My History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times
The Romans in Germania - A Geography Lesson
In order to make it easier for you to put a location to the places I keep mentioning in context of the Romans in Germany, this post will provide you with some maps.
The first one shows the Roman provinces at the time of Augustus. The provinces have been restructured and renamed several times in Roman history. For example, part of what on this map is Gallia Belgica about 90 AD became Germania Inferior, and the land between Rhine and Danube then protected by the Limes would be called Germania Superior.
The Roman provinces at the time of Augustus
The red and orange ones are all provinces of the Roman Empire that started in the middle of Italy (that high heel boot kicking Sicily) a few hundres years earlier. You can see that there's a nice chain of provinces all around the Mediterranean Sea. After they, ahem .... collected those, the Romans pushed north. Southern Britain was conquered after Augustus' time, so it's still green on that map.
The borders of Germania (also green) are marked by the Rhine (running south-north) and the Danube (running west-east into the Black Sea). Under Hadrian, the angle formed by those two rivers was integrated into the Empire and protected by the German Limes. The provinces along the Danube include Pannonia where Arminius fought on the Roman side against rebellious tribes prior to his return to Germania.
Next comes a map of the Romans in northern Germany during the time of Drusus' and Tiberius' invasions in 16-9 BC until Germanicus' campaigns in 14-16 AD.
Roman supply bases and forts in Germania Magna
Since I photographed both maps in the Hedemünden
exhibition, that fortress / supply base figures prominently right in the middle (the map only shows the northern half of Germany) at the Weser/Werra (Visurgis) river. Göttingen is a bit north of it, and if you follow an imaginary line to the Leine river, you'll see the Harz on the right, that's where the recently discovered battlefield of Kalefeld
You can see the two legionary forts at Mainz (Moguntiacum) and Xanten (Castra Vetera). The Limes would later start a bit north of Mainz. The Lippe (Lupis) river that from Xanten runs east into Germania was the location of several Roman forts, among them Haltern
that also had a naval base. Kalkriese
, the probable Varus battlefield, lies further north.
Close to the Rhine, but on the 'wrong' side lies Waldgirmes, a Roman town in Germania that was destroyed after the Varus battle. Another place on my To Visit list. The Elbe, the river that for some time was supposed to become the new frontier of a Roman empire that included Germania Magna, runs in the east.
Germany (map found here)
Germany today extends the borders of the planned Roman province. Since not all towns are shown on that map, you'll have to place Mainz near Wiesbaden. The Limes cut from there to Regensburg at the Danube. Xanten (also not shown) is at the border to the Netherlands; the Lippe runs between the line Duisburg, Essen Dortmund and Münster further north.
You can see that the whole Berlin area and Baltic Sea coast is north-east of the Elbe which confluences into the North Sea near Hamburg, while in the south part of the old province of Raetia in the Alpes now is Germany (the other part is mostls Switzerland), and in the west, Germany stretches towards Trier on the 'Roman' side of the Rhine.
Hedemünden is situated between Kassel and Göttingen, Kalefeld a third on the way between Göttingen and Hannover, and Kalkriese near Osnabrück.
The following maps show the Limes Germanicus
The Upper German - Raetian Limes (map found here)
This is an overview over the Limes, the German border between the Roman Empire - namely the provinces of Germania Superior and Raetia - and Germania Magna or 'free Germania' that extended east of the Rhine and north of the Danube.
West of that straight north-south line in the midst of the map (the Odenwald Limes) you can see another line of forts along the Neckar river. That was the extent of the Limes under Hadrian; Antoninus Pius then pushed it a bit further east (about AD 150-160).
The Saalburg Fort can be found near the town of Koblenz (Confluentes) though that closeness is due to the small scale of the map. It's actually closer to Frankfurt which is not shown but can be found on the map above. But Moguntiacum (Mainz), the capital of the province Germania Superior, is listed, as is Xanten further north in the province of Germania Inferior.
The Limes in Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria (map found here)
This maps shows the places along the Limes I've visited in 2014, namely Aalen and Weissenburg (Biriciana) but also Walldürn and Osterburken at the Odenwald Limes which I visited a few years ago. Aalen is close to the spot where the Limes takes a sharp turn east to rejoin the Danube.
The towns of Nuremberg (Nürnberg) and Regensburg are also shown.
Roman Leisure Centre Caerleon
So, that's where Aelius Rufus whom we last met in Segedunum, is hanging out these days: the baths - or better to be called a leisure centre - in Caerleon legionary fort. "Greetings, Aelius. How do you manage to get so many holidays?"
Aelius grins. "It's called research trips. Well, look at that weather, a nice, warm Roman bath is the best place to be these days."
Gabriele: But you're from Raetia, you're used to frost and snow.
Aelius: Sure, but it doesn't mean I can't appreciate civilisation. And these baths are really impressive. You've seen your share of baths in forntier fortresses that usually hold a cohort. Caerleon can house ten times as many soldiers, and those baths are huge.
Model of the Baths as they may have looked
G. They are. Remind me a bit ot the Imperial baths in Augusta Treverorum
. And like in Trier, as it's now called, not much is left of the baths.
A. That's a pity. Why don't you dig them out? You people from the Future love that.
G. We do. The problem is that people built a town over the Roman remains at some point, and you can't tear the houses down in order to dig up more Roman stuff. Though I'm sure people would find interesting things in their cellars if they poked around with a shovel a bit.
The excavated part of the outdoor swimming pool
(Today roofed in to protect the remains)
G. The visible remains of the baths in Caerleon are only a part of the entire complex. For comparison of the model size, the swimming pool is 42 metres long, that's close to the 50 metres standard of today.
Aelius sinks deeper into the warm water pool and wiggles his toes. "So, what remains are left in the future?"
G. The features that have been excavated and conservated are half of the outdoor swimming pool (natatio
), and the cold bath (frigidarium
, part of the building in the upper right of the model above, the one with the cupola roofs). The great basilica to the left has vanished, as have the colonnades that sourrounded the palaestra
yard. The swimming pool is covered with a roof today, and part of the museum.
Remains of the cold bath
A. That's a pity about the basilica or exercise hall. It is larger than the exercise hall
in my home fortress Saalburg and very beautiful. A welcome place to train on cold days when the outdoor training facilities are too uncomfortable. Look at them right now, just lots of damn mud, partly frozen.
G. Yeah, that's a British winter for you. Mud and rain. The photos of the baths in Trier give some impression of the dimensions of such a building.
A. Heh, I bet the baths in Augusta Treverorum were even fancier. Emperors like it fancy for the most. Except our friend Tony, he's more the practical sort. Well, and you people from the Future can tell how the baths may have looked from a heap of stones?
G. With some imagination, yes. And there are books with drawings, models, and some fun features like the curtains here that indicate the places where pillars have stood.
Caerleon Baths, visual display
A. Nifty. I really like those lights that work with ... what did Merlinus call it? Electricity? But why is this tablet written in two languagues? One looks like that barbarian dialect they speak here only with too many d and l, the other is an odd mix of Germanic and badly misspelled Latin words that makes no sense.
G. Oh, that's English. It is an odd mix of a language indeed, but it does make sense. The other one is called Welsh.
A. Well, I'm glad I don't need to learn those; Latin was bad enough.
G. Can't blame you. Sometimes I suspect the Romans have come up with some really complicated grammar only to annoy the people who have to learn it.
"Boy did they ever," Aelius said in his best imitation of soldiers' Latin drawl.
Caerleon Baths, floor level with part of the hypocaust ventilation
"So," Aelius continues, "you got something more you want to show your Future friends? I hope you won't chase me over to the arena in that weather."
G. Don't worry, we'll wait for the rain to stop. So there's nothing more today, but I have a reconstructed Roman river patrol ship in my archives.
A. Oh fun. I've been on one, but my shoulders didn't like it much.
G. Heh, nor did mine, but it was worth the effort.
A. You people from the Future are a bit crazy, but I like you.
Hanstein Castle - The Next Generations
This is a continuation of this post. Castle Hanstein had started crumbling, and in October 1308 the brothers Heinrich (another one *sigh*) and Lippold of Hanstein signed a contract with the archbishop Peter of Mainz, stating that they would "build a new castle of their own means, the basements of stone and the upper storeys of wood, and they would not hold any other rights to it than their male descendants being bailiffs and lords of the castle." (1) In case the lords of Hanstein died out in the male line, the castle would fall back to the archbishop.
The archbishop would pay an annual fee of 20 mark silver for the garrison of the castle who'd pay hommage to the archbishop of Mainz as their overlord but also swear fealty to the lords of Hanstein. That is one of the many examples of mixed loyalties in the feudal system that could lead to problems. It didn't seem to have happened in case of the Hanstein retainers, but there are other examples.
The Hanstein family had large possessions in the surroundings and grew more wealthy. Soon they not only paid hommage to the archbishop (later Prince Elector) of Mainz, but also to the Landgrave of Hessen, the bishop of Fulda and others of whom they held lands and rights. It was a particularly explosive corner because so many different grand feudal lords had lands and interests so close to each other. Even today the area marks the corner between the counties of Hessen, Lower Saxony and Thuringia.
Those feudal lords were feuding with each other more often than not, and things got increasingly messy, with the lords of Hanstein in the middle of it several times. Speak about conflicting loyalties here. Contracts about armed assisstance and neutrality were signed and broken, and the lords of Hainstein got quite a reputation. Robber barons (Raubritter), some called them, though they were not the only familiy that tried to make the best out of the strifes that tore Germany in the Middle Ages.
In 1415 the Landgrave Ludwig of Hessen built a castle of his own on the other side of the Werra river, in sight of the Hanstein. It is called Ludwigstein and today houses a youth hostel. The 'my castle is bigger than your castle'-syndrome, I guess. :)
Hanstein Castle must have suffered during those feuds, and repairs are mentioned several times. In the 15th the walls were strengthened and room made to get the cattle and peasants inside for safety.
But the methods of warfare changed with the invention of gunpowder, and the hilltop castles no longer proved safe and had long since ceased to be comfortable. The ever expanding Hanstein family moved to their manors in the lands around the castle, and in 1683 Hanstein Castle was officially abandoned.
The castle fell into ruins until members of the extended family started some repairs and built a hall for family meetings in 1840. During the Cold War, the castle was closed to the public; a listening post was set up on the hill. After the reunion, the castle was repaired and reopened for the public and is now a popular - albeit luckily not yet overpopulated - destination for hiking tours and Sunday outings. There is an annual Mediaeval festival and the castle has been used as film location (some scenes of the TV miniseries Der Medicus, based on Gordon's novel The Phyiscian, were filmed in the castle).
The photos show details from the palas building of the castle.
More photos can be found here.
Let it Snow
With the new year, the winter has come to Germany with snow and temperatures of minus 10°C -15°C during the nights and still below zero during the days. The sort of winter I like, though I'm part of a minority there. ;)
The pretty pillows in the foreground are some of my potted heather. Yep, we got a nice amount of the white fluff this time, and more is to come next weekend, hopefully.My balcony
My balcony is somewhat sheltered by the balcony above, but some snow found its way inside to powder my conifers.Gardens in the snow
The summer gardens in the Leine valley offer a beautiful view from my balcony all year round. Now they are snowed in - let's hope for some time. Rainy winters are so dreary.