The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times

28 Feb 2007
  Feudalism 101 (Part 2)

Carolingian Times (8th-10h centuries)

Subsequently, the oath of obedience changed into an oath of fealty, and therewith the system of entourage into the genuine feudal system.

Not all the retainers could live at the court, so they were given a piece of land as beneficium (French fief), and they were only called into service on special occassions. The dependence of the vassals towards their lord was lessened, at the same time the social status of the vasalls developed into membership of a special group with increasingly high standing that would become the knights. A disadvantage of this development resulted in the king and the lords somewhat losing the grip on their vasalls.

During the reign of Charlemagne, feudality developed into a veritable system by uniting the originally independent institutions of the personal bound by commendation and the landloan of the beneficium. Vassalage thus became the prerequisite for receiving a beneficium. The act of making a vasall was formalized: the first step was the commendation or manumission ('handgang' - the vasall put his hands into the hands of the lord), followed by an oath of fealty. Touching of a reliquar was also often part of it.

The importance of the oath was enhanced the moment the institution of the antrustiones went into decline. A possible reason for this was the fact that the oath was legally binding for both parties and it could only take part between freeborn men. It thus gave a counterweight to the act of the commendation that stressed the dependant situation of the vasall. Successively, vassalage became acceptable even for persons of high standing.

Obedience was no longer neccesarily included in the oath formula. "By this oath I promise to be faithful to my lord, the very pious Emperor Charles, as according to custom and right a vasall owns faith towards his lord, to guard his realm and protect his rights. And I will keep this my sworn oath henceforth as is in my power, and may God, Creator of heaven and earth, and these holy relics help me." (1) Often the oath of fealty is defined in a 'negative' way: not to do anything that may give harm or disadvantage to the lord, " ensure the king by an oath of fidelity not to do anything against his life and his body, and not to take him prisoner to his disadvantage..." (2) The lord, too, had duties towards his vasalls, besides fidelity from his side it was mostly protection in form of military aid in case the vasall was attacked, and maintenance, fe. by giving him a beneficium. In addition to the afore mentioned fidelty, the vasall owed his lord consilium et auxilium, ie. he had to visit his lord on days of council and judgement and function as an advisor. Auxilium meant military aid as a mounted knight, together with his retainers, if he had; but it also could involve payment of ransom, or giving financial support in case of great celebrations such as marriage. High standing vasalls of a king could be asked to bring 500 or 1000 warriors to a war, part of them fully equipped kinghts. Therefore, vassalty was mostly a military institution.

Commendation and oath-taking both founded the personal relationship between vasall and lord, and a contract made in that way could not be broken or annulated save by the death of one of the parties. Later on, failure of one of the parties to keep the mutual promise of succour by the vasall and protection by the lord could also lead to annulation of the feudal bond. We have to keep in mind that personal bonds were the only way to somewhat regulate the misuse of power in a society without a 'modern' political system of legislative and courts of justice. Added to this, religion in Mediaeval society had a very strong influence and oath-breaking was considered as a major sacrilege leading directly towards condamnation.

Third part of the ceremony of making a vasall was the so-called investiture: the vasall was given the right over his beneficium by handing over of a symbolic object, fe. a staff. The sequence and importance ot the three elements of commendation, oath, and investiture changed within time.

Originally, the beneficium fell back to the lord after the vasall died. But the heirs of a vasall were, of course, interested in keeping the fief. Often the lord agreed to this and the usual way was to reenact the whole ceremony to make the new bond legal. In the second half of the 9th century heritage became the accepted way of transferring a fief.

The feudal pyramid - that means the system of lesser lords bound to dukes and counts, and these bound to the king - was weakened by the fact that an increasing number of minor vasalls and subsequently even the higher ones gave their alliance to several lords for different fiefs. This resulted in a lessened bond towards the king, the oath-taking became a mere formality. At the end of the millenium the feudal system was close to a collapse, a development accelerated by the weakening of the position of the king during the late Carolingian period (there were often several sons fighting over the heritage and the lands). But still the value of the oath had some effect and kept the feudal system and with it the empire from collapsing.

(1) Annales Regni Francorum 802
(2) Actes des comtes de Flandre; part of the oath sworn by Count Robert II of Flanders to King Henry I of England in 1101

Picture: Roland swearing fealty to Charlemagne, from the mss. of a chanson de geste - Public Domain (could not find out which particular manuscript)

  Feudalism 101 (Part 1)

Merovingian Times (5th-8th centuries)

"Because it is well known to everyone that I have no food and no clothes, I have prayed to your compassion and I have of my free will decided to give myself into your protection, or to commend myself to you. And I have done this; it shall be that way that you will give me food and clothes and support me in the measure as I will serve you and therewith earn your support. Until my death I am obliged to serve you and to obey you as I may as a freeborn man, and during my life I cannot withdraw from your power and protection, but I will remain in your power and protection as long as I live." (1) This formula is a rare written example for a process which usually was staged orally and by the use of symbolic gestures. The contract of commendation was concluded between two persons and ended with the death of one of the parties. It is important to note that the duties of the commendent might not interfere with his rights and dignity as a freeborn man.

Pacts between free men of lower social status and men of power have already existed in Merovingian times, and I suppose they may have existed even earlier albeit there's no proof. Roman sources did not care how exactly the relationship between fe. Arminius and his retainers, if he had such, was defined.

Those pacts were based upon service from the one side, and protection from the other side, the patrocinium. The relation between them was hierarchical, power on one side, obedience on the other. Especially kings could thus attract men, and in Merovingian times these royal retainers were called antrustiones. They formed a special sort of personal guard with a number of privileges. For example, if any of them was killed in a fight, his relatives got a higher weregild than for a non-member (2). This special status the group had in common with the Old Norse hirð, only the latter organisation lasted until the 13th century. The Merovingian antrustiones fell into decline when the Carolingian familiy rose to kingship in the 8th century.

The contract does not specify the duties of the vassal, nor the way the protection of the lord was carried out. Nor is it clear whether the commendation in these early times necessarily involved an oath of fealty, or a symbolic gesture like the manumission. But both are occasionally mentioned concerning the antrustiones (3)

The lord could keep the commendent at his court, but he could also give him a piece of his land to live upon. This was called tenure in case it was given as a loan, and usually the tenant had to pay taxes or tithes. But the lord could also give the land under more favourable conditions like tax exemption as a beneficium (4). In Merovingian times the patrocinium, based upon obedience and service from the commendent (sometimes called vassus) and protection by the lord, and the gift of a beneficium were separate institutions. That changed in Carolingian times when vassalty and beneficium became connected. (5)

(1) Taken from the Formulae Turonensis, No. 43. Edition: MG Formulae Merovingici et Karolini Aevi. ed. by K. Zeumer, p. 158. The formula dates from the beginning of the 8th century, but the form of it goes back to an old tradition (Ganshof, p. 4).
(2) It is not clear whether the members of the antrustiones were connected in a form of co-operative among each other (as it was the case in the hirð), or whether they as vassals of the king only were bound to him; Althoff, p. 139.
(3) Ganshof, p. 7. An example for the act in: De regis antrustione, in: Marciulfi Formulae 1.18, ed. Zeumer).
(4) The word beneficium is often used in the chartes and documents from the Merovingian times onward (Ganshof, p. 9).
(5) The word vasall (Latin vassus or vassallus) is used from the 8th century onwards. It might go back to the Celtic gwas = servant (Schulze, p. 58), but there is no absolute proof for this assumption.

  • Gerd Althoff. Verwandte, Freunde und Getreue - Zum politischen Stellenwert der Grupppenbindungen im früheren Mittelalter. Darmstadt 1990 (Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft)
  • Karl-Heinz Bender. König und Vasall. Untersuchungen zur Chanson de geste des XII. Jahrhunderts, Heidelberg, 1967 (=Studia Romanica 13)
  • James Campbell. The Anglo-Saxon State (selected essays). London and New York, 2000
  • Jean Favier. Histoire de France vol. II. Le temps de principautés - De l'an mil a 1515. Paris, 1984
  • François Louis Ganshof. Qu'est-ce que la féodalité? Bruxelles, 1944, 3rd and reworked ed. 1957 (that book still is a standard work)
  • Michael Heintze. König, Held und Sippe - Untersuchungen zur Chanson de geste des 13 und 14. Jahrhunderts und ihrer Zyklenbildung. Studia Romanica 76, Heidelberg 1991
  • John Le Patourel. Feudal Empires, Norman and Plantagenet (selected essays). London, 1984
  • Erich Köhler. Conseil des barons et jugement des barons: Epische Fatalität und Feudalrecht im altfranzösischen Rolandslied. In: H. Krauß (ed.) Altfranzösische Epik, Darmstadt 1978, S. 368-412
  • François Neveux. La Normandie: des ducs aux rois, Xe - XIIe siècle. Rennes, 1998
  • Pierre Riché. Les Carolingiens - Une famille qui fit l'Europe. Paris, 1983
  • Hans K. Schulze. Grundstrukturen der Verfassung im Mittelalter, Band 1: Stammesverband, Gefolgschaft, Lehnswesen, Grundherrschaft. Stuttgart, Berlin, Köln 1985
  • Karl Ferdinand Werner. Die Ursprünge Frankreichs bis zum Jahr 1000. München, 1995 (1st edition 1984)

    4 Feb 2007
      Ausonius' Mosella

    Salve, amnis odorifero iuga vitea consite baccho,
    consite gramineas amnis viridissime ripas!
    naviger ut pelagus, devexas pronus in undas
    ut fluvius, vitreoque lacus imitate profundo.

    Thus says the poet Decimus Magnus Ausonius (310-395 AD) in his Mosella. Ausonius was born in Bordeaux (Burdigala, Gaul); poet, wine-lover, teacher of the young emperor-to-be Gratian, and obviously a bit of a traveller since his poem Mosella describes a journey along the river.

    The viridissime ripas of the Moselle

    I attempted a translation albeit I suck at Latin, lol:
    A complete Latin version can be found here.

    Greetings, river, framed by perfumed vineyard-covered hills,
    Framed by grass; river of greenest shores.
    Your strong waters carry ships, flowing in easy waves
    Along the stream, and a glittering lake your depths emulate.

    I wish I had known the text when I traveled there. The images Ausonius evokes respond to what I did experience on my Moselle cruise in the evening.

    The Roman bridge across the Moselle in the evening haze

    Quis color ille vadis, seras cum propulit umbras
    Hesperus et viridi perfudit monte Mosellam.
    tota natant crispis iuga motibus et tremit absens
    pampinus et vitreis vindemia turget in undis.
    adnumerat virides derisus navita vites,
    navita caudiceo fluitans super aequora lembo,
    per medium, qua sese amni confundit imago
    collis et umbrarum confinia conserit amnis.

    Evening at the Moselle

    What colour are the waters when the Evening Star
    Brings shadows of night, and green mountains fill the Moselle.
    Hilltops swim in rippling waters, and trembles
    The distant vine and grapes swell in crystal waves.
    The boatsman counts mocking green vines
    As he lets his boat drift by on the surface.
    In the middle, where the river confounds its own image
    With hills and shadows, lines blur in the water.

    The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, the Baltic Countries, and central Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.

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    Location: Goettingen, Germany

    I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History, interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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    Historical Places

    - Towns
    - Castles
    - Abbeys and Churches
    - Roman Remains
    - Neolithicum and Bronze Age
    - Museums
    City Trips

    Hiking Tours and Cruises

    United Kingdom
    Baltic Sea

    Historical Places



    Bad Sooden-Allendorf
    Historical Town and Graduation Tower
    Bruchteiche Reservoir

    A Seaside Resort

    Lion Benches in the Castle Square
    The Quadriga

    Mediaeval Erfurt

    Mediaeval Goslar
    Chapel in the Klus Rock

    Churches St.Martin and St.Mary

    St. Mary's Church

    Church of Our Lady: History

    The Temple of Isis and Mater Magna

    Mediaeval Paderborn

    Mediaeval Quedlinburg
    The Chapter Church

    The Cathedral: Architecture
    Jewish Ritual Bath

    The Harbour
    The Old Town

    Mediaeval Lanes and Old Houses

    The Roman Amphitheatre
    The Aula Palatina
    The Imperial Baths
    The Porta Nigra

    Sites of the Weimar Classicism
    The Park at the Ilm

    The Old Harbour

    Roman and Mediaeval Xanten
    The Gothic House


    The Keep

    Altenstein (Werra)
    A Border Castle

    Weser River Reivers

    Brandenburg (Thuringia)
    The Beginnings
    Albrecht II of Thuringia

    Coburg Fortress

    The Marshals of Ebersburg


    History of the Keep


    Hardeg Castle
    The Great Hall


    Heldenburg (Salzderhelden)
    A Welfen Seat

    Hohnstein (Harz)
    The Counts of Hohnstein
    Between Welfen and Staufen
    14th-15th Century

    Built to Protect a Chapel

    The Counts of Everstein
    Later Times

    The Counts of Winzenburg
    The Lords of Plesse

    Polle Castle
    An Everstein Stronghold


    Reichenbach (Hessia)

    Photo Impressions

    From Castle to Convention Centre



    Stauffenburg (Harz)
    A Secret Mistress

    A Little Known Ruin in the Harz

    Photo Impressions

    A Virtual Tour

    Revisiting the Weidelsburg

    Abbeys and Churches

    Early History of the Abbey

    A Romanesque Basilica

    A Romanesque Church

    The Byzantine Crypt

    The Stave Church

    Remains of the Monastery

    Early History of the Abbey
    Interior of the Church

    The Carolingian Gate Hall

    Remains of the Monastery

    Scharzfeld (Harz)
    The Cave Church

    Mediaeval Murals

    The Monastery - Introduction

    Romanesque Church and a Ducal Burial

    Wilhelmshausen (Kassel)
    The Romanesque Church

    Roman Remains

    Augusta Treverorum / Trier
    The Amphitheatre
    The Aula Palatina
    The Imperial Baths
    The Porta Nigra
    The Roman Bridge

    Colonia Ulpia Traiana / Xanten
    Roman Xanten
    The Amphitheatre in Birten

    Limes Fort Aalen
    The Barracks

    Limes Fort Osterburken
    The Discovery
    The Cohort castellum
    The Annex Fort
    The Garrisons

    Limes Fort Saalburg
    A Reconstructed Limes Fort
    Shrine of the Standards

    Romans in North Rhine-Westphalia
    Playmobil Romans, LWL Museum Haltern
    Varus Statue, Haltern am See

    Romans at the Moselle
    The Villa Urbana in Longuich

    Romans at the Rhine
    Boppard - The Roman Baudobriga
    The Villa at Wachenheim

    Neolithicum and Bronze Age

    Neolithic Burials
    Neolithic Burials in the Everstorf Forest and Rugia
    The Necropolis of Oldendorf

    Bronze Age
    Bronze and Iron Age Remains at the Werra

    Museums / Reconstructed Sites

    Palatine Seat Tilleda
    The Defenses

    Viking Settlement Haithabu
    The Nydam Ship

    Open Air Museums
    European Bread Museum Ebergötzen
    Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

    Post-Mediaeval Exhibits
    Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
    Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg



    Roman and Medieaval Chester

    The Abbey - Introduction
    The Old Gaol

    Clifford Tower
    The Guild Hall
    Monk Bar Gate with Richard III Museum
    Museum Gardens
    Houses in the Old Town
    York Minster: Architecture



    Conquest to King John
    Henry III to the Tudors

    Romans to the Tudors
    Civil War to the Present

    Roman Remains

    Eboracum / York
    Roman Bath in the Fortress

    Wall Fort Birdoswald
    The Dark Age Timber Halls

    Wall Fort Segedunum
    Museum and Viewing Tower
    The Baths

    Other Roman Sites
    The Mithraeum at Brocolita
    The Signal Station at Scarborough



    Views from the Castle

    The Wallace Monument


    A Virtual Tour
    History: The Early Stewart Kings
    History: Royal Dower House

    Duart Castle
    Guarding the Sound of Mull

    An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
    The Wars of Independence
    The Campbells Are Coming
    Dunstaffnage Chapel

    Robert the Bruce

    Abbeys and Churches

    Arriving at Inchcolm Abbey

    Neolithicum and Bronze Age

    Neolithic Orkney
    Ring of Brodgar
    Skara Brae

    Brochs and Cairns
    Clava Cairns
    The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Introduction

    Picts and Dalriatans
    Dunadd Hill Fort



    Castle and Coast

    The Ffwrwm
    The Roman Amphitheatre
    The Baths in the Legionary Fort

    The Smallest House in Great Britain



    Master James of St.George
    The Castle Kitchens

    From Romans to Victorians

    Beginnings unto Bigod
    Edward II to the Tudors
    Civil War


    Llywelyn's Buildings
    King Edward's Buildings

    The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

    Photo Impressions
    The Caves Under the Castle

    Roman Remains

    Isca Silurum / Caerleon
    The Amphitheatre
    The Baths in the Legionary Fort



    Viking Museum Roskilde
    To come


    Castles and Fortresses

    Akershus Fortress in Oslo
    Kings and Pirates
    The Time of King Håkon V

    Vardøhus Fortress


    The Fram Museum in Oslo


    Neolithicum and Bronze Age

    Gnisvärd Ship Setting


    The Vasa Museum in Stockholm



    Mediaeval Porvoo



    The History of Mediaeval Tallinn



    The History of Mediaeval Riga



    To come



    Gdańsk / Danzig
    History of Mediaeval Gdańsk
    Mediaeval and Renaissance Gdańsk

    The Old Town
    Jewish Kraków - Kazimierz and the Ghetto

    Wrocław / Breslau
    The Botanical Garden
    The Wrocław Dwarfs


    Ogrodzieniec Castle
    A Virtual Tour
    First Castle to the Boner Family



    Cheb / Eger
    The Old Town

    Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
    Brief History of the Town

    Kutná Hora
    The Sedlec Ossuary
    The Medieaval Town and St.Barbara's Church



    The Old Town

    Mediaeval Bruges

    Mediaeval Ghent

    Mediaeval Buildings

    Roman Remains

    Atuatuca Tungrorum / Tongeren
    Roman Remains in the Town



    Luxembourg City
    A Tour of the Town

    City Trips

    St.Petersburg (Russia)
    Impressions from the Neva River

    Strasbourg (France)
    A Tour of the Town

    Hiking Tours and Cruises


    Baltic Sea Coast
    Flensburg Firth
    Rugia: Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
    Rugia: Photo Impressions
    Rugia: The Pier of Sellin
    A Tour on the Wakenitz River

    Lüneburg Heath
    Hiking Tours in the Lüneburg Heath

    Harz National Park
    Arboretum (Bad Grund)
    Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
    Devil's Wall
    Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
    Oderteich Reservoir
    Rappbode Reservoir
    Views from Harz mountains

    Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
    Bruchteiche / Bad Sooden Allendorf
    Hessian Switzerland

    Nature Park Solling-Vogler
    The Forest Pasture Project
    Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

    Nature Park Reinhardswald
    Old Forest at the Sababurg

    Thuringian Forests
    Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

    Rivers and Lakes
    The Danube in Spring
    Edersee Reservoir
    A Rainy Rhine Cruise
    Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut
    Weser River Ferry
    Weser Skywalk

    Harz Falcon Park
    Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
    Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life
    Red squirrels

    Spring Impressions from Göttingen
    Spring in the Hardenberg Castle Gardens
    Spring in the Meissner
    Memories of Summer
    Summer Hiking Tours 2016
    Autumn in the Meissner
    Autumn at Werra and Weser
    Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake

    United Kingdom

    The East Coast
    By Ferry to Newcastle
    Highland Mountains: Inverness to John o'Groats
    Some Photos from the East Coast

    Scottish Sea Shores
    Crossing to Mull
    Mull: Craignure to Fionnphort
    Dunollie and Kilchurn: Photo Impressions
    Pentland Firth
    Summer in Oban

    Scotland by Train
    West Highland Railway

    Views of Snowdownia

    Sea Gulls


    Coast of Norway: Hurtigruten-Tour
    A Voyage into Winter
    Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
    Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

    Norway by Train
    From Oslo to Bergen
    From Trondheim to Oslo

    Bearded Seals
    Dog Sledding With Huskies
    Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord

    The Baltic Sea

    A Baltic Sea Cruise

    The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
    Beaches at the Curonian Spit
    Geology of the Curonian Spit

    Mediaeval History

    General Essays

    by Country
    - Germany
    - England
    - Scotland
    - Wales
    - Denmark
    - Norway
    - Sweden
    - Livonia
    - Lithuania
    - Poland
    - Bohemia
    - Luxembourg
    - Flanders

    Roman History

    The Romans at War
    Famous Romans
    Roman Life and Religion

    Other Times

    Neolithicum to Iron Age
    Post-Mediaeval History
    History and Literature

    Mediaeval History

    General Essays

    Mediaeval Warfare


    Late Mediaeval Swords

    Mediaeval Art and Craft

    Mediaeval Art
    The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
    The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
    The Hunting Frieze in Königslutter Cathedral
    Mediaeval Monster Carvings
    The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

    Medical Instruments


    The History of Feudalism
    The Beginnings
    Feudalism in the 10th Century

    Special Cases
    The privilege of the deditio

    The Hanseatic League

    The History of the Hanseatic League
    Introduction and Beginnings

    Hanseatic Architecture
    Examples of Brick Architecture
    Hall Houses (Dielenhäuser)

    Goods and Trade
    Stockfish Trade

    Towns of the Hanseatic League
    Tallinn / Reval

    The Order of the Teutonic Knights

    Wars and Battles
    The Conquest of Danzig
    The Siege of Vilnius 1390

    The Vikings

    Viking Material Culture
    The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

    Viking Ships
    The Nydam Ship

    Essays by Country



    List of Mediaeval German Emperors
    Anglo-German Marriage Connections

    Kings and Emperors

    The Salian Dynasty
    King Heinrich IV

    Staufen against Welfen
    Emperor Otto IV

    Princes and Lords

    House Welfen
    Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors
    The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
    Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen

    The Landgraves of Thuringia
    The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
    Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

    Dukes and Princes of other Families
    Duke Otto of Northeim
    Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus

    Counts and Local Lords
    The Marshals of Ebersburg
    The Counts of Everstein
    The Counts of Hohnstein
    The Lords of Plesse
    The Counts of Reichenbach
    The Counts of Winzenburg

    Feuds and Rebellions

    Royal Troubles
    Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

    Local Feuds
    The Lüneburg Succession War
    The Thuringian Succession War
    The Star Wars


    Kings of England

    House Plantagenet
    Richard Lionheart in Speyer
    King Henry IV's Lithuanian Crusade

    Normans, Britons, Angevins

    Great Noble Houses
    The Dukes of Brittany
    The Earls of Richmond

    Contested Borders

    King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


    Kings of Scots

    House Dunkeld
    Malcolm III and Northumbria
    Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
    King David and the Civil War, Part 1
    King David and the Civil War, Part 2

    Houses Bruce and Stewart
    The Early Stewart Kings

    Local Troubles

    Clan Feuds
    MacLeans and MacDonalds
    A Scottish Wedding

    Scotland and England

    The Wars of Independence
    Alexander of Argyll
    The Fight for Stirling Castle


    Welsh Princes

    The Princes of Gwynedd
    The Rise of House Aberffraw

    Wales and England

    A History of Rebellion
    Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


    Kings of Denmark

    House of Knýtlinga
    Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

    Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

    The Duchy of Estonia
    Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


    Kings of Norway

    Foreign Relations
    King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
    King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
    Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

    Feuds and Rebellions

    Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


    Troubles and Alliances

    Scandinavian Unity
    Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

    (Latvia and Estonia)

    Contested Territories

    Livonian Towns
    The History of Mediaeval Riga
    The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


    Lithuanian Princes

    The Geminid Dynasty
    Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas

    The Northern Crusades

    The Wars in Lithuania
    The Siege of Vilnius 1390


    Royal Dynasties

    The Jagiełłonian Kings
    Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union

    The Northern Crusades

    The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
    The Conquest of Danzig


    Royal Dynasties

    The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
    King Sigismund and the Hussite Wars


    House Luxembourg
    King Sigismund


    More to come

    Roman History

    The Romans at War

    Forts and Fortifications

    The German Limes
    The Cavalry Fort Aalen
    Limes Fort Osterburken
    Limes Fort Saalburg

    The Hadrian's Wall
    The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend

    Border Life
    Exercise Halls
    Mile Castles and Watch Towers
    Soldiers' Living Quarters
    Cavalry Barracks

    Campaigns and Battles

    The Romans in Germania

    The Pre-Varus Invasion in Germania
    Roman Camp Hedemünden
    New Finds in 2008

    The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
    Museum Park at Kalkriese

    The Battle at the Harzhorn

    The Batavian Rebellion
    A Short Introduction

    Roman Militaria

    Early Imperial Helmets
    Late Roman Helmets
    The Negau B Helmet

    Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
    The pilum

    Other Equipment
    Roman Saddles

    Famous Romans

    The Late Empire

    The Legend of Alaric's Burial

    Roman Life and Religion

    Religion and Public Life

    Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms
    Isis Worship
    Memorial Stones
    The Mithras Cult

    Public Life
    Roman Transport: Barges
    Roman Transport: Amphorae and Barrels
    Roman Water Supply

    Roman Public Baths

    Domestic Life

    Roman villae
    Villa Urbana Longuich
    Villa Rustica Wachenheim

    Everyday Life
    Bathing Habits
    Children's Toys
    Face Pots

    Other Times

    Neolithicum to Iron Age


    Development of Civilisation
    European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
    The Hutewald Project in the Solling
    Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

    Neolithic Remains
    Stone Burials of the Funnelbeaker Culture
    The Necropolis of Oldendorf

    Bronze Age / Iron Age
    The Nydam Ship


    Neolithic Orkney
    The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
    Ring of Brodgar
    Skara Brae
    Life in Skara Brae

    Bronze Age / Iron Age
    Clava Cairns
    The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Their Function in Iron Age Society


    Bronze / Iron Age
    The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd / Gotland

    Post-Mediaeval History

    Explorers and Discoveries

    Fram Expedition to the North Pole
    Fram Expedition to the South Pole

    Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
    Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

    History and Literature


    The Weimar Classicism


    Geological Landscapes: Germany

    Baltic Sea Coast
    Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
    Flint Fields on Rugia

    Harz Mountains
    Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
    The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
    Karst Formations in Southern Harz
    The Lonau Falls
    The Rhume Springs
    Sandstone Formations: Daneil's Cave
    Sandstone Formations: Devil's Wall
    Sandstone Formations: The Klus Rock

    Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
    Blue Dome near Eschwege
    Diabase and Basalt Formations
    Karst Formations
    Salt Springs at the Werra

    Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
    Hannover Cliffs

    Geological Landscapes: Great Britain

    The Shores of Scotland

    Geological Landscapes: Baltic Sea

    Geology of the Curonian Spit

    Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

    Fossilized Ammonites
    The Loket Meteorite (Czechia)

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