanesatic Architecture
Examples of Brick Architecture

Goods and Trade
Stockfish Trade

The Order of the Teutonic Knights

Wars and Battles
The Conquest of Danzig
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

The Vikings

Viking Ships
The Nydam Ship


Germany

Geneaology

List of Mediaeval German Emperors

Geneaologies
Anglo-German Marriage Connections
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors

Kings and Emperors

The Salian Dynasty
King Heinrich IV

House Welf and House Staufen
Emperor Otto IV, Introduction

Princes and Lords

Princes
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto of Northeim
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Famous Feuds

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War - Introduction
The Star Wars


England

Kings of England

King Henry IV
King Henry's Lithuanian Crusade

Normans, Britons, Angevins

Great Fiefs - The Honour of Richmond
The Dukes of Brittany and the Honour of Richmond
The Earldom of Richmond and the Duchy of Brittany

Contested Borders

Northumbria
King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


Scotland

Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War, Part 1
King David and the Civil War, Part 2

Houses Bruce and Stewart
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle
The Early Stewart Kings

Scottish Nobles and their Quarrels

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding


Wales

Welsh Princes

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

Rebels

A History of Rebellion
From Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Denmark

Kings of Denmark

House of Knýtlinga
Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

The Duchy of Estonia
Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


Norway

Kings of Norway

Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

A Time of Feuds

Famous Nobles and their Feuds
Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Sweden

Troubles and Alliances

Scandinavian Unity
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union


Livonia
(Latvia and Estonia)

Towns of the Hanseatic League

Riga
The History of Mediaeval Riga

Tallinn
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Lithuania

The Northern Crusades

The Wars in Lithuania
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

Lithuanian Princes

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas


Poland

The Northern Crusades

The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
The Conquest of Danzig

Royal Dynasties

The Jagiełłonian Kings
Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union


Bohemia

Royal Dynasties

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
King Sigismund and the Hussite Wars


Other Times

Prehistoric Times

Germany

Neolithic Remains
Stone Burials of the Funnelbeaker Culture

Development of Civilisation
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Hutewald Project in the Solling
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Scotland

Neolithic Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Bronze Age / Iron Age
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Their Function in Iron Age Society

Scandinavia

Gotland
The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd


Post-Mediaeval History

Explorers and Discoveries

Explorers
Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

Discoveries
Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

Biographies

European Nobility
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus


Miscellanea

History in Literature and Music

History in Literature

Biographies of German Poets and Writers
Theodor Fontane

Historical Ballads by Theodor Fontane
(Translated by me)
Archibald Douglas
Gorm Grymme
Sir Walter Scott in Abbotsford
The Tragedy of Afghanistan

History in Opera

Belcanto and Historicism
Maria Padilla - Mistress Royal
The Siege of Calais in Donizetti's Opera

Not so Serious History

Romans
Building Hadrian's Wall
Playmobil Romans

Mediaeval Times
Kings Having a Bad Hair Day
The Case of the Vanished Wine Cask

Other
Rules for Writing Scottish Romances
Tourist Kitsch in St.Petersburg


Geology

Geological Landscapes

The Baltic Sea
Geology of the Curonian Spit
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

The Harz
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Buntsandstein Formations in the Northern Harz
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in the Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations

Solling-Vogler
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

The Shores of Scotland
Staffa

Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

Fossilized Ammonites
The Loket Meteorite


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