The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times


16 Feb 2020
  A Former Wood Pasture Turned Jungle - Old Forest near the Sababurg

After the visit to the Hutewald in the Solling which is an example for a recreated and working wood pasture, let’s have a look at a former wood pasture that has been allowed to grow on its own without the influence of humans or domesticated animals for a long time now.

The Nature Reserve Urwald Sababurg

The Urwald Sababurg is a part of the Reinhardswald Forest (near Kassel) close to Sababurg Castle. The denomination as ‘jungle’, while popular, is misleading. It is no true primeval forest, but has been influenced by humans since the Middle Ages. But the enclave near the castle has been turned into a Nature Reserve and left to its own since 1907, so the forest had a lot of time to develop naturally.

The forest in spring

I have been hiking there several times, so the photos in this text present the forest in early spring and high summer; two very different vistas. Spring is the best time to see the boles, branches and twigs of the old trees. Summer is green and shady.

Gnarled old oak

The forest encompasses 92 hectares of former wood pasture. Due to its history, old oaks are one of the forest’s defining features. Some of them are 800 to 1000 years old, as are a number of beeches, often growing out of their roots with several boles due to former coppicing. Another typical feature are the high ferns that abound in the clearings.

Clearing with bracken fern

What makes the Urwald Sababurg a jungle is the fact that the wider space between the trees in a former wood pasture allowed for younger trees and shrubs to grow up during the last hundred years. Fallen logs and boles are left to rot, so outside the hiking paths, a pretty dense boskage has developed over time.

Why it’s called ‘jungle’

Oak and beech are not the only trees in the Sababurg Forest. Birches took their chance to grow up between the larger oaks. They are fast growing and shot up to a good size by now. Their silver-grey bark and the lovely pale green budding leaves are an epitomy of spring.

Birches in spring

The forest is unique in Central Europe, due to its past as wood pasture with those ancient oaks and beeches, and its biodiversity that developed together with the forest left to its own for a century by now.


Spring and summer

The oldest trees are individuals; most even got nicknames by the rangers working in the forest. While gnarled old oaks can be found in other places as well, if they meet with good conditions, a thousand year old beeches are very rare. Usually, beech populations in a forest have a shorter generation shift.

The forest in summer

The farmers’ rights to forest pasture and pannage had already been repealed in 1865, but it would take until the beginning of the 20th century for the forest to become a Nature Reserve. Some painters took an interest in the picturesque quality of those old trees and the burgeoning wilderness. Their paintings led to a growing interest in such forests, especially since the mythological quality of those mysterious places met with the spirit of the time.

A fallen tree

The first forest, protected since 1907, encompassed 61 hectares. In 1917, it was expanded to 181 hectares, but part of that were not ancient wood pasture, so the size was decreased again to 92 hectares which is also the present expanse of the forest. The ground and the forest belong the the County of Hessia.

Beeches finding their way to the sun

Many of the 800 year old beeches and oaks have reached their maximum age and are slowly dying. In the sunlit spots such giants leave behind, secondary forest grows, mostly birches, hornbeams and rowans. Alder trees have taken root in a wetter part of the forest.

One of the oldest oaks, the Rapp-Eiche

The natural development of a forest would have offered the best chance to common beeches. They are social trees that communicate and exchange nutrients via their root system (other tree species do that as well, but beeches are especially good at it). When a forest influenced by humans was abandoned again, they usually got the best start. Therefore Germany is rich in beech dominated deciduous and mixed coniferous forests. Beeches also thrive on low nutrient brown earth like in the Reinhardswald.

A labyrinth of branches and twigs

The unusual high distribution of oak trees in the Sababurg Forest is due to the human influence at the time when those forests were used for silvopasture, since oaks would offer the best shade to the animals and the acorns as fodder. So the limited human interference that is allowed in the Sababurg Forest has been to protect some of those old oaks from the competition of beech saplings since 1975.

Closeup of an oak

Ground covering vegetation is mostly whortleberry, wood hairgrass and purple reedgrass, as well as haircap moss (which likes the rotting, fallen trees) and bracken fern that grows up to two metres and abounds in the clearings.

One of the clearings

The high amount of dead wood is one of the distinguishing features of a forest left to itself (it would be transported off in a cultivated forest), and an oeceologically important factor. It provides growing space for funghi, moss and lichen.

Broken-off branch

The rotting wood and the chapped bark of the old trees offer a biotope for 2,000 insect and beetle species, a fifth of which are endangered, among them the stag beetle (which can also been found in the Hutewald in the Solling).

The forest in summer

And the forest is a lovely place for hiking - in every season.
 


3 Feb 2020
  Recreating Historical Land Use - Wood Pasture with Heck Cattle and Exmoor Ponies

Wood pasture was a way of using the resources of deciduous or sometimes mixed coniferous forests since settlements developed in wooded areas, and it lasted in parts until the 18th century. Forests that grew out of those old grazing sites are still around. They show some distinct features, and some have been recreated.

Hutewald in the Solling

Among them is the Hutewald Project in the Nature Park Solling-Vogler. The area of 170 hectares is situated near Nienover (Lower Saxony) and is used for wood pasture since 2000. There had been a former Hutewald – the German word forest pasture – before, so the old oaks made for a good basis. Now, Heck cattle (see below) and Exmoor Ponies are used to keep the undergrowth in check.

Oak trees

Driving cattle, sheep and pigs, even horses, into the woods for grazing on saplings, shrubs, mushrooms and fruits, and getting fattened on acorns and beech nuts, has been a first step to cultivation since prehistoric times. It was already common around the Mediterranean of Antiquity as well as in central Europe during the migration period.

In the forest

Fewer saplings that grow to a size where the cattle could no longer reach the shots meant that the forest turned into an open woodland when old trees died. Oak fared better as pasture forest than beech, since beech saplings remain short under the shelter of their mother tree for a long time and thus within grazing reach; oak shots grow faster and turn bitter, so some escaped the hungry mouths of the cattle. Over time, the herbaceous plants were pushed back in favour of ground vegetation that needed light, and thus increased the quality of the grazing material.

Wood pasture works best in forests with broadleaf trees, but some conifers produce edible seeds as well.

Sunlight on leaves

The trees also offered shelter for the animals. The forests not only served as pasture; they also provided timber for fuel, charcoal making and construction, often by coppicing (cutting the tree close to the root to grow several separate stems) or pollarding (pruning the crown to restrict the growth and get a denser crown). Some trees were allowed to grow to the full splendour of their height and crown, though. They provided nutrients and shade.

Tree crowns

Long term use of forests for pasture led to a blurred line between open woodlands and meadows with some trees (Huteweide in German). The latter not only included oak and other broadleaf trees, but also fruit bearing trees like apple or cherry trees that were planted by humans.

The Hutewald project in the Solling presents both types of woodland pasture. There are some marked ways for hiking, but to enter the forest proper you need to attend a tour guided by a ranger.

Meadow with brook

Wood pasture increased considerably in the 12th century and encompassed large forest areas between the settlements and fields. Even though most of the forests belonged to the nobility (or the church) who had the right of the high hunt and drew income from the use of the forest, the right of pasture and pannage was given to the local farmers, together with the right of gathering wood debris as firewood.

Alder grove

Pannage depended on the amount of acorns and beech nuts a forest would produce; there are three year cycles for beech nuts, for example. Other trees like maple or linden were often felled to make space for more oak and beech. Since pigs were the main provider of meat for the non-nobility, the quality of pannage was important for the overall value of a forest.

Cattle and horse pasture was seasonal. The animals would be driven into the forests for two months in early summer, after they had grazed off the open meadows, so those could regrow. The regrown grass then was cut and used as winter hay. The animals returned to the meadows in autumn.

Clearing, overgrown with saplings and herbaceous vegetation

During the late Middle Ages, meadow grazing became more common and the forests were mostly used for pannage of pigs. But wood pasture increased again after the Thirty Years War when large swathes of settled land were abandoned (Wüstungen). Increasing demand of timber caused a decline in silvopasture forests since the later 17th century. The remaining trees either were felled, or the woods were reforested to grow more timber. Changes in animal husbandry (larger breeds of cattle, f.e.) and agriculture that led to the abandonment of wood pasture during the 18th and 19th centuries.

Another clearing

In some cases, the process was reverted again, though. In areas where the meadows and fields had been overgrazed, oak forests suitable for pasture were planted which would serve both for grazing and timber industry. But pasture combined with wood cutting and taking out of leaf litter led to a decrease in the use of such forests again. Some have been allowed to revert to ‘jungle’, like the the Urwald’ at the Sababurg / Reinhardswald that exists since 1907.

One of the hiking trails in the Hutewald

It takes some 16 to 30 cattle or 100-200 pigs per 100 hectares to browse for several years to create a typical open forest. Maintaining that status works better with less animals, though.

The oaks in the Solling have been planted in clusters of 9x9 metres some 200 years ago. Today, the animals amount to about 20 Heck cattle and 20 Exmoor ponies on 170 hectares. That number proved to be most suitable to establish a light forest with a surprising biodiversity – 580 various species of animals, insects, plants and funghi listed in the Red List can be found today.

Lovely green

It is assumed that open forests may have been around before human settlement in some parts. Large herbivores like aurochs, European bison (Wisent), moose or wild horse may have influenced the development of the primary forests in a similar way. Moose and bison are no longer around in Germany, but a race that works well in recreated pasture forests are Heck cattle rebreeds. Modern milk cows would not thrive on the rougher fare.

Heckrinder - Heck Cattle

Heck cattle started as a dream. In the 1920ies, the brothers Heinz and Lutz Heck wanted to recreate the extinct aurochs. Heinz was the director of the Berlin Zoological Gardens, Lutz held the same position in the Hellabrun Zoological Gardens Munich. They both started their own rebreeding programs, using Alpine brown cattle, Hungarian Grey, Angel cattle, Corsican cattle and some other races which seemed to best represent the traits of aurochs. Lutz Heck also used Spanish fighting bulls, but since the Berlin line died out after WW2, the breeds we got today are descendants of the Munich line.

Out of the trees

The pseudo-‘aurochs’ got popular with the leaders of the Third Reich. Hermann Göring had a bunch of the Berlin line released into his hunting reserves in the Schorfheide in 1938, and returned more into the wild in Białowieża, Poland, in 1941. He wanted to transform northern Poland into a genuine German jungle with genuine German beasts. 20,000 Poles were forcefully relocated, several hundred died. No wonder they killed evey single ‘German’ cattle after the war.

Facing the intruders

What the Heck brothers got were not true aurochs rebreeds, of course, but a hardy race of domestic cattle than can cope with nutrient-poor fare and stay outside in winter, albeit they are not the only race capable of surviving such conditions. Heck cattle is today considered an official domestic breed.

Post war efforts to improve the Heck cattle also included Upland red cattle (Harzer Höhenvieh) and the Ankole Watusi from Rwanda. The various cross-breedings resulted in a rather diverse look of the Heck cattle lines in colour, size and proportion, or the shape of the horns.

Not so sure about those humans

Heck cattle are 20-30 cm shorter than the extinct aurochs; bulls average 4’5’’ (140 cm) with a weight of 1.300 lb (600 kg), females are about 4’3’’ (130 cm). That is not larger than some other domesitic breeds. An aurochs bull could tower at close to 2 metres and weigh a ton.

The aurochs had a more athletic shape with a high withers; Heck cattle are bulkier – like modern breeds – and with a flat back. The head is smaller and the shoulder musculature therefore less well developed than that of the aurochs. The brown and reddish colours – sometimes even with a dorsal stripe – dominant in Heck cattle, are the feature that comes closest to the aurochs. (Neverthless, some lighter shades can be found with Heck cattle as well.)

The horns are somewhat different, too. Aurochs horns grew outward and upward from the base, the forward and inward, at last upward again at the tips. They could be up to 100 cm in length. Heck cattle presents different horn shapes, but they are usually shorter and curve too much upwards and/or outwards (like Highland cattle).

Checking on the family

The cattle are kept in natural herds; excess oxen are slaughtered in autumn, their high quality beef sold locally.

Besides the Heck cattle, other animals to graze in the Hutewald in the Solling are Exmoor ponies. They are a hardy outdoor race native to the British Isles, recently often used for projects like this. Not to mention very cute. *smile*

Exmoor Ponies

Some Exmoor ponies still live semi-feral in the moorlands of Devon and Somerset, but they are classified as ‘endangered’. Ponies in Exmoor have been around since the 11th century at least (the Domesday Book mentions them), but probably longer. They came into the fore of interest when a privat buyer bought the Royal Exmoor Forest in 1818. The warden, Sir Thomas Acland, brought 30 ponies to his private lands. They became the nucleus of the modern breed; descendants of the first herd still live at Winsford Hill.

The rest of the ponies in Exmoor were sold, though some luckily ended up with local people who took care of their blood line, so some Exmoor ponies are still around on the moorlands.

Mare with foal

In 1921, the Exmoor Pony Society was founded. Its aim was to maintain the pure Exmoor breed. They suffered a severe setback during WW2, though. The moors were used as training ground, which caused the breed to become almost estinct. Only 50 ponies survived the war. By the 1990is, enough ponies had been born to spread them to various areas of England in small herds. And a few moved to other countries, like the herd that now lives in the Hutewald in the Solling. By 2010, the world wide stock was estimated to be about 800 animals.

Daddy

Exmoor ponies come in a size range of 45-50 inches (11.1 to 12.3 hands, or 114-130 cm), with the stallions usually being a bit taller than the mares. Their coats are variants of dark bay, with pangaré markings around the muzzles, eyes, flanks and underbelly – those are considered a primitive trait, as is the head which is somewhat large in proportion to the body.

The ponies have a stocky build with short legs, deep chest and broad back; they are strong for their size, and known for their endurance. They grow a winter coat of an insulating wooly underlayer and an oily topcoat. They had shed that one when I visited the Hutewald.

Pony family

The photos in this post were taken during two tours, a private hiking tour on the official ways, and one guided by a ranger that brought us directly into the forests.

 


19 Jan 2020
  The History of Ogrodzieniec Castle, Part 1: Beginnings unto the Boner Family

After the virtual tour of Ogrodzieniec Castle in Poland I posted in December, let's have look at the history of those fascinating ruins.

Ogrodzieniec Castle seen from the south
with outer wall, Footman's Tower (left), Hen's Leg, Beluard Bastion and Prison Tower

Regular readers will know that I always try to fnd out details about the history of the castles and other historical sites I've visited. It proves a bit more difficult with Czech and Polish castles, since I'm not as well acquainted with the history of the eastern central European countries as I am with Germany or the United Kingdom. But I'm busy reading up on the subject. Another problem is the lack of sources in languages I can read, especially in the case of local history (1).

Rock foundations of the Tall Castle

It had been assumed that a timber fortress mentioned in the sources preceeded the stone castle, but findings on the neighbouring Birów Hill now point at the first castle having been located there. Traces of earth and timber walls, at least two towers, and a domestic building have been found there, while no traces of timber works - like post holes - were discovered on the site of the present castle.

This first castle may have been called Ogrodzieniec as well, since the word means 'walled in area'. It had been built at the time of Duke Bolesław Wrymouth who ruled Poland from 1102 to 1138. Châtellenies, consisting of castles - usually still constructed of timber - surrounded by settlements were a typical feature of the Polish administration at the time; the lords of the castles organised the local economy and jurisdiction, and offered shelter in case of war.

Limestone formations in the outer yard

It likely was that first castle and the settlements which were destroyed during the invasion of the Mongols in 1241. The first Mongol invasion destroyed Volga Bulgaria and conquered several Russian principalities like Kiev and Vladimir. The Golden Horde reached central Europe in 1240. One of the three armies swept through southern Poland, culminating in the Battle of Legnica where the combined forces of several Polish duchies and members of the Teutonic Knights (2) were defeated on April 9, 1241. Duke Henryk II Pobožny ('the Pious'), one of the leaders, was killed. Another Mongolian army conquered Hungary at the same time. Only the death of the Great Khan Ögedei called the armies back.

Outer curtain wall with sally port

At that time, Poland had been divided into several duchies governed by members of the Piast dynasty. Bolesław Wrymouth († 1138) had produced a bunch of sons and decided to split the country between them, with the younger ones answering to the eldest, the dike of Krakow, according to the senioral principle. That didn't work out in the long run, of course; there was a lot of internecine strife and even some wars between the successors of those dukes.

Duke Henryk II Pobožny was the duke of Silesia, and since 1238 also Duke of Kraków and thus High Duke of Poland, as well as regent of the duchies of Sandomierz and Opole-Racibórz. He was the only son of Henryk the Bearded and Hedwig of Andechs, a comital house of Bavaria. Henryk Pobožny was married to Anna of Bohemia, of the Přemyslid dynasty.

With his death, the hope of a reunited Poland under his rule was crushed. Even his own Silesia was divided into several smaller duchies among his offspring and would eventually come under Bohemian supremacy in 1335.

The castle seen from the north

Another attempt to unite Poland was made under Przemysł II, a grandson of Henryk Pobožny (Przemysł's mother Elżbieta of Wrocław was Henryk's daughter) who became duke of Greater Poland, the ancient kernel of Poland around Poznań and Gniezno, which had later been replaced by Kraków. He added Pomerania to the realm and was crowned king in 1295.

But after his death followed another period of instability until Władysław I Łokietek (the 'Elbow-High'), from another branch of the Piast dynasty, managed to unite Poland. He became king in 1320. His son Kasimierz Wielki, Casimir III the Great (crowned 1333) would be one of the most important kings of Poland. He expanded the realm eastwards to include parts of what today is Ukraine; he founded the first Polish university at Kraków, furthered trade and the development of towns, and reformed the juridical system and the army.

Lord's Courtyard

It was under the rule of Casimir that the oldest part of present Ogrodzieniec Castle was built as part of the Eagle's Nests line of defense along the border to Silesia, now in Bohemian possession. Casimir gave the castle to Przedbórz of Brzezie, the marshal of the kingdom and obviously a close advisor of the king. Przedbórz first served as provincial governor of Sieradz, a former duchy in Greater Poland and important trade center. Unfortunately, I could not find out more about Przedbórz.

Since the oldest buildings in Ogrodzieniec, the Tall Castle (see virtual tour) offered quite some amenities, and included representative rooms, one can assume that Przedbórz lived in the castle at times. The Gothic style of the architecture must have looked very modern and even daring at the time.

Lord's Yard, view towards gate and south wing

The next time we can trace Ogrodzieniec Castle in the course of history is another feudal transaction. The castle obviously had fallen back to the crown with Przedbórz' death, because Casimir's successor, Władysław Jagiełło granted it - together with other estates - to Włodek of Charbinowice, the Cracow cup bearer, in 1385. This is confirmed by the chronicle of Jan Długosz; the only mention of this historical detail (3).

The Cup Bearer (cześnik) had been a court office in both Poland and Lithuania including the responsibility for the wine-cellar and service at the table. It became a honorary court title in both countries in the 14th century.

According to Długosz, Włodek of Charbinowice had been involved in the negotiations about the Polish-Lithuanian Union and the marriage to Jadwiga that would gain Jogaila/Jagiełło the crown of Poland. The castle could have been a reward.

Gate tower

The castle was still in possession of the Włodek family in 1454. A Bartosz Włodek of Ogrodzieniec was among the prisoners the Teutonic Knights took after the battle of Chojnice in northern Poland (September 1454). It was one of the battles fought during the Thirteen Years War between the Prussian Confederation and the Teutonic Knights (see post about the history of Danzig linked above). The battle was a defeat for the Prussian Confederation; several high ranking Polish nobles were killed, and a great number of nobles and minor knights taken captive.

Gate Tower, upper floors

Another name connected with Ogrodzieniec Castle is Jan Pilecki (4). He was the son of Elżbieta Pilecka-Granowska and Wincenty of Granowski. His mother later would become queen of Poland.

A bit of geneaology again: Jadwiga, Władysław Jagiełło's first wife died early, and he remarried three more times. The wealthy widow Elżbieta was already in her later 40ies, past childbearing, with scandal clinging to her name (5). Not the sort of wife the Polish nobility wanted their king - still without a male heir - to take. But the marriage seems to have been a happy one. Elżbieta died in 1420. Jagiełło, already aged 60something, then married the young Sophia (Sonka) of Halshany who gave him two sons: Władysław III King of Poland and Hungary, and Casimir IV Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland (from 1447).

Casimir strove to appoint men loyal to him and who would back his war against the Teutonic Knights to important offices. One of those was his half-brother Jan Pilecki, who became palatine of Kraków in 1459, which was a break of tradition according to R. Frost (there seems to have been a line for certain offices, and Jan got ahead).

It is likely that Jan Pilecki sometimes stayed at Ogrodzieniec Castle during his time as palatine. For one, he was responsible for the military defense of nearby Kraków, and it is also possible that Bartosz Włodek still languished in a prison of the Teutonic Knights, so Jan might have had to administer the castle and lands.

Hen's Leg (left), Beluard Bastion and Prison Tower

The Włodek family was back in Ogrodzieniec some time before 1470, but they got into financial troubles (maybe the ransom for poor Bartosz played a role in that) and had to sell the castle in 1470. The buyer were two rich burghers from Krakow: Ibram and Piotr Salomonowicz. The names of the buyers sound Jewish, but such a transaction was indeed possible under Polish law. The situation of the Jews in Poland was somewhat better compared to the western European countries (6).

The property the Włodek family sold included castle and town of Ogrodzieniec and a number of villages, as well as the titles to farms, manors, pastures, woods, etc. The sold everything for eight thousand Hungarian florins of pure gold, and renounced all rights and titles to the aforementined porperties.

The Salomonwicz brothers may have seen the purchase of Ogrodzieniec and the adjacent lands as an investment rather than a residence, since the owners / residents of the castle changed several times after 1482, and it's difficult to trace the net of sales and pawns of the castle and the lands in those years. Obviously, even the Włodek family got involved again and held Ogrodzieniec in the early 1520ies.

The Footman's Tower

In 1523, Ogrodzieniec Castle was bought by Jan Boner. He and his successors made a number of architectural changes to the castle. The enlarged the south wing, built the Renaissance style west wing that would later bear their name, changed the site of the entrance and added the gate tower.

Jan Boner's successors expanded the place by adding the Hen's Foot bastion and the Beluard (see also first post). The Boner familiy added a system of galleries and balconies to the main courtyard, in the style of the Wawel Castle in Kraków.

The final residence encompassed 32,00 cubic metres and was richly furnished with Flemish tapestries, mahogany furniture, crystal and silver tableware and other 16th century luxuries.

Reconstructed timber arcades in the Economic Courtyard

The Boner family originated from Landau, a town in what is today Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany. The family moved to Wrocław in Bohemian Silesia in the 1460ies. Jan Boner - also known as Hans Boner - set up a business in Kraków in 1483, still a young man in his early twenties. He dealt in timber, livestock and spices, and founded branch offices in other towns in Poland, Germany, Hungary and Russia. Soon he delivered silver to the royal mints and got involved in loan operations. Jan Boner was elected to the city council of Kraków in 1498.

Boner also cooperated with the Polish kings John Abert (Jan Olbracht) and Alexander Jagiellon (Aleksander Jagiełłończyk), both sons of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of Austria of House Habsburg. They were succeeded by Sigismund the Old (King Zygmunt I Stary), another son of Casimir and Elisabeth, who ascended to the throne in December 1506.

View from Boner's Library

There's a connection with the Teutonic Knights, one of the topics that appeared several times on this blog (there will be more posts about them als well):

Sigismund's sister Sophia of Poland (Zofia Jagiełłonka) was married to Frederik Margrave of Brandenburg. One of their sons, Albert, became Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights and, after another war with Poland and the Lutheran secularization of the order, was created Duke of Prussia and accepted the former lands of the order as fief from his Uncle Sigismund in 1525, as result of the Treaty of Kraków.

Boner's Wing seen from the other side

Jan Boner fared exceedingly well under King Sigismund. He was granted Polish citizenship in 1514, and the following year became manager of the salt mines of Wieliczka near Kraków. The income from those mines made up a large part of the Polish economy, therefore the position showed a great deal of trust by the king. King Sigismund elevated Jan Boner and his familyto the polish nobility in 1520 and made him the royal governor of Kraków in 1522.

During the previous years, Boner - now one of the wealthiest men in Europe - had become the king's main banker. He strengthened the royal treasury with funds of his own and managed to recover it from the verge of bancruptcy. He also bought royal possessions (castles, villages etc.) out of debts and pawns. Most important, Boner separated the royal treasury from the state treasury, and persecuted misuse of funds, bribery and other corruption wherever he discovered it.

Boner also was a patron of scholars and artists, like so many rich Renaissance people. He died in 1523 and was succeeded by his nephew Seweryn, who inherited his uncle's financial talent and followed him as manager of the Wieliczka salt mines.

Boner's dining room

It was Seweryn Boner who put the most effort into the house makeover of Ogrodzieniec Castle. The castle later became the residence of one of Seweryn's sons, Stanisław, who had no heirs. So the castle came to his sister Zofia who had married Jan Firlej, the governor of Lubin and later Crown Marshal. Jan Firley added the Beluard Bastion and the dry moat in the 1560ies.

The next owner was their son and heir Mikołaj, the governor of Kraków. His son Jan had no children either, and gave the castle to his cousin Andrzej Firlej. Andrzej decorated the interior in the Baroque style (though few traces are left today) and built the marble hall on top of the Beluard Bastion.

It would be the last time of glory for Ogrodzieniec Castle. The following times saw the decline of the Jagiełłonian dynasty, wars with Habsburg and Sweden, and the destruction of parts of the castle. A second part about the later history of Ogrodzieniec Castle will follow.

Rooms in the Beluard Bastion

Notes
1) In this case I had to rely on the short history in the guidbook mentioned in the first post about Ogrodzieniec, and the following websites: Castles Today: Ogrodzieniec and the Medieval Heritage: Podzamcze website. The English Wikipedia site is unreliable. I did some cross-checks with the history books in my collection when possible.
2) The participation of military knights seems not to have been as important as some sites makes them. William Urban only says that there might have been a contingent of Teutonic Knights present at the battle. The presence of Templars, as Wikipedia states, seems unrealistic; they were probably confused with the Teutonic Knighs.
3) The Castles Today website considers the information reliable, only the exact date is unconfirmed. Długosz seemingly had a habit of playing lose with the dates (and he would not be the first).
4) The Castles Today plays lose with the dates as well, it seems: It dates the sojourn of Jan Pilecki in Ogrodzieniec Castle to 1492 which is impossible since Jan Pilecki died in 1476. I follow the information given by Robert Frost for my interpretation. (If there was indeed a Jan Pilecki involved in a financial transaction that included Ogrodzieniec castle in 1492, he can't have been the son of Elżbieta Pilecka-Granowska.)
5) She was married several times, but the exact number is disputed. There was an abduction involved, and she might have lived with one man without marriage.
6) While the Polish Jews were legally situated more equal to the Christians than in other countries, the situation was not perfect. There were local progroms in Poland as well (one of those forced the Jews of Kraków to resettle in the Kazimierz suburb in 1495 after a disastrous fire, for example) but most Polish kings strove to protect them. When the Jews were expelled from Spain, Austria and Germany in 1492, a significant number migrated to Poland in the following years.

Literature
Nora Berend, Przemysław Urbańczyk and Przemysław Wiszewski: Central Europe in the High Middle Ages. Bohemia, Hungary and Poland c. 900 - c. 1300; Cambridge Mediaeval Textbooks, 2013
Almut Bues: Die Jagiellonen. Herrscher zwischen Ostsee und Adria; Kohlhammer-Urban, Stuttgart 2010
Robert Frost: The Oxford History of Poland-Lithuania, vol. 1, The Making of the Polish-Lithuanian Union 1385-1569; Oxford 2015, paperback ed. 2018
Eduard Mühle: Die Piasten. Polen im Mittelalter, München 2011
William Urban: The Teutonic Knights. A Military History, 2003; reprint by Frontline Publ. 2018

 




The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, and central / eastern Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.


This blog is non-commercial.

All texts and photos (if no other copyright is noted) are copyright of Gabriele Campbell.

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Name:
Location: Goettingen, Germany

I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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Anchor links lead to the respective sub-category in the sidebar

Roman Remains
- Germany
- Belgium and France
- Great Britain

Mediaeval and Other Places
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Finland
- Russia
- Estonia
- Latvia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Czech Republic
- Belgium
- Luxembourg
- France

Hiking Tours and Cruises
- Germany
- United Kingdom
- Scandinavia
- Baltic Sea


Roman Remains

Germany

Traces of a Failed Conquest

Romans at Lippe and Ems
Roman Exhibitions, Haltern am See
Varus Statue, Haltern am See

Romans at the Weser
The Roman Camp at Hedemünden

The Limes and its Forts

Aalen
The Cavalry Fort - Barracks

Osterburken
The Discovery
The Cohort castellum
The Annex Fort
The Garrisons

Saalburg
Introduction
Main Gate
Shrine of the Standards

Temples and Memorials
Mithras Altars in Germania

Romans at Rhine and Moselle

The Villa Rustica in Wachenheim
Introduction
Baths and Toilets
The Cellar

Roman villae at the Moselle
The Villa Urbana in Longuich

Roman Towns

Augusta Treverorum (Trier)
The Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths
The Porta Nigra
The Roman Bridge

Baudobriga (Boppard)
From Settlement to Fortress

Colonia Ulpia Traiana (Xanten)
History of the Town
The Amphitheatre in Birten

Moguntiacum (Mainz)
The Temple of Isis and Mater Magna


Belgium and France

Roman Towns

Atuatuca Tungrorum (Tongeren)
Roman Remains in Tongeren


Great Britain

Frontiers and Fortifications

The Hadrian's Wall
Introduction
Building the Wall

Wall Forts - Banna (Birdoswald)
The Dark Age Timber Halls

Wall Forts - Segedunum (Wallsend)
Museum, Viewing Tower and Foundations
The Baths

Signal Stations
The Signal Station at Scarborough

Temples and Memorials
The Mithraeum of Brocolita
A Roman Memorial Stone

Roman Towns

Eboracum (York)
Bath in the Fortress
Multiangular Tower

The Romans in Wales

Roman Forts - Isca (Caerleon)
The Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort


Mediaeval and Other Places

Germany

- Towns
- Castles
- Abbeys and Churches
- Reconstructed Sites / Museums

Towns

Braunschweig
Medieaval Braunschweig
Lion Benches in the Castle Square
The Quadriga

Erfurt
Mediaeval Erfurt

Goslar
Mediaeval Goslar

Lübeck
St. Mary's Church, Introduction

Magdeburg
Magdeburg Cathedral
St.Mary's Abbey - An Austere Archbishop
St.Mary's Abbey - Reformation to Reunion

Paderborn
Mediaeval Paderborn

Quedlinburg
Mediaeval Quedlinburg
The Chapter Church

Speyer
The Cathedral: Architecture
Cathedral: Richard Lionheart in Speyer
Jewish Ritual Bath

Stralsund
The Harbour

Wismar
The Old Harbour

Xanten
Mediaeval Xanten
The Gothic House

Collected Posts about Towns

Towns in Thuringia
Heiligenstadt
Treffurt

Castles

Brandenburg (Thuringia)
The Double Castle
Role of the Castle in Thuringian History

Coburg Fortress (Bavaria)
The History of the Fortress
The Architecture

Ebersburg (Harz Mountains)
Power Base of the Thuringian Landgraves
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Architecture

Hanstein (Thuringia)
Introduction
Otto of Northeim
Heinrich the Lion and Otto IV
The Next Generations

Hardenberg (Lower Saxony)
Introduction
Hardenberg Castle Gardens

Harzburg (Harz Mountains)
The Harzburg and Otto IV

Hohnstein (Harz Mountains)
Origins of the Counts of Hohnstein
The Family Between Welfen and Staufen
A Time of Feuds (14th-15th century)

Kugelsburg (Hessia)
The Counts of Everstein
Troubled Times
War and Decline

Plesse (Lower Saxony)
Rise and Fall of the Counts of Winzenburg
The Lords of Plesse
Architecture / Decline and Rediscovery

Regenstein (Harz Mountains)
Introduction
The Time of Henry the Lion

Scharzfels (Harz Mountains)
Introduction
History

Wartburg (Thuringia)
A Virtual Tour

Weidelsburg (Hessia)
The History of the Castle
The Architecture
The Castle After the Restoration

Collected Posts about Castles

Castles in the Harz Mountains
Stauffenburg

Castles in Northern Hessia
Grebenstein
Reichenbach
Sichelnstein
Sababurg and Trendelburg

Castles in Lower Saxony
Adelebsen Castle: The Keep
Grubenhagen: A Border Castle
Hardeg Castle: The Great Hall
Salzderhelden: A Welfen Seat

Castles at the Weser
Bramburg: River Reivers
Krukenburg: Castle and Chapel
Castle Polle: An Everstein Seat

Castles in Thuringia
Altenstein at the Werra
Castle Normanstein: Introduction
Castle Scharfenstein

Abbeys and Churches

Bursfelde Abbey
The Early History

Helmarshausen Monastery
Remains of the Monastery
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion

Königslutter Cathedral
The Exterior Decorations

Lippoldsberg Abbey
The Early History
The Interior of the Church

Walkenried Monastery
From Monastery to Museum

Collected Posts about Churches

Early Mediaeval Churches
Göllingen Monastery: Traces of Byzantine Architecture
Lorsch Abbey: The Carolingian Gate Hall

Churches in the Harz Mountains
Pöhlde Monastery: The Remaining Church
Steinkirche (Scharzfeld): Development of the Cave Church

Churches in Lower Saxony
Wiebrechtshausen: Nunnery and Ducal Burial

Churches at the Weser
Fredelsloh Chapter Church
Vernawahlshausen: Mediaeval Murals

Reconstructed Sites / Museums

Palatine Seat Tilleda
The Defenses

Viking Settlement Haithabu
Haithabu and the Archaeological Museum Schleswig
The Nydam Ship

Open Air Museums
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Post-Mediaeval Sites
Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg


England

Towns

Chester
Roman and Medieaval Chester

Hexham
The Abbey - Introduction
The Old Gaol

York
Clifford Tower
The Guild Hall
The Minster - Architecture
Monk Bar Gate and Richard III Museum
Museum Gardens
The Old Town
Along the Ouse River

Castles

Alnwick
Malcolm III and the First Battle of Alnwick

Carlisle
Introduction
Henry II and William of Scotland
Edward I to Edward III

Richmond
From the Conquest to King John
From Henry III to the Tudors
The Architecture

Scarborough
From the Romans to the Tudors
From the Civil War to the Present
The Architecture


Scotland

Towns

Edinburgh
Views from the Castle

Stirling
The Wallace Monument

Castles

Doune
A Virtual Tour of the Castle
The Early Stewart Kings
Royal Dower House, and Decline

Duart
Guarding the Sound of Mull

Dunstaffnage
An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
The Wars of Independence
The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

Stirling
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle

Abbeys and Churches

Inchcolm Abbey
Arriving at Inchcolm

Other Historical Sites

Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort
Staffa

Pre-Historic Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae


Wales

Towns

Aberystwyth
Castle and Coast

Caerleon
The Ffwrwm

Conwy
The Smallest House in Great Britain

Castles

Beaumaris
The Historical Context
The Architecture

Caernarfon
Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

Cardiff
From the Romans to the Victorians

Chepstow
Beginnings unto Bigod
From Edward II to the Tudors
Civil War, Restoration, and Aftermath

Conwy
The History of the Castle
The Architecture

Criccieth
Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings

Manorbier
The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

Pembroke
Pembroke Pictures
The Caves Under the Castle


Denmark

Towns

Copenhagen
To come


Norway

Towns

Oslo
The Fram Museum in Oslo

Castles and Fortresses

Arkershus Fortress in Oslo
Introduction
Akershus at the Time of King Håkon V
Architectural Development

Vardøhus Fortress
Defending the North for Centuries


Sweden

Towns

Stockholm
The Vasa Museum

Historical Landscapes

Gotland
Gnisvärd Ship Setting


Finland

Towns

Porvoo
Mediaeval Porvoo


Russia

Towns

St. Petersburg
Isaac's Cathedral
Smolny Cathedral
Impressions from the The Neva River


Estonia

Towns

Tallinn
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Latvia

Towns

Riga
The History of Mediaeval Riga


Lithuania

Historical Landscapes

The Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit


Poland

Towns

Gdańsk / Danzig
The History of Mediaeval Gdańsk
Mediaeval and Renaissance Gdańsk

Wrocław / Breslau
The Botanical Garden
The Wrocław Dwarfs

Castles

Ogrodzieniec Castle
A Virtual Tour
From the First Castle to the Boner Family


Czech Republic

Towns

Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
Brief History of the Town

Kutná Hora
The Sedlec Ossuary


Belgium

Towns

Antwerp
The Old Town

Bruges
Mediaeval Bruges

Ghent
Mediaeval Ghent

Tongeren
Roman and Mediaeval Remains


Luxembourg

Towns

Luxembourg City
A Tour of the Town


France

Towns

Strasbourg
A Tour of the Town


Hiking Tours and Cruises

Germany

The Baltic Sea Coast
The Flensburg Firth
Rugia - Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
Rugia - Seaside Ressort Binz
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
Oderteich Reservoir
Rappbode Reservoir
Views from Harz mountains

Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Hessian Switzerland

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
Forest Pasture - Hutewald Project
The Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Nature Park Reinhardswald
The Old Forest at the Sababurg

Thuringian Forests
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

Rivers and Lakes
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
The Moselle
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut
Weser River Ferry
Weser Skywalk

Wildlife
Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life

Seasons
Spring in the Botanical Garden Göttingen
Spring at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Spring in the Rossbach Heath (Meissner)
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Winter Wonderland - Views from my Balcony


United Kingdom

Mountains and Valleys
West Highland Railway

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains - Inverness to John o'Groats
Some Photos from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull - Craignure to Fionnphort
Pentland Firth
Castles Seen from Afar (Dunollie and Kilchurn)
Staffa
Summer Days in Oban
Summer Nights in Oban

Wild Wales - With Castles
Views of Snowdownia
Views from Castle Battlements

Wildlife
Sea Gulls


Scandinavia

The Hurtigruten-Tour / Norway
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Wildlife
Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord


The Baltic Sea

A Baltic Sea Cruise

The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
Beaches at the Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit






Roman History
General Essays

Provinces
- Germania
- Gallia Belgica
- Britannia

Mediaeval History
General Essays

By Country
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Livonia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Bohemia

Other Times
- Prehistoric Times
- Post-Mediaeval History
-
Miscellanea
- Geology


Roman History

General Essays

The Romans at War

Forts and Fortifications
Exercise Halls
Mile Castles and Watch Towers
Soldiers' Living Quarters
Cavalry Barracks

Roman Militaria

Armour
Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapons
Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum
Daggers
Swords

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles

Life and Religion

Religion
The Mithras Cult
Isis Worship
Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms

Public Life
Roman Transport - Barges
Roman Transport - Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots

Miscellaneous Essays

The Legend of Alaric's Burial


Germania

Wars and Frontiers

Maps
Romans in Germania

Traces of the Pre-Varus Conquest
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn
Introduction

Along the Limes
The Cavalry Fort Aalen
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg


Gallia Belgica

The Batavians

The Batavian Rebellion
A Short Introduction


Britannia

Roman Frontiers in Britain

The Hadrian's Wall
Introduction
The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend


Mediaeval History

General Essays

Mediaeval Art and Craft

Mediaeval Art
Carved Monsters
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Medieaval Craftmanship
Goldsmithery
Medical Instruments

Mediaeval Warfare

Mediaeval Weapons
Swords
Trebuchets

Castles and Fortifications
Dungeons and Oubliettes

Essays about Specific Topics

Feudalism

The History of Feudalism
The Beginnings
Feudalism in the 10th Century

Privileges and Special Relationships
The Privilege of the deditio
A Note on handgenginn maðr

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings

Hanesatic Architecture
Examples of Brick Architecture

Goods and Trade
Stockfish Trade

The Order of the Teutonic Knights

Wars and Battles
The Conquest of Danzig
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

The Vikings

Viking Ships
The Nydam Ship


Germany

Geneaology

List of Mediaeval German Emperors

Geneaologies
Anglo-German Marriage Connections
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors

Kings and Emperors

The Salian Dynasty
King Heinrich IV

House Welf and House Staufen
Emperor Otto IV, Introduction

Princes and Lords

Princes
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto of Northeim
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Famous Feuds

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War - Introduction
The Star Wars


England

Kings of England

King Henry IV
King Henry's Lithuanian Crusade

Normans, Britons, Angevins

Great Fiefs - The Honour of Richmond
The Dukes of Brittany and the Honour of Richmond
The Earldom of Richmond and the Duchy of Brittany

Contested Borders

Northumbria
King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


Scotland

Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War, Part 1
King David and the Civil War, Part 2

Houses Bruce and Stewart
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle
The Early Stewart Kings

Scottish Nobles and their Quarrels

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding


Wales

Welsh Princes

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

Rebels

A History of Rebellion
From Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Denmark

Kings of Denmark

House of Knýtlinga
Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

The Duchy of Estonia
Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


Norway

Kings of Norway

Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

A Time of Feuds

Famous Nobles and their Feuds
Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Sweden

Troubles and Alliances

Scandinavian Unity
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union


Livonia
(Latvia and Estonia)

Towns of the Hanseatic League

Riga
The History of Mediaeval Riga

Tallinn
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Lithuania

The Northern Crusades

The Wars in Lithuania
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

Lithuanian Princes

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas


Poland

The Northern Crusades

The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
The Conquest of Danzig

Royal Dynasties

The Jagiełłonian Kings
Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union


Bohemia

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
(to come)


Other Times

Prehistoric Times

Germany

Development of Civilisation
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Hutewald Project in the Solling
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Orkney

Neolithic Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Scandinavia

Gotland
The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd


Post-Mediaeval History

Explorers and Discoveries

Explorers
Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

Discoveries
Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

Biographies

European Nobility
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus


Miscellanea

History in Literature and Music

History in Literature

Biographies of German Poets and Writers
Theodor Fontane

Historical Ballads by Theodor Fontane
(Translated by me)
Archibald Douglas
Gorm Grymme
Sir Walter Scott in Abbotsford
The Tragedy of Afghanistan

History in Opera

Belcanto and Historicism
Maria Padilla - Mistress Royal
The Siege of Calais in Donizetti's Opera

Not so Serious History

Romans
Building Hadrian's Wall
Playmobil Romans

Mediaeval Times
Kings Having a Bad Hair Day
The Case of the Vanished Wine Cask

Other
Rules for Writing Scottish Romances
Tourist Kitsch in St.Petersburg


Geology

Geological Landscapes

The Baltic Sea
Geology of the Curonian Spit
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

The Harz
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in the Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations

Solling-Vogler
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

The Shores of Scotland
Staffa

Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

Fossilized Ammonites
The Loket Meteorite


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