The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times


11 Jul 2021
  More Rugia Impressions

Just a summer photo post today. I still got a number of pretty photos from my Rugia tour in my files.
The pier at Binz

I've posted about the seaside ressort Binz here, but got more photos of the beach and the pier.
An excursion boat arriving

Excursion boats to the famous chalk cliff of the Königsstuhl and the spa town of Sellin depart from the pier several times a day.
Dunes with trees

Most of the town has a promenade behind the beach, but in some spots the dunes have been preserved and the way goes past those.
Blue hour

Lovely evening atmosphere past sunset. The picture shows one of the ways down to the beach.
Reeds at Lake Schmachte

Lake Schmachte is a lake in Binz. I went there at sunset and caught some lovely pictures.
Sunset at Lake Schmachte

Like this one. There were some benches, but those had been occupied by gulls and their ... poop.
Lighthouse at Sassnitz

The lighthouse signals the entrance of the old harbour of Sassnitz.
Sassnitz, the seaside

Sassnitz is one of the main towns on Rugia. It is one of the transportation crosses, with a railway station and a ferry harbour, but it has no such nice beaches as Binz or Sellin.
Old church in Altenkirchen

I came across this charming old church in the village of Altenkirchen on the bus ride to Kap Arkona. The driver was so kind to stop for a moment so I could take some pictures.
The apsis

The church dates to 1168 – 1200 and is one of the oldest on Rugia. It was built for the brother of Prince Jaromar I. The separate timber belfry is rare in Germany where the bells are usually inside one of the church towers.
The Königsstuhl chalk cliff

Another photo of the Königsstuhl chalk cliff on the Jasmund peninsula. It is one of the landmarks of Rugia.
Victoria's View

The other famous cliff in the series of chalk cliffs along the Jasmund coast, Victoria's View.
More chalk cliffs

More ciffs. Yes, I was a naughty girl and stepped over the safety fence for that shot. I wasn't the only one, either.
Lake in the forest near the cliffs

This lovely lake, called Hertha's Lake, can be found in the forest near the cliffs.
Kap Arkona

I already posted photos of Kap Arkona (link see above), but I got more of that second famous landmark, so here is another.
Halfway down to the beach at the cape

The sea, so calm the first days during my stay on Rugia, had turned rough that last day. Actually a weather I like.
The twin lighthouses of Kap Arkona

The iconic lighthouses on Kap Arkona seen from a different angle than in the other post.
The harbour of the village of Vitt

The clouds were real drama queens that day. Vitt is a historic fishing village within walking distance of Kap Arkona; today preserved for the tourists.
The chapel of Vitt

The chapel of Vitt, situated on a cliff above the village, is an octagonal building dating to 1816. Bad weather often prevented the fishermen living in Vitt to attend service in Altenkirchen, so a priest began to preach on the cliff in the late 18th century, until the community collected the money to build a chapel.
Gulls. On rocks.

I hope you liked the photographic impressions from Rugia. It was a lovely little tour I would like to repeat some day. There is more to be seen on the island.
 


20 Jun 2021
  Summer Colours - Archaeological Remains in the Forest near Bad Sooden-Allendorf

I mentioned the Mediaeval ringwall and the Bronze Age burial mounds in my post about the Bruchteiche. Those sites are hidden in the forest which makes for another pretty Summer-in-Germany post with a bit of cool shade during the hot days we just got.
Forest at the Bruchteiche (Bad Sooden-Allendorf)

There is a substantial number of fortifications in Germany dating to the Iron Age or the early Mediaeval period. Most of them are scarcely visible today, often located on forested hills or promontories where they look like natural structures at first view. They are known as ringwall forts or walled castles, like so so-called Römerlager ('Roman Camp', though it has nothign to so with the Romans) near Bad Sooden-Allendorf.
The Römerlager near Bad Sooden-Allendorf

Those ringwalls can enclose areas of varying size from less than a hundred metres in diameter those some that surround a site of several hectares. The walls were usually earthen walls, sometimes mixed with stones – depending on the material avaliable. A dry ditch in front of the wall was common, as well as gate structures; some of those are still visible today.
Römerlager, former gate in the east wall

Originally, the walls had a vertical outer side which was likely supported by timber constructions, maybe also by a mix of stone, timber and packed earth. Inside must have been a battlement which was usually achieved by creating a flat top of the wall which sloped down on the inner side. The battlement was likely protected by timber palisades. All that tumbled into overgrown remains of the walls over the centuries.
Example of a wall from the Iron Age (Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen)

Most of the ringwall forts date to either the – predominantely Celtic – Iron Age or the early Middle Ages. The Römerlager is an early Mediaeval construction. There may have been earlier fortifications from the later Bronze Age in some places that have been reused, but it is difficult to find traces of those. There is no connection with the burial mounds (see below) in the case of Bad Sooden-Allendorf.
Inside the wall fort

The Römerwall has a size of about 90x110 metres; the walls protected an area of 0.46 hectares in diameter. Some ringwall forts have been investigated by archaeologists and rendered finds like pottery, metal (parts of weapons, kettles and such) and with luck post holes pointing at former buildings. Other walled castles have not rendered any finds and are assumed to have been in use only temporarly, as sacred sites – though those should have left traces – or refuge castles used only in times of war. Finds would be few and easy to miss in such cases.
On the remains of the wall

But many of those ringwalls have not been researched in detail; the one near Bad Sooden-Allendorf included. Superficial research did not render any interesting finds, though it is assumed that the fort had been inhabited and timber buildings – houses, workshops, likely granaries and other storage – would have stood inside the wall.
Another shot of the wall

The fort dates to the Carolingian time, likely the late 8th century AD, and served to protect the nearby salt mines at the Werra. It may have been a royal walled castle that later came into responsibilty of the bishop of Fulda to whom Charlemagne granted the salt mines and saltworks in 799 (see post linked above). I could not find out how long the fort may have been in use.
Summer forest near the wall fort

The southern part of the wall and the dry ditch in front are still preseved to a visible extent. They were probably the highest and sturdiest part of the wall, protecting the fort on the flat side with the easiest approach. The other parts on the edge are less well preserved and may have been lower to begin with.
Various paths

There are several hikings trails in the forests around Bad Sooden-Allendorf and above the Bruchteiche lakes. One leads to another hidden archaeological feature, a set of eight burial mounds from the middle Bronze Age (1600-1200 BCE). Some have been so badly damaged over time that they are difficult to distinguish in the forest, but some are still visible.
The way to the burial mounds

Burial mounds are not uncommon in Germany; in Hessia – to which Bad Sooden-Allendorf belongs – some 1,400 have been counted, though they are comparably scarce in the Werra valley. The ones in the forest above the Bruchteiche point at an early use of the hill by humans, though it can't be determined with any surety whether there were ongoing settlements from the Bronze Age to the Middle Ages.
Information panel with tumulus

The burial mounds can vary from 2-3 metres and about a metre in height at the centre to larger ones of about 20 metres in diameter and 3 metres high. They usually occur in groups or even burial fields with up to 200 mounds and are made of earth or stone, depending on the material avaliable. The ones of Bad Sooden-Allendorf consist of one large mound of 20 metres (once about 3 metres high) and several smaller ones (the smallest is almost invisible), spread across an area of 100x130 metres.
Two of the smaller mounds

Most of those burial mounds date to the Middle Bronze Age, the so-called Tumulus culture (Hügelgräberkultur), and are one of its determinating features, though already the Neolithic Baker culture occasionally used burial mounds, and some can be found as late as the Merovingian time (to ~ 750 AD). The Bad Sooden-Allendorf tumuli have not been throughly researched, but what has been found out dates them to the Tumulus culture.
Tree roots digging into a tumulus

Usually, only one person was buried beneath a mound in an inhumation or cremation grave, sometimes within stone circles, but often protected by wooden or leather materials that did not preserve. Grave goods were usually limited (Bronze parts of garments), though some graves with more valuable grave goods like weapons exist; they are assumed to be burials of leaders. Secondary burials have been quite common; other members of a family were entombed in the same place, but sometimes the mounds were also reused in the Iron Age.
Traces of the 1880 dig in the mound

One of the mounds in the Bad-Sooden-Allendorf group had been opened by treasure hunters in 1880, but inside only a stone circle and remains of a fire were found, nothing of value. Another official dig on the large mound showed traces of fire and some bones under the hill – a primary burial, and a stone ring outside the tumulus, covered by earth – which was likely a secondary burial. One mound has unfortunately been cut in two at some point.
Summer forest

The Middle Bronze Age, dating to 1600 - 1200 BCE, only counts as such in central Europe, and only there it is known as Tumulus culture. The epoch already ended in 1600 BCE on Crete and in Greece (where it began in 2000 BCE), while in Scandinavia – and to some extent in northern Germany – it lasts from about 1300 - 1000 BCE. The different dates show a cultural gradient, though finds from fe. Greece (which would date to the Late Bronze Age there) can be found in Middle Bronze Age contexts in central Europe.
 


16 May 2021
  Sites of the Weimar Classicism – The Park at the Ilm

My hotel in Weimar was close to one of the entrances to the Park at the Ilm, so I decided for an afternoon walk upon my arrival. First, I went straight to Goethe's garden house in order not to miss the opening hours (it will get its own post), but afterwards I just strolled through the park without a list of things to see., But I came across some of the famous features like the Roman House and the artificial ruin nevertheless.

Come with me on a lovely walk.
Way at the Ilm river

The Park at the Ilm was mostly a wilderness when Goethe arrived in Weimar in 1775. The garden house or cottage he received from the duke was a former vintner house, though the vintage was long defunct; most of what grew on the slope were fruit trees in need of pruning, and some vegetables.

There had been another orchard on the meadows at the river, which was also used as pleasance. It dates back to an older castle in Weimar around 1370 (the predecessor of that one were even older, but no gardens are mentioned). The park and the outbuildings were destroyed by a great flood in May 1613 and never rebuilt; the area became a wilderness.
Park at the Ilm, trees in the sunshine

Closer to the castle was a formal garden in the Baroque style, the Star Garden (Sterngarten), also known as Welscher Garten (Italian Garden). It was developed by Duke Wilhelm after the Thirty Years War and included the so called Snail, a wooden viewing platform surrounded by linden trees (it was later dismantled due to decaying timber). Nearby were some fish ponds.

The Baroque garden flourished during the regency of Duke Ernst Wilhelm (1683-1728) and his successor Duke Johann Ernst (1728.1748); afterwards it fell into decline, and the trees and shrubs were allowed to grow wild.
At the Ilm river, view to the Nature Bridge

The park was cared for after the death of Duke Carl August, but the wooden areas grew out too much despite; the indigenous trees threatening to push the imported ones out of competition, so the park became more of a forest, and the visual axes – like from Goethe's cottage to the Roman House – almost disappeared. The park also suffered bomb damage at the end WW2; the Tempelherrenhaus (House of the Templers) was destroyed except for the ruins of its tower.

In the 1970ies, the park was finally restored to its original appearance as far as possible. The old trees are specially cared for, the wild growth has been cut and the sight lines brought to view again. Shrubs and flowers are planted according to old plans of the park which is now in the care of the Klassik Stiftung Weimar.
Example of a sight line: View to the Roman House

The park stretches for 1.6 km from the ducal palace to the suburb Oberweimar in the south. It is about 300 metres wide and covers and area of 48 hectares. It is part of a green girdle along the Ilm river that also includes the park of Tiefurt downriver and the palace garden of Belvedere upriver.

The Park at the Ilm proper is divided into two parts, the area between the palace and Goethe's garden house, the oldest part of the cooperation between Duke Carl August and Goethe, and the adjacent, slighly younger Dux Garden with its grand sweeps of meadows ansd forested areas. Both are connected by the Dux Bridge, though there are several more bridges across the Ilm river.
The Naturbrücke (Nature Bridge) in the oldest part of the park

Duke Carl August of Weimar and Goethe shared an interest in creating a nice park out of the remains of trees and meadows along the Ilm. Since Goethe actually lived in the park during his first summers in Weimar, he was even more keen on getting nice views from the windows of his garden house.

As Minister for Pretty much Everything (*grin*), Goethe was in the perfect position to oversee works on the park. His growing interest in geology and botany also helped. The duke and Goethe decided to go for a park in the English landscape garden style with winding paths, groups of trees allowed to grow naturally, meadows, shrubs and flower beds, but also grottos, artificial ruins and such. Model was the Wörlitz Park (Duke Carl August and Prince Franz of Anhalt-Dessau who owned the park were friends).
Meadow with trees

The first part to be altered was the area between the palace and Goethe's cottage. It is here most of the artificial features (see below) and sculptures can be found. The expansion of the park to the south culmitated in the building of the Roman House, an abode for the duke, in 1797. At that time, Goethe still was involved in the park, but it no longer was one of his main occupations. The final step was the construction of the House of the Templers in 1823 (the Snail had been removed in 1808 which further changed the aspect of this part of the park).

In his own cottage garden, fenced off from the rest of the park, Goethe grew not only flowers, but vegetables for his household, and he included an orchard among the trees. Later, his mistress Christiane Vulpius would also keep chicken. The meadows of the park were mowed for hay and sometimes even used a grazing – the border between recreational and agricultural uses were blurred in the past when you could not buy your celery at Costco's.
View from the Nature Bridge to the river

It was only after the death of both Duke Carl August and Goethe that the view axis between the Garden House and the Roman House was elevated by the replacement of some trees; the work of the court gardener Eduard Petzold. Much of what was planted in the years between 1778 and the 1820ies took time to grow into full splendour, among them non-native species like Hemlock, Sitka spruce, Tulip trees, Ginkgo, Caucasian Wingnut and Crimean Tillia. There is also a bunch of horse chestnuts which were ripe when I visited. Yes, I gathered some; I can never withstand those shiny brown conkers. *grin* Gave them to some kids when I left the park.
The Nadelöhr (Bottleneck) staircase

The first feature Goethe added to the park was a rock staircase near the Powder Tower which connected the Park at the Ilm with the Italian Garden (also known as The Star, der Stern) at the back of the ducal palace – which at the time was a ruin as result of a fire. The passage is called the Nadelöhr (Bottleneck).

The reason for this monument was a sad one: The suicide of Christiane Henriette of Laßberg who had drowned herself in the Ilm at the Nature Bridge in January 1778 due to an unhappy liaison with a married man. The suicide must have shocked the Weimarian upper classes to whom Christiane belonged, and the Bottleneck, so close to the river and her place of death, served as memorial.
Remains of the Powder Tower

A happier incident were the birthday celebrations of Duchess Luise of Weimar July 9th, 1778, which led to further additions in this part of the park in preparation of the festivities. With the palace in ruins (the duke and his court had moved to a representative building in the town) and the increasing interest of the nobility in being out in the nature, some of the events were held here, among others a play written by Goethe himself and staged in what was called the 'Luisenkloster', a hermitage consisting of an old wall, a little belfry on top of the remains of the Powder Tower, and the Borkenhäuschen, a straw thatched timber hut which would become a favourite abode of Duke Carl August when he wanted to escape the court life for a few hours.
Entrance to the grotto behind the boulder

Near the tower, hidden behind a boulder, is one of the entrances to the Park Grotto (the other is near the Liszt House). The grotto can only be visited by guided tours, so I missed out on it. It consists of a system of cellars and passages, some of them natural. The duke had those enlarged in order to establish a brewery in the grotto (1794-97) which never came to pass. But the rooms were used for storage, and the travertine – a sedimentary rock frequent it karst landscapes – quarried during the creation of the grotto system was used in road constructions. The rock included a good amount of fossils in which Goethe took an interest; several of them ended up in his collection.
The artificial ruin

Artificial ruins were a typical feature of landscape gardens in the English style. The one in the Park at the Ilm had been the backstop for the marksmen's club house and simultaneously the southern border to the Italian garden. The wall was altered into a ruin in 1784, with additional bits from the remains of the destroyed ducal palace. The artificial ruin should remind the viewer of the decline of the world, in good Sentimentalist tradition.
Tower of the former House of the Templers

Another ruin in this part of the park once had been an intact building which was destroyed at the end of WW2; the Tempelherrenhaus ('House of the Templers', a successor organisation of the Knights Templar). Today, only the tower remains.
Remains of the House of the Templers, different angle

The House of the Templers was a former orangery that had been changed into a 'Romantic Salon' in 1787. The building was used for cultural events of the court, concerts, exhibitions and such. The name originates in the four sculptures of famous Templers that graced the roof corners. The timber sculptures were replaced by such of sandstone in 1818.

The salon was altered into a neo-Gothic building by Christian Steiner in 1823. Already before, Goethe himself had designed a 'Gothic' tower to be added to the salon in 1816; it fortunately survived the bombs. The statues that gave the house its name were moved inside the new hall. Three of them survived the bombardement in the cellar of the Roman House.

The 'Gothic House' was used as summer house for the ducal family. Later it was used as concert hall, among others by Franz Liszt who lived in Weimar 1843 - 1862, and as studio of the Bauhaus movement.
Roman House, seen from below

The most important building in the newer part of the park, the ducal part, is the Roman House which one can see upslope among the trees on the opposite side of Goethe's cottage. It was alreday closed for the evening, but since the rooms are no longer furnished, I didn't mind.
The Roman House

The Roman House was erected between 1791 – 1797 as garden house for Duke Carl August who wanted to escape court for times (and his wife as well; he used to have mistresses). Goethe designed the building, together with Johann August Arens, an architect from Hamburg, the interior designer Christian Friedrich Schuricht, and the Weimarian painter Johann Heinrich Meyer, a friend of Goethe. The house is one of the earliest examples of the Classicist style, imitating a Roman temple.

The duke trusted Goethe completely, stating that their tastes and needs were similar and he would give Goethe free reign. The house is also a memory of Goethe's time in Italy.

The Doric colmuns of the well house, visible from across the park, are an iconic feature of the house. The well hall also offers grand vistas across the park and the opposite slope.
Roman house, the well hall with the Doric columns

After the death of Duke Carl August, the house was rarely used, though kept in reasonable repair. After the abdication of the great duke Wilhelm Ernst in 1922 – a result of WW1 and the loss of privileges of the nobility – the house came into the care of the County of Thuringia. Today it is part of the Klassik Stiftung Weimar (Classical Foundation Weimar)
Roman House, view from the well hall

Goethe's attitude towards landscape gardening changed over time. Like others of the Sturm und Drang and Sentimentalism movements, he adored the English gardens; he had visited the Wörlitz Park as student in Leipzig. The idealised nature of those parks became landscape poetry, an ideal of Arcadia, a synthesis between art and nature.

Small wonder that Goethe went into landscaping during his first years in Weimar. He also was a not unskilled painter (he took lessons for many years) and sketched several vistas of the park, like the Ilm river in the moonlight, and wrote nature poetry.
Hill landscape in the southern park

But his attitude towards arts and poetry changed (see also the introductory post about the Weimar Classicism linked above) and moreover, he experienced the true sublimity of nature during his visits to the Harz, Switzerland and Italy. He now considered fake ruins and artificially created vistas as a bad reproduction of the real nature that would never inspire awe.

After his return from Italy, Goethe prefered landscape gardening that would but enhance nature itself without unnecessary additions. The Roman House he developed was already something of a favour for his friend and lord, though he seemed to have enjoyed playing with the Italian architecture. I suppose the same goes for the tower at the Templer House. There are fewer man made structure in the younger, southern part of the park, the Dux Garden.
View from the Dux Bridge to the Ilm

Goethe's garden around his cottage is more a kitchen garden with flowers to add colour, intersperced with some trees, though it also has several features from Goethe's early landscaping time, like a stone seating area. His garden at the house Am Frauenplan also mirrors his interest in botany; he planted flowers according to system. This is the ordered garden of a scientist.

In contrast, nature is infinite and cannot be contained within the borders of a park. Therefore nature cannot be perfectly represented as an idea, but can only ever be approximated to this idea.

Goethe's concept of nature was reflected in his aesthetic thinking. All art must proceed from nature. Where art, on the other hand, presumes to change nature in order to present it to the viewer as the true one, this had to end in aporia (see also this essay).
Way in the park in the evening

(There are several monuments / memorial stones f.e for the Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, and writers like Shakespeare, Pushkin etc; some of them were set up after the time of Goethe and Duke Carl August. But I didn not specifially hunt those.)

I hope you liked the little afternoon and evening walk in this charming place, if only in virtual form.
 




The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, and central / eastern Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.


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Location: Goettingen, Germany

I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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From the Civil War to the Present
The Architecture


Scotland

Towns

Edinburgh
Views from the Castle

Stirling
The Wallace Monument

Castles

Doune
A Virtual Tour of the Castle
The Early Stewart Kings
Royal Dower House, and Decline

Duart
Guarding the Sound of Mull

Dunstaffnage
An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
The Wars of Independence
The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

Stirling
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle

Abbeys and Churches

Inchcolm Abbey
Arriving at Inchcolm

Other Historical Sites

Neolithic Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae

Brochs and Cairns
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Introduction

Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort
Staffa


Wales

Towns

Aberystwyth
Castle and Coast

Caerleon
The Ffwrwm

Conwy
The Smallest House in Great Britain

Castles

Beaumaris
The Historical Context
The Architecture

Caernarfon
Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

Cardiff
From the Romans to the Victorians

Chepstow
Beginnings unto Bigod
From Edward II to the Tudors
Civil War, Restoration, and Aftermath

Conwy
The History of the Castle
The Architecture

Criccieth
Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings

Manorbier
The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

Pembroke
Pembroke Pictures
The Caves Under the Castle


Denmark

Towns

Copenhagen
To come


Norway

Towns

Oslo
The Fram Museum in Oslo

Castles and Fortresses

Arkershus Fortress in Oslo
Introduction
Akershus at the Time of King Håkon V
Architectural Development

Vardøhus Fortress
Defending the North for Centuries


Sweden

Towns

Stockholm
The Vasa Museum

Historical Landscapes

Gotland
Gnisvärd Ship Setting


Finland

Towns

Porvoo
Mediaeval Porvoo


Russia

Towns

St. Petersburg
Isaac's Cathedral
Smolny Cathedral
Impressions from the The Neva River


Estonia

Towns

Tallinn
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Latvia

Towns

Riga
The History of Mediaeval Riga


Lithuania

Historical Landscapes

The Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit


Poland

Towns

Gdańsk / Danzig
The History of Mediaeval Gdańsk
Mediaeval and Renaissance Gdańsk

Kraków
The Old Town
Jewish Kraków - Kazimierz and the Ghetto

Wrocław / Breslau
The Botanical Garden
The Wrocław Dwarfs

Castles

Ogrodzieniec Castle
A Virtual Tour
From the First Castle to the Boner Family


Czechia

Towns

Cheb / Eger
Pretty Houses in the Old Town

Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
Brief History of the Town

Kutná Hora
The Sedlec Ossuary
Walk through the Town, with St.Barbara's Church


Belgium

Towns

Antwerp
The Old Town

Bruges
Mediaeval Bruges

Ghent
Mediaeval Ghent

Tongeren
Roman and Mediaeval Remains


Luxembourg

Towns

Luxembourg City
A Tour of the Town


France

Towns

Strasbourg
A Tour of the Town


Hiking Tours and Cruises

Germany

The Baltic Sea Coast
The Flensburg Firth
Rugia - Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
Rugia - Seaside Ressort Binz
Rugia - The Pier of Sellin
Rugia - More Photo Impressions
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
Oderteich Reservoir
Rappbode Reservoir
Views from Harz mountains

Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Around Bad Sooden-Allendorf
Hessian Switzerland

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
Forest Pasture - Hutewald Project
The Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Nature Park Reinhardswald
The Old Forest at the Sababurg

Thuringian Forests
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

Rivers and Lakes
Bruchteiche / Bad Sooden Allendorf
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
The Moselle
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut
Weser River Ferry
Weser Skywalk

Wildlife
Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life
Red squirrels

Seasons
Spring in the Botanical Garden Göttingen
Spring at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Spring in the Rossbach Heath (Meissner)
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Winter Wonderland - Views from my Balcony


United Kingdom

Mountains and Valleys
West Highland Railway

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains - Inverness to John o'Groats
Some Photos from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull - Craignure to Fionnphort
Pentland Firth
Castles Seen from Afar (Dunollie and Kilchurn)
Staffa
Summer Days in Oban
Summer Nights in Oban

Wild Wales - With Castles
Views of Snowdownia
Views from Castle Battlements

Wildlife
Sea Gulls


Scandinavia

The Hurtigruten-Tour / Norway
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Wildlife
Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord


The Baltic Sea

A Baltic Sea Cruise

The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
Beaches at the Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit






Roman History
General Essays

Provinces
- Germania
- Gallia Belgica
- Britannia

Mediaeval History
General Essays

By Country
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Livonia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Bohemia

Other Times
- Prehistoric Times
- Post-Mediaeval History
-
Miscellanea
- Geology


Roman History

General Essays

The Romans at War

Forts and Fortifications
Exercise Halls
Mile Castles and Watch Towers
Soldiers' Living Quarters
Cavalry Barracks

Roman Militaria

Armour
Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapons
Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum
Daggers
Swords

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles

Life and Religion

Religion
The Mithras Cult
Isis Worship
Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms

Public Life
Roman Transport - Barges
Roman Transport - Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots

Miscellaneous Essays

The Legend of Alaric's Burial


Germania

Wars and Frontiers

Maps
Romans in Germania

Traces of the Pre-Varus Conquest
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn
Introduction

Along the Limes
The Cavalry Fort Aalen
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg


Gallia Belgica

The Batavians

The Batavian Rebellion
A Short Introduction


Britannia

Roman Frontiers in Britain

The Hadrian's Wall
Introduction
The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend


Mediaeval History

General Essays

Mediaeval Art and Craft

Mediaeval Art
Carved Monsters
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Medieaval Craftmanship
Goldsmithery
Medical Instruments

Mediaeval Warfare

Mediaeval Weapons
Swords
Trebuchets

Castles and Fortifications
Dungeons and Oubliettes

Essays about Specific Topics

Feudalism

The History of Feudalism
The Beginnings
Feudalism in the 10th Century

Privileges and Special Relationships
The Privilege of the deditio
A Note on handgenginn maðr

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings

Hanesatic Architecture
Examples of Brick Architecture

Goods and Trade
Stockfish Trade

The Order of the Teutonic Knights

Wars and Battles
The Conquest of Danzig
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

The Vikings

Viking Ships
The Nydam Ship


Germany

Geneaology

List of Mediaeval German Emperors

Geneaologies
Anglo-German Marriage Connections
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors

Kings and Emperors

The Salian Dynasty
King Heinrich IV

House Welf and House Staufen
Emperor Otto IV, Introduction

Princes and Lords

Princes
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto of Northeim
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Famous Feuds

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War - Introduction
The Star Wars


England

Kings of England

King Henry IV
King Henry's Lithuanian Crusade

Normans, Britons, Angevins

Great Fiefs - The Honour of Richmond
The Dukes of Brittany and the Honour of Richmond
The Earldom of Richmond and the Duchy of Brittany

Contested Borders

Northumbria
King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


Scotland

Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War, Part 1
King David and the Civil War, Part 2

Houses Bruce and Stewart
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle
The Early Stewart Kings

Scottish Nobles and their Quarrels

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding


Wales

Welsh Princes

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

Rebels

A History of Rebellion
From Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Denmark

Kings of Denmark

House of Knýtlinga
Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

The Duchy of Estonia
Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


Norway

Kings of Norway

Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

A Time of Feuds

Famous Nobles and their Feuds
Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Sweden

Troubles and Alliances

Scandinavian Unity
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union


Livonia
(Latvia and Estonia)

Towns of the Hanseatic League

Riga
The History of Mediaeval Riga

Tallinn
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Lithuania

The Northern Crusades

The Wars in Lithuania
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

Lithuanian Princes

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas


Poland

The Northern Crusades

The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
The Conquest of Danzig

Royal Dynasties

The Jagiełłonian Kings
Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union


Bohemia

Royal Dynasties

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
King Sigismund and the Hussite Wars


Other Times

Prehistoric Times

Germany

Neolithic Remains
Stone Burials of the Funnelbeaker Culture

Development of Civilisation
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Hutewald Project in the Solling
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Scotland

Neolithic Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Bronze Age / Iron Age
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Their Function in Iron Age Society

Scandinavia

Gotland
The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd


Post-Mediaeval History

Explorers and Discoveries

Explorers
Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

Discoveries
Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

Biographies

European Nobility
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus


Miscellanea

History in Literature and Music

History and Literature

The Weimar Classicism
The Weimar Classicism - Introduction

Historical Ballads by Theodor Fontane
Short Biography of Theodor Fontane
(Some of Fontane's Ballads, translated by me)
Archibald Douglas
Gorm Grymme
Sir Walter Scott in Abbotsford
The Tragedy of Afghanistan

History in Opera

Belcanto and Historicism
Maria Padilla - Mistress Royal
The Siege of Calais in Donizetti's Opera

Not so Serious History

Romans
Building Hadrian's Wall
Playmobil Romans

Mediaeval Times
Kings Having a Bad Hair Day
The Case of the Vanished Wine Cask

Other
Rules for Writing Scottish Romances
Tourist Kitsch in St.Petersburg


Geology

Geological Landscapes

The Baltic Sea
Geology of the Curonian Spit
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

The Harz
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Buntsandstein Formations in the Northern Harz
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in the Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations
Salt Springs at the Werra

Solling-Vogler
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

The Shores of Scotland
Staffa

Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

Fossilized Ammonites
The Loket Meteorite


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