The Lost Fort
My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times
A Treasure in the Evening Twilight – The Romanesque Church in Gehrden / Brakel
This one was a chance find. My father and I returned from a longer tour, hit a diversion route which confused the GPS until I got out the good old road map and brought us back on track. We drove through several villages west of the Weser river in the fading light of an autumn evening and came across this beauty.
View to the St.Peter and Paul Church in Gehrden
The chapter church St.Peter and Paul in Gehrden / Brakel near Höxter at the Weser dates back to the 12th century, though the Romanesque apse has been replaced with a larger rectangular choir in the 17th century, and the interior is Baroque, which may be the reason that it is less well known than the Weser abbeys of Bursfelde and Lippoldsberg which were built at the same time and retained their architecture unaltered.
The Romanesque St.Peter and Paul Church in Gehrden
We don't know much about the early history of the church. A date confirmed is the gift of land and obviously some material goods as well, which the Lord Heinrich of Gehrden made to the Benedictine nuns who lived on the Iburg. The foundation of the monastery was sanctioned by Bishop Bernhard I of Oesede, and in 1142, the nuns moved into the new monastery.
The monastery flourished in the centuries to come; in 1474 it joined the Congregation of Bursfelde, a congregation of west- and central German benedictine monasteries of both genders who reformed the somewhat diluted Benedictine practice. The congregation became a considerable political power in the 15th-16th centuries.
Interior, view to the Baroque altar
The monastery got a Baroque makeover between 1693- 1711 (for alterations in the architecture of the church see below). The monastery was secularised in 1810 and came into possession of Jérome, one of Napoleon's brothers, who sold it to his Master of Ceremony, Count Wilhelm of Bocholz. Bocholz had the cloister and living quarters dismantled and built a three winged palace in the classicistic style in its place, together with a park. Today, the palace buildings are used as hotel.
The church seen from a different angle
The church was built about 1180 which means that the nuns must have used another church during the years between their arrival and the completion of the present building; probably some village church now lost, or an interim timber building.
The building was constructed with irregular ashlars of locally quarried limestone. It is a three naved basilica with a transept; the side naves are half the height and width of the main nave. The ceiling is constructed of groined vaults. Originally, all three naves ended in a semicircular apse; but today only the ones of the side naves remain.
The pillars are in the Lower Saxon style, rectangular with small round columns in the corners that share the plinth, but got each their own, individual capital.
The western tower was added in the beginning of the 13th century, some 50 years after the church itself. The stapled gable and the windows already show elements of the Gothic style.
The church from the east, with the the new choir
The Romanesque apse of the main nave was broken down and replaced with a rectangular, much larger choir in 1667. A gallery for the nuns was added in 1675 (now the organ loft) – obviously the church was not only used by the nuns but also by the inhabitants of Gehrden at the time, so that a separation proved neccesary. There was a direct connection between the gallery and the nuns' dormitory.
The choir windows and those of the transept have been replaced with larger windows with a pseudo-Gothic tracery, to allow more light to illuminate the Baroque altar.
Detail of the interior
The coloured windows in the side nave date to 1920; at the time the church underwent some repairs like stabilisation of the vaults and some of the pillars.
In the 1960ies, remains of Romanesque frescoes have been discovered, but those are mostly hiding behind the organ; and it was too dark to look for them anyway.
Interior, another angle
The church must have had problems with groundwater at some point. During a renovation in the 1950ies it turned out that the floor had been filled up with debris up to 70 centimetres (though I could not find out at which time during the church's history) so that the plinths of the pillars were no longer visible. The rubble has been removed, which also improved the acoustics of the church – those Mediaeval masons knew what they did even in that respect.
One of the classicistic palace buildings
The area around the church and the palace – the former cloister, refectory, dormitory etc. – once had been a garden for vegetables and herbs, including an orchard and a bleach green, as well as a fish pond; fish being an important part of the nuns' diet.
Count Wilhelm of Bocholz turned the site into a park in the English style in the early 19th century. This park still exists.
Another palace wing, now a hotel
We came home after dark and pretty hungry, but that detour was worth it.
A Piece of Norway in the Harz – the Stave Church in Hahnenklee
It's not exactly a sight you'll expect when driving or hiking in the Harz area, but there it is.
The Stave Church in Hahnenklee
This Scandinavian looking stave church is located in the outskirts of Hahnenklee, a borough of Goslar. Hahnenklee became popular as spa town in the 19th century, so that a larger church was needed for the visitors to be able to attend service; the parish church had become too small.
The church seen from the south-east
The church was designed by Karl Mohrmann (1857-1927), an architect and university teacher, later headmaster of the University of Applied Sciences and Arts in Hannover, and architect of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Hannover. Prior to these occupations he had been a teacher for architecture in Riga and did a lot of traveling in Scandinavia and the UK; but also Africa and the US.
Mohrmann was a representative of the historicist school which started in the 1850ies and imitated old styles of architecture, painting and such. The Neo-Romanesque and Neo-Gothic with its extra turrets and oriels are typical for that style (like the Neo-Romanesque palace in Schwerin which mixes some Classicist elements into the overdecorated fun).
The church seen from the north
In that context, it comes as no surprise that Mohrman would take his inspiration from Mediaeval stave churches in Norway, in particular the one in Borgund which he had seen in person. It dates to the 12th century though it had been enlarged during the Middle Ages. Mohrmann considerably expanded his model; the average stave church would allow room for some 50 parishioners, the one in Hahnenklee can seat 240 and accomodate 350 people.
And from the south
The German empeor Wilhelm II was fond of Norway and spent several holidays there, mostly traveling the fjords with his yacht. He also donated to the rebuilding of the town of Ålesund which was destroyed by a fire in January 1904. His interest in Norway and in history overall created a bit of a fashion which may have played into the idea to use a stave church as model.
One of the doors
The church is officially called Gustav Adolf Stave Church. I suppose it's named for King Gustav II Adolf of Sweden, of Thirty Years fame (who led a Protestant amry into Germany and fell at the Battle of Lützen in 1632). Construction of the church began in 1907; the consecration was held on June 28, 1908.
Details of ornaments
The short period of only ten months was mostly due to the material used. At first, the plans had been for a brick construction in the Neo-Gothic style, but when the plans were changed into the imitation of a stave church, locally harvested spruce trunks were used which sped up the process and were cheaper as well.
The interior of the stave church, view to the altar
Mohrmann thought that stave churches had once been common in Germany as well, and thus the one in Hahnenklee a genuine revival of the ancient architecture of the country. He was wrong, of course, stave churches stand in a different cultural context than the churches built in Germany after the Christianisation. There are no archaeological finds that point at the specific stave style ever to have been used here.
Interior, the other side
The windows are larger than in the traditional stave churches, thus allowing more light to stream into the interior – which, as said above, is larger than most stave churches in the first place. The Gustav Adolf church is more like a grand hall when you enter it.
The style takes up elements of the Scandinavian stave churches like the carved dragon and snake ornaments and other elements inspired by viking ships (like the shape of the roofs that look like Viking ships turned upside down), and a number of 'Norse' ornaments and carvings in the interior of the church.
Detail of the gallery
The great chandelier at the ceiling is inspired by a ship's steering wheel – which was not in use on Viking ships that had a rudder. But it's quite impressive.
The great chandelier
Another nautic feature that is definitely not Mediaeval Scandinavian are the bullseye windows on the gallery.
View to the bullseye windows above the gallery
In other decorative elements – carvings and paintings – the style gets mixed up with Art Nouveau designs and inspirations from the Byzantine mosaic art (see also the altar below with the 'Byzantine' figures), according to the fashion of the early 20th century when the Art Nouvau became popular.
And below we get a bird of prey inspired by the Norse carvings at the foot of the chancel.
Detail of the chancel ornaments
The church has been constructed in the traditional way without nails and screws. All main elements like planks, boards, poles have been set up vertically. That too, is the traditonal way that gives those churches their name: stave churches (from Old Norse stafr).
Closeup of the altar
The church in Hahnenklee has an organ and a carillon, a set of tuned bells that are played with a keyboard and pedals that set int motion levers and wires attached to the bells. The first smaller carillon (1975) was situated in the roof turret, but moved to the belfry in 2002 and expanded to a total of 49 bells encompassing a range of four octaves.
Another view of the interior
The church has been renovated several times; the last one took place in 2000 - 2006. The church is still used for services and weddings and remains a popular tourist destination. I was lucky that there were not many people around when I visited in early March some years ago.
Harz landscape near Hahnenklee in late winter
And now I wish everyone a Happy New Year!
A Holy Rock – The Klusfelsen in Goslar
The Klusfelsen rock formation is a little known landmark in Goslar, usually relegated to the footnotes in travel guide books. After some initial signposts, I had to ask the locals for directions to get there. And then, passing a small path between some suburban houses, a meadow opened and on its farther edge I found this.
The Klus Rock in the evening sun
The Klusfelsen (Klus Rock) is a sandstone rock of about 20 metres height and 50 metres length, dating to the Lower Cretaceous 110 million years ago. The area had been a shallow sea at that time, the result of an inflow of sea water into the Norddeutsche Tiefebene . When the Harz mountains rose during the following Saxon Orogeny, those sandstone layers were pushed into a vertical position (about the geology of the northern Harz see also this post).
The rock seen from the north
The coastline of that shallow sea was only a few miles south of the present day rock formations which include not only the Klus Rock but several other formations in the northern Harz foothills all the way to the Teufelsmauer (Devil's Wall) near Quedlinburg in the east. Along the fault line of the Saxon orogeny in the northern Harz, the lithologic sequence of rocks have been brought to the surface in a mostly vertical or semi-vertical position: the older Triassic buntsandstein, musselkalk and keuper as well as the younger Cretaceous sandstone.
View to the upper part of the rock
The sandstone is a rather coarse and porous variant, originally of a yellow shade, but now more brownish due to weathering - though it still looks more a soft orange in the evening sun. The rock formation also contains several caves of various size washed out of the material. The sandstone is kown as Hils sandstone after a former quarry. That sandstone layer can be as thick as a hundred metres in some places. The stone has been used in construction, esp. for elements that included decorative carvings, during the Middle Ages.
The way up and the bridge
Rocks in such an elevated position and including caves, like the Klus Rock, may indeed have been used as places of worship, for ritual purposes, tribal gatherings and such, but I could not find sufficient proof for a Megalithic cult centre at the Klus Rock that is mentioned online. There is a man made niche in the base of the wall, but if it indeed contained images of pagan deities that were destroyed by Christian missionaries cannot be proven, either.
Halfway to the chapel grotto and the terrace
What we do know is that the rock has been used as hermitage that included a chapel dedicated to St.Mary since at least 1167 (for the dating see also below; though I stick with this date). That hermitage gave its name to the rock: Dialectal Klus, high German Klause means a hermit's abode.
View to the rock with the niche at its base
The hermit – who also took care of the chapel – lived in the cave at the rock base close to the above mentioned niche. The use of that cave predates the establishment of the chapel in the smaller cave in the upper part of the rock, though how far back its use dates is difficult to tell, since both caves have been altered by man in the Middle Ages.
Entrance of the chapel
The chapel in the upper grotto is protected by a locked grille (to prevent people from using the site for parties and leaving the trash behind), but I was lucky to meet a gentleman who had a key to the door and openend the little cave for me, so I could photograph the altar dedicated to St.Mary.
Altar of St.Mary in the chapel grotto
Not far from the rock once stood the chapter church St.Peter, dating to ~1050; a foundation of Agnes of Poitou (1025-1077, daughter of Guillaume V of Aquitaine), second wife of the emperor Heinrich III and mother of Heinrich IV, acting as her son's regent from 1056 to 1062. The church was completely destroyed in 1527.
The chapel windows with signs of masonry
It is unclear whether Agnes used the chapel prior to the building of the church. It would predate the other first official mention of the existence of the chapel in a charte from 1167 which I could find. Agnes was known for her piety, but she had a chapel in the palatine seat, so there was not good motive why she should climb a rock (it had no stairs then) to pray – though she may have done so for exactly for that reason.
Entrance to the chapel from a different angle
The chapel was in use until the Reformation, though the hermitage had been abandoned earlier. Afterwards the chapel served as dwelling place. In the early 19th century it was restored as chapel with an alter dedicated to St.Mary in the wake of the Romanticistic revival, but fell in disuse again in the 1960ies. The chapel was renovated in 1983.
The terrace in front of the chapel
The cave in the rock base served as the hermit's abode, as mentioned above, and was later used as stable and as storage cellar. There had been an inn named 'Zur Clus' on the meadow in front of the cave since the 19th century, which was demolished in 1968. The innkeeper stored his provisions in the cave – the beer would keep cool there.
The peak ridge
Besides the hermit's cave and the chapel grotto there are several more caves in the rock, some of them connected. They have beeen walled shut during the restoration work done by the Rotay Club in the 1980ies to prevent vandalism.
View to the rock from the south
There are legends and fairy tales connected with the Klus Rock. Unfortunately, I could not find any of those online; I'd have liked to share a story or two with my readers like I did for other such places.
Another view of the Klus Rock
Instead, I'll leave you with another final view of the rock.
It is November Again
Which means I spend the time writing as much as possible during the National Novel Writing Month
I reached the required 50.000 words on Tuesday, but I'll continue to concentrate on writing until the end of the month. Regular blogging will resume in December.
Stapelburg Castle – A Little Known Ruin in the Harz
I came across that one a few years ago during one of the Harz tours I did with my father. The ruins of the Stapelburg – only the ringwall, bits of the curtain wall and part of the palas, the great hall, remain – are situated on a hill between Bad Harzburg and Ilsenburg on the northern foothills of the Harz. The land there is already rather flat, so the 60 metres hight hill stands out and offers a good view to Wernigerode and Halberstadt, and even the Brocken mountain on clear days.
Stapelburg - remains of the palas building
A good place for a castle. Yet it was not easy to find much information about the Stapelburg; I could not even figure out if the preserved remains date to the first period (13th - 14th century) or the second phase of its use in the 16th century (which is more likely). The well house and a cellar have been recently restored.
Palace with well house
Its early history is not known – like the early history of many castles that are first mentioned in chartes in the 12th or 13th century but must have existed before. The Stapelburg may well be one of the foundations of the Salian emperors and thus dating to the 11th century. It could have been part of the chain of castles Heinrich IV erected in the Harz and enfeoffed to nobles like the Wernigerode family who originated in Swabia and moved north with Heinrich IV.
Remains of the curtain wall with foundations of other buildings
The name Adalbert of Wernigerode is indeed connected with the castle. The problem is that a whole bunch of counts of Wernigerode were named Adalbert between 1121 and 1319, so it is difficult to establish a timeline. The first traceable mention of the castle beyond local tales is a charte from 1306 (at that time the count of Wernigerode was indeed another Adalbert), in which it is called a 'fortified castle' (vestes slot).
Palace wall seen from the outside
The name 'Stapel' means 'border' but also 'pillar of jurisdiction' (Gerichtssäule), a border marking that included a toll station. The castle may have protected one of those toll stations which had been set up to control travelers and merchants entering the lands of the counts of Wernigerode. The castle may have been named after such a place.
View through the palas gate to yard
The first castle had an unusual design. Judging by archaeological traces it was a rotund construction, not the usual square or rectangular pattern. An influence from the crusades is possible; there are some castles in Germany following an octogonal or round design, like the chapel in the Krukenburg. The double ringwall with its dykes and earthern walls is still well visible in the landscape.
Remains of the ringwall moat
Some counts of Wernigerode seemed to have been of a belligerent disposition and got into feuds with the counts of Regenstein (another old post in need of a rewrite *sigh*) and of Hohnstein, and thus incurred the wrath of the bishop of Magdeburg and the dukes of Braunschweig. Count Conrad of Wernigerode was captured during a skirmish, and his brother Dietrich had to acknowledge the bishop of Magdeburg as feudal overlord (1381) and agree to a Landfrieden - peace of the land (1384).
The palace in Wernigerode,
seat of the Counts of Wernigerode
But Dietrich of Wernigerode attacked the castle of Regenstein again two years later and thus broke his oath. What happened then is not entirely clear: Some sources say he accepted a call to a thing process near the Stapelburg where Count Boso of Regenstein, the bishop of Magedburg and some other nobles condemned him to death an executed him on the spot. That would be somewhat unusual for the late 14th century. Another version has it that Dietrich of Wernigerode was waylaid near the Stapelburg and assassinated by men of the counts of Regenstein and Hohnstein. I think this the more likely variant. His brother Heinrich later donated an altar in memory of Dietrich of Wernigerode.
Stapelburg, palace walls from the outside
The counts of Wernigerode got into financial troubles and had to pawn out the Stapelburg several times. In 1394, they sold the castle to the Chapter of Halberstadt. The Wernigerode family died out in the male line but due to an inheritance treaty, they were succeeded by the related Stolberg family and became known as counts of Stolberg-Wernigerode. Count Botho of Stolberg received the Stapelburg as pawn from the Chapter of Halberstadt in 1432.
The cathedral in Halberstadt,
seat of the Chapter of Halberstadt which held the Stapelburg several times during its history
But the Chapter of Halberstadt redeemed the pawn which shifted possession a few times in the years to come. None of the owners cared to repair the castle. Finally, it came back to the Stolberg family in 1509 – it was again in the hands of the Chapter of Halberstadt which was under the administration of archbishop of Magdeburg at the time – who pledged themselves to repair the castle. But Botho of Stolberg and his father did not have the means to achieve the necessary repairs and modernisations.
Stapelburg, the well
In 1559, the pawn was forfeit and returned the archbishop of Magdeburg who installed Heinrich von Bila, of an old noble family with possessions in Thuringia and Saxony, and member of the Imperial Chamber Court (Reichskammergericht). The counts of Stolberg refused his installment, but hat to give in after a big quarrel.
View to the village Stapelburg
Heinrich von Bila gave the castle a House Makeover, built a new palace and housing for a garrison of 14 soldiers and a captain with their families, and repaired the curtain walls. He also founded the village at the foot of the hills, first called Bilashausen but today known as Stapelburg.
Closeup of the palace wall
Heinrich von Bila's son either had no interest in the castle, or his father had spent too much in the house makeover, so he sold the castle to Statius of Münchhausen in 1596. Münchhausen was a nobleman turned mercantilist and industrialist who collected castles, invested in iron mining and smelting, and built palaces in the style of the so-called Weser-Renaissance. In the end, he ruined himself by speculation and had to sell the Stapelburg to the Chapter of Halberstadt in 1625 (yes, Halberstadt again; I don't make that up).
View through the gate out of the castle
The Chapter gave the castle to one of its members, Eberhard von Münchhausen, of a different branch of the family. He lived in the castle during the Thirty Years War – that is, when it was not occupied by either Wallenstein's army (which plundered the village) or the Swedes. After the war, he sold the rundown place to a family von Stedern, obviously with agreement of the Chapter of Halberstadt. The family lived in the castle for a few decennies; their members were buried in the church of the village.
Curtain wall with view to the Harz mountains
In 1722, King Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia annuled the feudal position of the Chapter of Halberstadt. The counts of Stolberg used the chance to get the Stapelburg back, more for its symbolical value, I suppose. A few lawyers got rich, the castle declined further, but in the end, it came into the hands of the counts of Stolberg in 1727, as part of the county of Stolberg-Wernigerode.
Closeup of the palace windows
The castle was no longer habitable and was used as quarry by the villagers. What the counts got were some picturesque ruins. Well, they had better palaces in Stolberg and Wernigerode. Today, only an outer wall on the southern side which must have been part of the fomer palas or great hall, and a few minor bits of the curtain walls remain, as well as distinct traces of the double moat in the landscape.
Way through the double moats
The Stapelburg was close to the border and part of the restricted zone during the time of the GDR and thus forbidden to visit. Of course, the castle declined further during that time. After the reunion, the ruins were repaired to prevent further decline, a well house and a cellar were reconstructed. There is a regular Mediaeval festival in the summer to garner some interest in the ruins.
The palas with the stage in the foreground
There is a society who cares for the ruins, the Interessengemeinschaft Burgberg e.V. (which has a website with some historical information; another source can be found here).
The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, and central / eastern Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.
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- Name: Gabriele Campbell
- Location: Goettingen, Germany
I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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The Chapel in the Klus Rock
St. Mary's Church, Introduction
St.Mary's Abbey - An Austere Archbishop
St.Mary's Abbey - Reformation to Reunion
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The Cathedral: Architecture
Cathedral: Richard Lionheart in Speyer
Jewish Ritual Bath
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Role of the Castle in Thuringian History
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Otto of Northeim
Heinrich the Lion and Otto IV
The Next Generations
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Hardenberg Castle Gardens
Harzburg (Harz Mountains)
The Harzburg and Otto IV
Hohnstein (Harz Mountains)
Origins of the Counts of Hohnstein
The Family Between Welfen and Staufen
A Time of Feuds (14th-15th century)
The Counts of Everstein
War and Decline
Plesse (Lower Saxony)
Rise and Fall of the Counts of Winzenburg
The Lords of Plesse
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Regenstein (Harz Mountains)
The Time of Henry the Lion
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The Castle After the Restoration
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Krukenburg: Castle and Chapel
Castle Polle: An Everstein Seat
Castles in Thuringia
A Collection of some Castles
Altenstein at the Werra
Castle Normanstein: Introduction
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The Early History
Remains of the Monastery
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
The Exterior Decorations
The Early History
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From Monastery to Museum
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Göllingen Monastery: Traces of Byzantine Architecture
Lorsch Abbey: The Carolingian Gate Hall
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Pöhlde Monastery: The Remaining Church
Stave Church in Hahnenklee
Steinkirche (Scharzfeld): Development of the Cave Church
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The Abbey - Introduction
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Along the Ouse River
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Henry II and William of Scotland
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From the Conquest to King John
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The Wallace Monument
A Virtual Tour of the Castle
The Early Stewart Kings
Royal Dower House, and Decline
Guarding the Sound of Mull
An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
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The Campbells Are Coming
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle
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Arriving at Inchcolm
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Ring of Brodgar
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The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Introduction
Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort
Castle and Coast
The Smallest House in Great Britain
The Historical Context
Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens
From the Romans to the Victorians
Beginnings unto Bigod
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Civil War, Restoration, and Aftermath
The History of the Castle
King Edward's Buildings
The Pleasantest Spot in Wales
The Caves Under the Castle
The Fram Museum in Oslo
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Arkershus Fortress in Oslo
Akershus at the Time of King Håkon V
Defending the North for Centuries
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Gnisvärd Ship Setting
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The Wrocław Dwarfs
A Virtual Tour
From the First Castle to the Boner Family
Cheb / Eger
Pretty Houses in the Old Town
Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
Brief History of the Town
The Sedlec Ossuary
Walk through the Town, with St.Barbara's Church
The Old Town
Roman and Mediaeval Remains
A Tour of the Town
A Tour of the Town
Hiking Tours and Cruises
The Baltic Sea Coast
The Flensburg Firth
Rugia - Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
Rugia - Seaside Ressort Binz
Rugia - The Pier of Sellin
A Tour on the Wakenitz River
Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
Views from Harz mountains
Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Nature Park Solling-Vogler
Forest Pasture - Hutewald Project
The Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Nature Park Reinhardswald
The Old Forest at the Sababurg
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park
Rivers and Lakes
The Danube in Spring
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut
Weser River Ferry
Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life
Spring in the Botanical Garden Göttingen
Spring at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Spring in the Rossbach Heath (Meissner)
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Winter Wonderland - Views from my Balcony
Mountains and Valleys
West Highland Railway
The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains - Inverness to John o'Groats
Some Photos from the East Coast
Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull - Craignure to Fionnphort
Castles Seen from Afar (Dunollie and Kilchurn)
Summer Days in Oban
Summer Nights in Oban
Wild Wales - With Castles
Views of Snowdownia
Views from Castle Battlements
-Tour / Norway
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle
Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord
The Baltic Sea
A Baltic Sea Cruise
The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
Beaches at the Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit