My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times


31/03/2010
  Hear Me Roar

Seveal benches outside the cathedral in Braunschweig, facing the Castle Square, are based on stone carved lions. Every of the dozen or so lions has a unique facial espression.

Here are some of the chaps.

One of the lion benches

I could not find any information about those lions except that they are ‘newer’ which must mean ‘not Mediaeval’, because my father who lived in Braunschweig as kid, remembers them. The fact, that ‘bank’ and ‘bench’ are the same word in German doesn’t help with googling, either. Well, even without any further information the little lions are fun.

Grroarrr

Braunschweig is connected with lions because of Duke Heinrich the Lion and the great lion statue in the Castle Square comissioned by him. And of course, there are restaurants, pharmacies and whatnot having 'Lion' (Löwe) in the title. So it's no surprise there are a few of the fellows supporting benches.

Yaaawn

Heinrich owned a pet lion (who hopefully got a better diet than King Edward’s lion). According to legend, the lion refused to eat after Duke Heinrich’s death and died of grief. There are some scratches on the northern cathedral entrance said to have been made when the lion tried to force its entry, following the body of its dead master.

The real reason that caused those scratches may have been the attempt to obtain some powdered stone – after all, a cathedral is a holy place – to mix into medicines.

Purrrr

BTW, brownie points for the one who knows where the title of this post comes from. *grin*
 


26/03/2010
  Sea Gulls

Almost a week without a new post? Oopsie. *grin* Well, here’s a lazy one; just some more photos of sea gulls. Because they are fun.

Guard Gull

Thou shall not pass!

Though I bet, contrary to Gandalf, this guy would have been bribable. Found him perching beside a staircase in Conwy Castle.

I want a cookie

What do you say, I should eat fish? Cookies are so much yummier.

That one pestered me in Beaumaris Castle when I had a little tea and cookie break, and didn’t want any arguments about healthy gulll food. Some gulls were not shy, but they never allowed a human close enough to touch them.

Gull acrobatics

Hey, I was first! No, I was, cheater! You're so mean to me, I'm not gonna talk to you again; ever.

Gulls sorting out who's where in the food line. This lovely photo with the evening sun sparkling on the water is from the harbour in Oban. Too bad the picture doesn't come with sound; those gulls made quite a ruckus.

Beauty in the sky

Gulls are really elegant birds when flying. I took this shot on the ferry to Mull. There were several gulls whirling around in hope of flying cookie crumbs. Which they duly got.
 


20/03/2010
  The Smallest House in Britain

Can be found in Conwy, Wales. It’s painted in a pretty red so you won’t miss it, tucked in there between one of the town wall towers and another, bigger house.

Quay House, Conwy

The ‘one up – one down’ house measures 3.05 by 1.8 metres (10 x 6 feet). The ground floor room was heated by a coal fire; the coal stored under a bench. The top room is reached by a ladder through a trap door and provides just enough space for a bed. There are no bathroom, toilet or kitchen, but that was not so uncommon in the 16th century when the house was built.

The house was inhabited until about 1900. The last man who lived there was a 6’3’’ foot tall fisherman, Robert Jones He could not even stand upright in the wee housie since it’s only about 10 feet high; counting both storeys. Eventually, the council declared the house unfilt for human habitation, and Robert had to move out. The building is still in possession of his descendants, two elderly ladies who run a little museum and shop - dressed up in some sort of 16th century skirts and cloaks.

The house has made it into the Guiness Book of Records as Great Britain’s smallest house, and is one of the tourist attractions of the quay, the harbour street in Conwy.
 


13/03/2010
  Arriving at Inchcolm Abbey

Inchcolm Abbey was presenting itself in best Scottish weather: stormy, wet, dark and brooding. But it suited the visit to an island where once a king got shipwrecked.

The waves in the Firth of Forth were more impressive than the ones a few days later on my visit to Staffa and Iona, which made taking photos from the ferry a bit of a challenge. After deboarding I got me a rain cloak in the Historic Scotland shop on the island, because balancing the camera and an umbrella in a futile attempt to block horizontal rain didn't work. Just well I consider weather like that to be fun nevertheless.

Inchcolm Abbey, seen from the ferry

Inchcolm, known as Aemonia to the Romans, is an island in the Firth of Forth. The Romans had a fort and probably a naval base in nearby Cramond (Alaterva) during the time of Antoninus Pius around 142 AD, but it is covered by houses and a church today. Some finds point at a reuse of the place during the campaigns of Septimius Severus in 211 AD. Inchcolm may have been used by the Romans (my guess would be a watchtower on the island) but no traces have been found so far. Thanks to its strategical position, it still played a role as part of the WW2 defenses.

Inchcolm Abbey; a different angle

Fragments of carved stonework indicate that the island was inhabited by Christians since the 'Dark Ages'; the name 'Island of Colm' goes back to a monk or hermit, St.Colm, a rather shadowy figure. In the later Middle Ages legend aligned him with St.Columba who was said to have visited the place in 567, giving Inchcolm it epithet as 'Iona of the east'. But that was only a way to connect the place with a more famous saint.

A hogback stone dating to the late 10th century is probably Scotland's oldest Scandinavian monument. It brings to memory the lines from Shakespeare's Macbeth:

Sweno, the Norways' King, craves composition;
Nor would we deign him burial of his men
Till he disbursed at Saint Colme's Inch
Ten thousand dollars, to our general use.


This refers to Sweyn Forkbeard, King of the Danes, who raided the coasts of England and Scotland, and was King of England during the exile of Ethelred the Unready. Sweyn died in 1014 and Macbeth became king in 1040, but that's Shakespeare for you, lol.

Closeup of the abbey

It was a dark and stormy night .... well, not night, but it certainly was stormy when King Alexander I of Scotland crossed the Firth in 1123. His ship got blown off course and wrecked at the shore of Inchcolm. Alexander and his retainers were taken in by the resident hermit and spent three days on the island while the storm raged. The hermit shared what he had, but that wasn't much: the milk of one cow, mussels and some fish. Maybe Alexander and his men could count it toward the Lent fasting. I had packed lunch and hot tea, so I was better off, and modern boats take you back after two hours.

When the storm finally abated and the men could repair their ship and sail to Queensferry, Alexander thanked God for his deliverance and vowed to build a monastery on the island. But he died the year after, so it fell to his brother David to fulfill the vow. The exact date of the foundation is not known; the earliest known charter dates from 1165, at which point the Augustinian brethren were already well established. Inchcolm belonged to the diocese of Dunkeld; its bishop Gregory (1147-1169) oversaw the establishment of the monastery.

Inchcolm Abbey, seen from the boat pier

The monastery was raised to the status of abbey in 1235 and has undergone several renovations and enlargements during the Middle Ages. Later, Inchcolm came into the focus of the English and was attacked several times. After the Scottish Reformation in 1560, the abbey was abandoned.

One of the abbots, Walter Bower (1418-1449) is the author of the Scotichronicon, one of the most important sources for Mediaeval Scottish history. Bower began writing his history in 1441, adapting the annals of John of Fordun († 1387) and bringing them up to his own time. He also provided us with the specifics of Alexander's diet.

Inchcolm Abbey is the most completely preserved Mediaeval abbey in Scotland, now in care of the Historic Scotland Society. As usual, I got the guidebook, and there will be more photos and information.

The ferry

The ferry operating between Queensferry and Inchcolm was the only bit of colour on that dreary day. But German tourists and Scottish kids don't allow the weather to spoil their fun. There was a group of kids with parents; a birthday party as it turned out - they have a picnic on Inchcolm every year, and in case the weather is bad, they just move into the old chapter house for that while the kids chase each other through the cloister in a very un-monkish way. I got some birthday champagne and cookies, too. And fresh strawberries. You can't beat those; there must be a special sort in the UK.
 


06/03/2010
  Stirling Castle and Robert the Bruce

I also revisted the Bannockburn Heritage Centre in Stirling (built in the late 1960ies) and the Bruce Memorial in a park that may have been the original battlesite, though the subject is still discussed. The sky was a mix of sunshine and dramatic clouds which made for some interesting shots of the famous statue. The rest of the pics is from Stirling Castle.

Robert the Bruce, against the Scottish summer sky

The famous battle of Bannockburn took place on 24 June 1314. I'm not going into details in this post - I should leave that to Kathryn (aka Alianore), our knowledgeable Edward II blogger. The short version is: the Scots* won that one and sent King Edward II of England packing in a hurry, though that's about as correct as 'Arminius kicked the Romans out of Germany for good at the battle of Teutoburg Forest'. The Romans came back, and so did King Edward's son, another Edward, numbered III.

* Well, Bruce's allies, to be correct, there were some Scots hanging out at Edward's court because they could not resist Edward's sex appeal decided to keep their oaths.

Stirling Castle, seen from the west

Stirling Castle did not look like today during Robert's and King Edward's time - most of the buildings date from 1496 and 1583 - but it had been an important place in Scottish history since the time of King Alexander I who died at Stirling Castle in 1124. The rock, guarding the crossing of the river Forth, probably was fortified much earlier, though any attempt to date occupation back to Roman times and a stronghold of the Votadini tribe has not (yet) been supported by archaeological finds.

King Edward II would have found the place not very accomodating, since Robert the Bruce destroyed the defenses of the castle so the English could not use it against him. Had he but known that Edward galloped off to Dunbar instead.

Bruce Memorial; the other side

Robert the Bruce, born 1274 as son of Robert Bruce, 8th Lord of Annandale, and Marjorie, Countess of Carrick, became Robert I King of Scotland in March 1306 until his death in 1329.

I'm not going into a detailed biography of Robert the Bruce, but here is some basic information: King Edward I ruled Scotland as province of England since 1296 (after several claimants to the throne has asked him to arbitrate). During the rebellion of William Wallace and its aftermath, Robert seems to have been on and off the English side until neither Edward nor the Scots really trusted him any longer. Clearly a survivor in the game of alliances and allegiances, though. What Robert really wanted was the crown of Scotland to which his family held a claim. Unfortunately, so did several other powerful families like the Balliol and Comyn. Robert met with John III Comyn the Red in February 1306 to discuss matters. Whether planned murder or temper getting he better of Robert - he stabbed John to death, and in a church to boot. So Robert the Bruce became King of Scotland and had a civil war with the Comyn allies on his hand right there.

King Edward I took advantage of that messy situation, of course, and supported the Comyns by sending an army (I'm not sure how much they liked that sort of support), declared Bruce and his followers outlaws, and had the pope excommunicate Robert Bruce for murder. He defeated Bruce in battle and while Robert himself escaped, two of his brothers got captured and executed as traitors (the full hanging, drawing and quartering treatment), one of his sisters and his mistress, Isabella Countess of Buchan, were suspended from English castle walls in open cages. Robert himself fled into hiding and lived in caves. There's no shortage of those on the Scottish coasts.

Another take of the Bruce Memorial

But Robert got lucky: King Edward died in July 1307, and his son Edward II was too busy keeping the Earl of Lancaster and his merry band of disgruntled nobles from exiling Piers Gaveston, and updating his Facebook account, to wage war upon Scotland. Bruce started a successful guerilla war against every English and Comyn supporter he could flush out; and by the end of 1309 controlled all Scotland north of the river Tay.

Stirling Castle was one of the few places still held by the English. It was besieged by Robert's brother Edward (I'm going to call him Ned to avoid confusion with the English Edwards) who made a deal with the English constable that if an English relief army had not arrived by June 24, 1314, the garrison would surrender. So King Edward II gathered 20,000 men, the largest army yet to invade Scotland. Now, his father would have made haggis out of Robert and Ned with that force, but Edward II picked the wrong terrain (the bogs between the Forth and the Bannockburn) and the wrong tactics (mounted knights against pickets of lances), and lost to a much smaller Scottish army. Though he himself fought bravely and had to be dragged to safety by his retainers. Robert the Bruce took a bunch of English nobles prisoner and exchanged them for the members of his family still held captive in England.

In 1324, the pope acknowledged Robert the Bruce as King of Scotland. Robert died in 1329 and was succeeded by his son David.

King Edward II had been sent into early retirement where he died under questionable circumstances, but his son Edward III was not particularly fond about the peace treaty his mother and Roger Mortimer had concluded with Bruce. He used the internal strifes of underaged kings and ambitious nobles to push a claim to Scotland several times by sending armies, even took King David prisoner during one of these forays. But in the end, he did not succeed to establish a puppet king and concentrated on his war in France instead.

Stirling Castle

Stirling Castle has often been the focus of during the events surrounding Robert the Bruce and his successors, the Stewart kings. The castle was besieged at least 16 times, and three battles have been fought in its vicinity. A number of Scottish kings and queens have been to Stirling Castle for important events like coronations; or died there. To give you a little tidbit just for the time of Robert the Bruce, here's a - somewhat shortened - excerpt of the timeline given on the Undiscovered Scotland website:

1291 - Stirling Castle is placed under the control of Edward I of England.
July 1291 - The Scottish nobility swear fealty to the English Crown at Stirling Castle.
1296 - King Edward captures the castle.
Sept. 1297 - Battle of Stirling Bridge (William Wallace is victor over the English). Stirling Castle which is held by the English, surrenders to the Scots.
1298 - The Scots abandon the castle after the lost battle of Falkirk; Edward I again resumes control.
1299 - Robert the Bruce lays siege to the castle and regains it from the English.
1304 - The castle is besieged by the English and surrenders to Edward I.
1314 - The castle is besieged by Robert's brother; a deal is made that the castle will surrender if the English don't relieve it by June 24 (midsummer's day).
June 24, 1314- Battle of Bannockburn. The castle surrenders to the Scots and Robert destroys the defenses to prevent it from being used again by the English.
1333 - The English again take control fo Stirling Castle and rebuild its defenses.

Rinse and Repeat. :-)

View from the North Gate into the Nether Bailey

With the above timeline, you don't need to wonder that the castle has been altered a lot during the centuries. The north gate, dating from 1380, is the oldest remaining part of the castle, and the fortifications of the Nether Bailey probably date from the same time though they have been rebuilt later.

This was another case of reliving the past: when I passed through the gate the first time, there were kids rolling down the grass-covered wall, and they did the same this time. I sat on the grass and had a little picnic, just like ten years ago. It's a pretty spot nowadays, and the sun had come out both times as well. I didn't roll down the wall, though; didn't want to get grass stains on my jacket. But it looked like fun.

View from the battlements to the Highlands

Stirling is called the Gate to the Highlands, and on this photo, the sun was so kind to highlight the mountains in the north. Beautiful, isn't it?

Sources: The official Castle guidebook, the Undiscovered Scotland website, a booklet about the Battle of Bannockburn and a short biography of Robert the Bruce I got in the Bannockburn Heritage Centre.
 




The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, and central / eastern Europe. It includes essays on Roman and Mediaeval history and architecture, as well as some geology, illustrated with my own photos of old castles and churches, Roman remains, pretty towns and beautiful landscapes.

This blog is non-commercial.

All texts (except comments by guests) and photos (if no other copyright is noted) on this blog are copyright of Gabriele Campbell.

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I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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Roman Remains

The Romans at War

Different Frontiers, Yet Alike
Exercise Halls
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Roman Ships
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A Failed Conquest

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Osterburken
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Saalburg
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Main Gate
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Romans at Rhine and Moselle

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Boppard - A 4th Century Roman Fort

The Villa Rustica in Wachenheim
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Augusta Treverorum (Trier)
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The Imperial Baths - Roman Times
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Porta Nigra - Roman Times
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Atuatuca Tungrorum (Tongeren / Belgium)
Roman Remains in Tongeren

Colonia Ulpia Traiana (Xanten)
History of the Town
The Amphitheatre in Birten


Britannia

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Fort Baths
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Building the Wall
The Wall as Defense Line

Wall Forts - Banna (Birdoswald)
The Dark Age Timber Halls

Wall Forts - Segedunum (Wallsend)
Introduction
The Museum
The Viewing Tower
The Baths

Signal Stations
The Signal Station at Scarborough

Roman Towns

Eboracum (York)
Bath in the Fortress
Multiangular Tower

The Romans in Wales

Roman Forts - Isca (Caerleon)
The Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort


Mediaeval and Early Modern Places

Living Mediaeval
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Pit House (Grubenhaus)
Medical Instruments

Mediaeval Art
Carved Monsters
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee - The Historical Context
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee - The Craftmanship

Mediaeval Weapons
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Germany

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Towns

Braunschweig
Medieaval Braunschweig, Introduction
Lion Benches in the Castle Square
The Quadriga

Erfurt
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Erfurt

Magdeburg
Magdeburg Cathedral
St.Mary's Abbey - An Austere Archbishop
St.Mary's Abbey - Reformation to Reunion

Paderborn
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Paderborn

Speyer
The Cathedral: Architecture
Cathedral: Richard Lionheart in Speyer
Jewish Ritual Bath

Xanten
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Xanten
The Gothic House

Towns in the Harz

Goslar
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Goslar

Quedlinburg
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Quedlinburg
The Chapter Church

Towns of the Hanseatic League

Gothic Brick Architecture

Lübeck
St. Mary's Church, Introduction

Stralsund
The Harbour

Wismar
The Old Harbour

Castles and Fortresses

Castles in Bavaria

Coburg Fortress
The History of the Fortress
The Architecture

Castles in the Harz

Ebersburg
The Architecture
Power Base of the Thuringian Landgraves
The Marshals of Ebersburg

Harzburg
The Harzburg and Otto IV

Hohnstein
Origins of the Counts of Hohnstein
The Family Between Welfen and Staufen
A Time of Feuds (14th-15th century)

Regenstein
Introduction
The Time of Henry the Lion

Scharzfels
Introduction
History

Hidden Treasures
The Stauffenburg near Seesen

Castles in Hessia

Castles in Northern Hessia
Grebenstein
Reichenbach
Sichelnstein

Kugelsburg
The Counts of Everstein
Troubled Times
War and Decline

Weidelsburg
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The Architecture
The Castle After the Restoration

Castles in Lower Saxony

Adelebsen / Hardeg
The Keep of Adelebsen Castle
The Great Hall of Hardeg Castle

Hardenberg
Introduction

Plesse
Rise and Fall of the Counts of Winzenburg
The Lords of Plesse
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Castles in the Solling
Salzderhelden - A Welfen Seat
Grubenhagen

Castles in Thuringia

Brandenburg
The Double Castle
Role of the Castle in Thuringian History

Castles in the Eichsfeld
Altenstein at the Werra
Castle Scharfenstein

Hanstein
Introduction
Otto of Northeim
Heinrich the Lion and Otto IV
The Next Generations

Normanstein
Introduction

Wartburg
A Virtual Tour

Castles at the Weser

Bramburg
River Reivers

Krukenburg
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Outbuilding 'Shepherd's Barn'

Polle
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Sababurg / Trendelburg
Two Fairy Tale Castles

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Steinkirche near Scharzfeld
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Walkenried Monastery
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Königslutter
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Cloister

Wiebrechtshausen
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Göllingen Monastery
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Heiligenstadt
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Bursfelde Abbey
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Fredelsloh Chapter Church
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Helmarshausen
Remains of the Monastery

Lippoldsberg Abbey
History
Interior

Vernawahlshausen
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Lorsch Abbey
Lorsch, Gate Hall

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Palatine Seat Tilleda
The Defenses

Viking Settlement Haithabu
Haithabu and the Archaeological Museum Schleswig
The Nydam Ship

Development of Civilization
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Miscellanea

Along Weser and Werra
Uslar - Pretty Old Houses
Treffurt - A Walk through the Town
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Powder and Steam
Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg


England

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Chester
A Virtual Tour of the Town

Hexham
Old Gaol

York
Clifford Tower
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Along the Ouse River

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Carlisle
Introduction
Henry II and William of Scotland
The Edwards

Castles in Northumbria and Yorkshire

Alnwick
Malcolm III and the First Battle of Alnwick

Richmond
From the Conquest to King John
From Henry III to the Tudors

Scarborough
From the Romans to the Tudors
From the Civil War to the Present
The Architecture

Churches and Cathedrals

Hexham Abbey
Introduction

York Minster
Architecture


Scotland

Towns

Edinburgh
Views from the Castle

Stirling
The Wallace Monument

Castles

Central Scotland

Doune
A Virtual Tour
History: The Early Stewart Kings
History: Royal Dower House, and Decline

Stirling
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle

West Coast Castles

Dunollie and Kilchurn
Castles Seen from Afar

Duart
Guarding the Sound of Mull

Dunstaffnage
An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
The Wars of Independence
The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

Abbeys and Churches

Inchcolm Abbey
Arriving at Inchcolm

Other Historical Sites

Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort
Staffa

Pre-Historic Orkney
Ring of Brodgar - Introduction
Ring of Brodgar - The Neolithic Landscape
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae


Wales

Welsh Towns

Aberystwyth: Castle and Coast
Caerleon: The Ffwrwm
Conwy: The Smallest House in Great Britain

Castles

Edwardian Castles

Beaumaris
The Historical Context
The Architecture

Caernarfon
Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

Conwy
The History of the Castle
The Architecture

Norman Castles

Cardiff
History

Chepstow
History: Beginnings unto Bigod
History: From Edward II to the Tudors
History: Civil War, Restoration, and Aftermath

Manorbier
The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

Pembroke
Pembroke Pictures
The Caves Under the Castle

Welsh Castles

Criccieth
Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings


Scandinavia

Norway

Towns

Oslo
The Fram Museum in Oslo

Castles and Fortresses

Arkershus Fortress in Oslo
Introduction
Akershus at the Time of King Håkon V
Architectural Development

Vardøhus Fortress
Defending the North for Centuries

Sweden

Towns

Stockholm
The Vasa Museum

Historical Landscapes

Gotland
Gnisvärd Ship Setting


Russia

The Splendour of St.Petersburg

Cathedrals
Isaac's Cathedral
Smolny Cathedral

The Neva
Impressions from the The Neva River


The Baltic States

Lithuania

Historical Landscapes

The Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit


Poland and the Czech Republic

Czech Republic

Towns

Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
Brief History of the Town

Kutná Hora
The Sedlec Ossuary

Poland

Towns

Gdańsk / Danzig
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval and Renaissance Danzig

Wrocław / Breslau
The Wrocław Dwarfs


Belgium and Luxembourg

Belgium / Flanders

Towns

Antwerp
The Old Town

Bruges
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Bruges

Ghent
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Ghent

Tongeren
Roman and Mediaeval Remains

Luxembourg

Luxembourg City
A Virtual Tour of the Town


Other Places

Strasbourg / France
A Virtual Tour of the Town


- Germany
- United Kingdom
- Scandinavia
- Baltic Sea


Beautiful Germany

The Baltic Sea Coast
The Flensburg Firth
Rugia - Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
Rugia - Seaside Ressort Binz
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
Oderteich Reservoir
Rappbode Reservoir
Views from Harz mountains

Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Hessian Switzerland

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
The Hutewald Forest
The Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Thuringian Forests
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

Rivers and Lakes
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
River of the Greenest Shores - The Moselle
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut

Parks and Palaces
Botanical Garden Göttingen
Hardenberg Castle Gardens
Wilhelmsthal Palace and Gardens

Wildlife
Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life

Seasons

Spring
Spring at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Spring in the Rossbach Heath (Meissner)

Summer
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016

Autumn
Autumnal Views from Castle Windows
Autumn Photos from Harz and Werra
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser

Winter
Spectacular Sunset
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Winter Wonderland - Views from my Balcony


Across the Channel - United Kingdom

Mountains and Valleys
Sheep Grazing Among Roman Remains
West Highland Railway

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains - Inverness to John o'Groats
Some Photos from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull - Craignure to Fionnphort
Pentland Firth
Staffa
Summer Days in Oban
Summer Nights in Oban

Wild Wales - With Castles
Hazy Views with Castles
Shadows and Strongholds
Views from Castle Battlements

Wildlife
Sea Gulls


Land of Light and Darkness - Scandinavia

Norway

The Hurtigruten-Tour
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Wildlife
Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord


Shores of History - The Baltic Sea

Baltic Sea Cruise

Lithuania

Nida and the Curonian Spit
Beaches at the Curonian Spit




Historia
Geologia

Comblogium (Blog Roll)
Conexiones (Links)

Roman History
- Germania
- Britannia

Mediaeval History
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Scandinavia
- Russia
- The Baltic States
- Poland, Bohemia, Hungary
- Flanders and Luxembourg

Other Times
Miscellanea


Roman History

Roman Militaria

Armour
Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapons
Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum
Daggers
Swords

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles

Life and Religion

Religion
The Mithras Cult
Isis Worship
Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots
Styli and Wax Tablets

Public Life
Roman Transport - Barges
Roman Transport - Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Miscellaneous
Legend of Alaric's Burial


Germania
(Including Gallia Belgica and Raetia)

Wars and Frontiers

Maps
Romans in Germania

Traces of the Pre-Varus Conquest
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn
Introduction

Along the Limes
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg

Rebellions
The Batavian Rebellion


Britannia

Roman Frontiers in Britain

The Hadrian's Wall
Introduction


Mediaeval History

Feudalism

The History of Feudalism
The Beginnings
Feudalism in the 10th Century

Essays about Specific Topics
The Privilege of the deditio
A Note on handgenginn maðr

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings

Essays about Specific Topics
Examples of Brick Architecture
Stockfish Trade

The Order of the Teutonic Knights

Wars and Battles
The Conquest of Danzig
The Siege of Vilnius 1390


Germany

Geneaologies

List of Mediaeval German Emperors

Geneaology
Anglo-German Marriage Connections
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors

Biographies

Kings and Emperors
King Heinrich IV
Emperor Otto IV, Introduction

Princes
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto of Northeim
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Famous Feuds

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War - Introduction
The Star Wars

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg


England

From the Conquest to King John

Normans, Britons, and Angevins
The Dukes of Brittany and the Honour of Richmond

Contested Borders
King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots

From Henry III to the War of the Roses

Royal Biographies
King Henry IV - His Lithuanian Crusade

Great Fiefs
The Earldom of Richmond and the Duchy of Brittany


Scotland

Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War (1)
King David and the Civil War (2)

Houses Bruce and Stewart
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle
The Early Stewart Kings

Scottish Nobles and their Quarrels

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding


Wales

Princes and Rebels

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

The Rebellions
From Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Scandinavia

Norway

Kings of Norway and their Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

Famous Nobles and their Feuds
Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Russia

The History of St.Petersburg
(to come)


The Baltic States

Lithuania

The Teutonic Knights in Lithuania
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas


Poland, Bohemia, Hungary

Poland

The Teutonic Knights in Poland
The Conquest of Danzig

The Jagiełłonian Kings
Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union

Bohemia
(Including Silesia and Moravia)

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
(to come)


Flanders and Luxembourg

The Counts of Luxembourg
(to come)


Other Times

Neolithicum to Iron Age

Germany

European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Scandinavia and Orkney

Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Scandinavia
Ship Setting on Gotland

Post-Mediaeval History

Discoveries
Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

Explorers
Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

European Nobility
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus


Miscellanea

History in Literature and Music

History in Literature

Biographies of German Poets and Writers
Theodor Fontane

Historical Ballads by Theodor Fontane (my translation)
Archibald Douglas
Gorm Grymme
Sir Walter Scott in Abbotsford
The Tragedy of Afghanistan

History in Opera

Belcanto and Historicism
Maria Padilla - Mistress Royal
The Siege of Calais in Donizetti's Opera

Fun Stuff

Not So Serious Romans
Aelius Rufus Visits the Future Series
Building Hadrian's Wall
Playmobil Romans

Royal (Hi)Stories
Kings Having a Bad Hair Day
The Case of the Vanished Wine Cask

Historical Memes
Charlemagne meme
Historical Christmas Wishes
New Year Resolutions
Aelius Rufus does a Meme
Rules for Writing Scottish Romances

Funny Sights
Tourist Kitsch in St.Petersburg


Geological Landscapes

The Baltic Sea
Geology of the Curonian Spit
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

The Harz
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in the Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations

Solling-Vogler
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

The Shores of Scotland
Staffa

Palaeontology

Fossils
Ammonites


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Links leading outside my blog will open in a new window. I do not take any responsibility for the content of linked sites.

History Blogs - Ancient

Roman History Today
Ancient Times (Mary Harrsch)
Following Hadrian (Carole Raddato)
Mike Anderson's Ancient History Blog
Mos Maiorum - Der römische Weg
Per Lineam Valli (M.C. Bishop)

Digging Up Fun Stuff
The Anglo-Saxon Archaeology Blog
Arkeologi i Nord
The Journal of Antiquities (Britain)
The Northern Antiquarian
The Roman Archaeology Blog

History Blogs - Mediaeval

Þaér wæs Hearpan Swég
Anglo Saxon, Norse & Celtic Blog
Casting Light upon the Shadow (A. Whitehead)
Norse and Viking Ramblings
Outtakes of a Historical Novelist (Kim Rendfeld)

Beholden Ye Aulde Blogges
A Clerk of Oxford
Daily Medieval
Historical Britain Blog (Mercedes Rochelle)
Magistra et Mater (Rachel Stone)
North Ages
Senchus (Tim Clarkson)
Viking Strathclyde (Tim Clarkson)

Royal and Other Troubles
Edward II (Kathryn Warner)
Henry the Young King (Kasia Ogrodnik)
Piers Gaveston (Anerje)
Lady Despenser's Scribery
Simon de Montfort (Darren Baker)
Weaving the Tapestry (Scottish Houses Dunkeld and Stewart)

A Mixed Bag of History
English Historical Fiction Authors
The Freelance History Writer (Susan Abernethy)
The History Blog
History, the Interesting Bits (S.B. Connolly)
Mediaeval Manuscripts Blog
Mediaeval News (Niall O'Brian)
Time Present and Time Past (Mark Patton)

Thoughts and Images

Reading and Reviews
Black Gate Blog
The Blog That Time Forgot (Al Harron)
Parmenion Books
The Wertzone

Imaginations
David Blixt
Ex Urbe (Ada Palmer)
Constance A. Brewer
Jenny Dolfen Illustrations
Wild and Wonderful (Caroline Gill)

German Blogs
Alte Steine
Anwolf
Meerblog

Highland Mountains
The Hazel Tree (Jo Woolf)
Helen in Wales
Mountains and Sea Scotland

The Colours of the World
Shutterbugs


Research

Archaeology
Past Horizons
Archaeology in Europe
Orkneyar

Roman History
Deutsche Limeskommission
Internet Ancient Sourcebook
Livius.org
Roman Army
Roman Britain
The Romans in Britain
Vindolanda Tablets

Mediaeval History
De Re Militari
Internet Mediaeval Sourcebook
Kulturzeit
The Labyrinth
Mediaeval Crusades
Medievalists.Net
Viking Society for Northern Research

Castles
Burgenarchiv
Burgerbe
Burgenwelt
Exploring Castles
The World of Castles

Miscellaneous History
Heritage Daily
The History Files

Mythology
Ancient History
Encyclopedia Mythica

Online Journals
Ancient Warfare
The Heroic Age
The History Files

Travel and Guide Sites

Germany - History
Antike Stätten in Deutschland
Burgenarchiv
Strasse der Romanik

Germany - Nature
HarzLife
Naturpark Meissner
Naturpark Solling-Vogler

England
English Heritage
Visit Northumberland

Scotland
The Chain Mail (Scottish History)
Historic Scotland
National Trust Scotland

Reiseblogs
Reisen & Fotografie (Tobias Hoiten)
fern & nah (Christian Oeser)

Books and Writing

Interesting Author Websites
Jacqueline Carey
Bernard Cornwell
Dorothy Dunnett (Dorothy Dunnett Society)
Steven Erikson
Diana Gabaldon
Guy Gavriel Kay
George R.R. Martin
Sharon Kay Penman
J.R.R. Tolkien (The Tolkien Society)
Tad Williams

Historical Fiction
Historical Novel Society
Historia Magazine

Writing Sites
Absolute Write
TheLitForum.com
National Novel Writing Month


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