The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times


22 Feb 2012
  A Big Tower and A Church - The Imperial Baths in Trier (Part 2)

After the Roman administration left Trier in the early 5th century, the Roman buildings fell into decline and were used as quarries, like in so many other Roman towns. But obviously, the Imperial Baths (by which name they go today despite the fact they were never used as such) didn't fare too badly becasue at some point, a noble family moved in, adaptated the caldarium into a castle, the Alderburg, and called themselves 'de Castello'.

The caldarium seen from the outside, complete with vehicles from the future :)

They erected a keep - the Geschlechterturm or Family Tower - in the angle between the eastern and southern apsis, and walled in the huge windows of all three apsides, leaving only room for much smaller windows. They got some formidable curtain walls that way. In the early 12th century (during the time of one Archbishop Bruno, 1102-1124), the castle was integrated into the town walls but still in possession of the de Castello family who held the castle at least until the 13th century.

The left middle window of the southern apsis served as gate - the Altport - during that time which points at a pretty thick layer of debris having accumulated over the centuries. That has been cleaned up today and the windows and floors are back at Roman level. The keep served as prison at the time which lets me conclude that the family, while still holding the castle and the responsibility of manning the town defenses, had found somewhat more comfortable living quarters by the 13th century than a draughty old bath with a kaputt heating.

Another view of the caldarium, seen from the palaestra

Settlers used the large palaestra yard alread in the early Middle Ages and built their huts and houses in the shelter of the walls. In the centre stood a church dedicated to St.Gervaise. In 1295, the sisters of the St.Agnetha convent settled in the palaestra and built another church and a nunnery in the north-western corner of the yard, probably using some of the existing walls for part of the building. The nunnery was disbanded and both churches dismantled in 1802 in the wake of the secularization. At the same time, parts of the town walls were broken down as well, including the upper storey of the main apsis; a few years later the old keep (Family Tower of the de Castello family) was abandoned as well.

View from out of a maintenanc tunnel

Instead, a Baroque residence was built which was later used as Prussian garrison (I wonder if they were aware that the area had housed a garrison once before) but it was destroyed during WW2.

After the war, only the lower row of the apsis windows remained, the upper one was reduced to crumbly bits. There was some discussion whether to restore the upper window arcs or to leave the ruins as they were, but restoration turned out to be the better option to prevent the remains from decaying even further. In other parts of the baths, single bricks and stones were replaced, the debris was removed, the ground brought to the level of the baths and some of the maintenance tunnels made accessible, and part of the walls was rebuilt to part of their former height. This work was finished in 1984, right in time for the 2000 year anniversary of Trier.

Remaining walls in the Imperial Baths (closeup)

Besides the remains of the caldarium and some of the adjacent buildings plus some of the tunnels and part of the water and heating system visitors can explore today, the palaestra has been returned to its first - intended - use as space for games and gymnastics. It's today a large meadow framed by reimans of the walls, and the kids play soccer and other games there. The main apsis of the caldarium is sometimes used as stage for theatrical performances.
 


12 Feb 2012
  The Baths That Never Were - The Imperial Baths in Trier (Part 1)

Salvete amici. I think Gabriele is in trouble this time. ;) That sneaky girl told me I should write about the Imperial Baths in Trier, and I was really looking forward to some nice … erm, research while soaking in hot water; a good place to be in that weather we got right now - I had no idea it can get so cold in Germania. But it came to nothing and I'm sure she knew that. So instead I had to wrap myself in a double layer of socks and mittens and face that damn cold.

*I hope our dear Aelius Rufus can't hold his spatha, wearing a double layer of mittens.*

Imperial Baths in Trier, view to the caldarium

The Imperial Baths (Kaiserthermen) is another of those projects that was begun when Trier became Imperial residence. Big fancy public baths had been prestige projects for quite some time, and the second - and also impressive - leisure centre, the Barbara Baths, was about 150 years old already. Still in good shape, mind you, but well, towns always tend to build newer and bigger public and governmental buildings than they really need; that hasn't changed during history.

So Maximinianus started the project. With a size of 250 x 145 metres, the baths covered the site of 4 insulae and were intended to become one of the largest leisure centres in the empire. The insulae were taken down, no matter that at least one of the buildings wasn't some run of the mill apartment block but a posh villa (with a bath of its own). No idea how the emperor convinced the owner to part with the land.

(Heating and maintenance system)

Access to the water system was particularly easy in that part of the town which probably was a reason for picking the site. At first, work progressed nicely; the subterranean tunnel system for heating and water supply as well as the maintenance tunnels was finished, and some of the rooms and halls built, progressing from east to west. So we got thecaldarium (hot bath), tepidarium (warm bath), and the foundations for the palaestra, the large, walled yard where the guests of the baths could do gymnastic exercises or just sit and have a talk with the neighbour.

But then Constantine moved his seat to Constantinople, likely took all the money with him, and the baths remained unfinished. The water pipes never were installed, the frigidarium (cold bath) and the planned buildings lining the inside of the palaestra walls, as well as the entrance hall, never were completed. And that's why I could not do any research in hot water there.

The baths remained an unfinished building for some 50 years. Then Flavius Gratinianus (375-383) became emperor and returned his attention back to Trier. He took a close look at the baths, decided the town didn't really need any more of those but that it would be a waste of good Roman concrete not to use the buildings that already were there. And since they were pretty close to the Imperial Palace, they would make a good garrison for his mounted bodyguard.

So the unfinished frigidarium was deconstructed to enlarge the palaestra, the rubble was used to fill in the heating and water tunnels, the rooms beside the tepidarium and the hallways were divided into lots of small chambers and stalls, and a military bath house was added on the north side. Military baths, seriously. I can use those everywhere.

My dear Aelius, you're spoiled ever since you visited the leisure centre in Caerleon.

Closeup of the - partly reconstructed - main apsis of the caldarium

The former caldarium with its three apsides and its anteroom most likely served as shrine of the standard and exercise hall, the tepidarium as entrance, and the small rooms around the yard as living quarters and stables. The building would have offered sufficient space to house about 800 - 1000 men and horses of the mounted guard. The got a few decorative marble plates and frescoes as an extra. Public baths are usually prettier than garrison buildings. :)

The roofs of the various halls were vaulted and, as the up to 7 metres thick foundations allow to conclude, of impressing height.

Some remaining walls (southern sudatorium)

If the baths had ever been used as such, the visitor would have entered them through an entrance hall leading to the palaestra and crossed it - or walked along the colonnades at the walls - to the baths proper. He (or she) would undress, put their clothes in a locker and clean the body with oil and a strigil or scraper. That's the difference today, Gabriele tells me, now the bathing or showering is to get clean and oil, if used, to soften the skin, while in Roman times the oil was used for cleaning and the baths were for relaxation.

Next steps would be the sauna (sudatorium) - both the dressing rooms and the sudatoria existed in double on both sides of the main halls - then the hot bath at the point of the triangle shaped layout of the baths, next the tepid bath (located between the sudatoria) to slowly cool the body, and last the cold bath in the frigidarium. The latter was never finished in case of the Imperial Baths in Trier, but it is was planned to be of the same size as the Aula Palatina. Most modern public pools could hide twice over in such a hall, Gabriele says.

(To the right: Underground maintenance way)

Baths like these can only work with a sophisticated heating system and, in lands with temperatures like we got those last days, also a good insulation. Of course, the baths had a hypocaust heating like we've seen several times already. The floor rested on little brick pillars, and hot steam from large fires would fill the caverns between the floor of the rooms and the ground below the brick pillars. The hot air then went up in tubes the inside the cantilevered walls; the space between the walls proper was filled with pottery and brick shards (how's that for recycling) which are good conductors of heat. That way the marble lining would not suffer condensation either. The system is the same as the one used in the Aula Palatina.

But what about those huge windows, you may say, didn't they let cold air in from the outside and make the halls draugthy as a Scottish castle? Well, the Romans - other than most Scottish lords - had double glazed windows. The making of glass can be dated back to at least Bronze Age Egypt (ca BC 1450) if not Mesopotamia (glass pearls, BC 1600), but it was the Romans who developed clear glass by adding MnO2 to the melting and who used it for windows and not only decorative items. The windows were of the crown style set in metal frames, and that way it was possible to cover even the large windows of the Imperial Baths or the Aula Palatina. And the Romans also figured out that double glazed windows kept the cold out and a greenhouse climate inside the baths.

We don't know if there was a wooden gallery to get to the windows higher up, but it seems likely that some sort of access was possible. The upper part of the caldarium apsides is a reconstruction and possible holes for beams may have gone missing in the rubble of the old walls.

There were several boiler houses, praefumia, to provide the steam for the heating and the warm water. The two storey labyrinth of tunnels had been completeld, and partly filled in when the baths became a garrison, during Roman times, and thus is pretty well preserved today. It's also one of the features that makes it possible to guess the layout of the never finished, or altered, parts of the building.

Some remaining walls in the Imperial Baths

The lower storey was the place for the fresh and waste water and heating systems, while the upper storey were maintenance tunnels - very narrow spaces as the picture above shows. Those are partly open for visitors today. The other large baths in Trier, the Barbara Baths, have only one layer of tunnels.

The tunnels were accessible only from the outside, thus completely separated from the visitor part of the baths. It's nice to get a glimpse of those from the future because in my time I'd never have gone inside such a place. Not even in a bath that wasn't a bath.

The post-Roman history of the Imperial Baths can be found here.


Sources:
Klaus-Peter Goethert, Römerbauten in Trier. Burgen, Schlösser, Altertümer Rheinland Pfalz, volume 20. Landesmedienzentrum Rheinland-Pfalz, 2005
This website (with drawings of the layout of the baths)(
 


2 Feb 2012
  Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Now winter - at least the Russian 'Little Daddy Frost' if not the snow - has finally reached Germany, more photos of snow and cold will be fitting. Follow me on the second part of a tour along the coast of Norway.

Patchwork

So here we go with some more photos from the Hurtigruten Tour.

The Richard With in Honningsvåg

I picked some with more snow as theme for this post.

A chain of mountains

And then found a lot of those in my files. *grin*

Blue Hour

This is the most lovely time of the day, though the weather needs to be not too cloudy for this particular light to appear.

Reindeer

The big herds of those are further inland, but you can spot the occasional cutie on a private grazing.

Snow covered mountains near Hammerfest

If we get more winters with so little snow, I'll move to Norway. ;-)

Mountains in the sunshine on the Vesterålen

Yes, there were some sunny days, or at least hours, too, and a 'wine dark sea', as the Greek say.

Another view of the Vesterålen landscape

This one was taken out of the bus window during a tour of the island.

A storm comes up

And here we go again; the clouds playing drama queen.

A glimpse of blue sky

And a few hours later, they look like the proverbial puppy that hasn't done anything. ;)

Another Blue Hour, muted version

There will hopefully more sea-and-land photos this year, from a different sea - the Baltic. I've been looking into cruises there.

Sunset with fishing boat

A Viking ship would have been even more atmospheric, but those are rare nowadays.
 




The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, and central / eastern Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.


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I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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The Star Wars


England

Kings of England

King Henry IV
King Henry's Lithuanian Crusade

Normans, Britons, Angevins

Great Fiefs - The Honour of Richmond
The Dukes of Brittany and the Honour of Richmond
The Earldom of Richmond and the Duchy of Brittany

Contested Borders

Northumbria
King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


Scotland

Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War, Part 1
King David and the Civil War, Part 2

Houses Bruce and Stewart
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle
The Early Stewart Kings

Scottish Nobles and their Quarrels

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding


Wales

Welsh Princes

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

Rebels

A History of Rebellion
From Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Denmark

Kings of Denmark

House of Knýtlinga
Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

The Duchy of Estonia
Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


Norway

Kings of Norway

Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

A Time of Feuds

Famous Nobles and their Feuds
Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Sweden

Troubles and Alliances

Scandinavian Unity
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union


Livonia
(Latvia and Estonia)

Towns of the Hanseatic League

Riga
The History of Mediaeval Riga

Tallinn
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Lithuania

The Northern Crusades

The Wars in Lithuania
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

Lithuanian Princes

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas


Poland

The Northern Crusades

The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
The Conquest of Danzig

Royal Dynasties

The Jagiełłonian Kings
Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union


Bohemia
(Including Silesia and Moravia)

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
(to come)


Other Times

Prehistoric Times

Germany

Development of Civilisation
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Orkney

Neolithic Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Scandinavia

Gotland
The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd


Post-Mediaeval History

Explorers and Discoveries

Explorers
Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

Discoveries
Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

Biographies

European Nobility
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus


Miscellanea

History in Literature and Music

History in Literature

Biographies of German Poets and Writers
Theodor Fontane

Historical Ballads by Theodor Fontane
(Translated by me)
Archibald Douglas
Gorm Grymme
Sir Walter Scott in Abbotsford
The Tragedy of Afghanistan

History in Opera

Belcanto and Historicism
Maria Padilla - Mistress Royal
The Siege of Calais in Donizetti's Opera

Not so Serious History

Romans
Building Hadrian's Wall
Playmobil Romans

Mediaeval Times
Kings Having a Bad Hair Day
The Case of the Vanished Wine Cask

Other
Rules for Writing Scottish Romances
Tourist Kitsch in St.Petersburg


Geology

Geological Landscapes

The Baltic Sea
Geology of the Curonian Spit
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

The Harz
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in the Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations

Solling-Vogler
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

The Shores of Scotland
Staffa

Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

Fossilized Ammonites
The Loket Meteorite


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