My History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times


25/05/2012
  A Baltic Sea Cruise

I'm back from my cruise with the MS Phoenix Albatross, as usual with a truckload of photos. So here's the traditional overview post of the places I've visited.

Visby and Gotland's west coast (Sweden)

A Medieaval town that belonged to the Hanseatic League and to the Gotland Trade League before, with some well conserved town fortifications, a cathedral, nice old houses (trade made for rich merchants who in turn built pretty houses to show off), and a few ruins.

Visby, the town walls

I took a bus tour along part of the west coast of Gotland so I could catch some impressions of the landscape, too. We had some interesting stops; one of them the ship setting at Gnisvärd. The flip side to guided tours are the other people in the group, but I managed to keep their appearance on photos to a minimum.

Bronze Age ship setting

Stockholm, and Stockholm Archipelago

I've lived there back in the 80ies. It was nice to revisit the place. The sun played along, too, as it did most of the tour. No grey and stormy Baltic Sea photos, I'm afraid. Well, we got some of those along the Norwegian coast last year.

Stockholm, the town hall

One place was new to me; the Vasa Museum where Gustav Adolf's flagship, which had sunk in Stockholm harbour in 1628 and was resurrected in the 1950ies, is now displayed in full splendour after years of conservation and reconstruction work.

Vasa Museum

Our ship, the Albatros, cruised the archipelago in the evening which made for some great motives There are about 2400 islands of all sizes from several square miles to 'just a boulder with a fir tree', and on the larger ones, many Swedes have summer houses.

Romantic islands in the evening sun

Helsinki and Porvoo (Finland)

Helsinki is a rather young town, compared to places like Visby, but there was a tour to nearby Porvoo, a small Mediaeval town with pretty timber houses which, albeit not exactly Mediaeval (those had a habit of burning down during history), give the place an old fashioned, charming flair.

Helsinki Cathedral

St.Petersburg (Russia)

We stayed in St.Petersburg for two days. It's the time of the white nights now when it doesn't get fully dark, but twilight remains. It was unusually warm, too. Petersburg is a town of cathedrals with golden cupolas, splendid palaces, kitch vendors, and cars. I bet London has nothing to the chaos on the roads in St.Petersburg.

Church of Christ's Resurrection

The town is also bascially built on a swamp by Peter the Great, and it's a place with a history of assassinations. The above church was erected on the spot where Tsar Alexander I got killed, and Tsar Paul wasn't safe in his pretty palace below, either. I took an evening cruise on the many canals that cut through Petersburg which was a nice change to the road traffic. Here are some impressions from the Neva.

Palace of Tsar Paul

Tallinn (Estonia)

Another Hanseatic town, known as Reval when most of the territory of todays Baltic States was in the hands of the German Hanseatic League and the Teutonic Knights.

Tallinn, view from the Upper Town to the Old Town

Riga (Latvia)

Another member of the Hanesatic League. It is amazing how fast those towns managed to repair their historical sites that often had been damaged or destroyed during WW2 and neglected during the Sovjet area. Tallinn, Riga and Gdansk all have World Heritage status today. And the beer is still cheaper than in Germany. *grin*

Riga, House of the Black Brotherhood

Curonian Spit and Nida (Lithuania)

The Curonian Spit (Kurische Nehrung) is a 98 km long dune spit that separates the Curonian Lagoon from the Baltic Sea. To prevent the dunes from covering everything, a reforesting program had been established in the 19th century, and today there are birch and pine woods, but still a lot of sand, too.

The Geat Dune

And some pretty villages like Nida (formerly Nidden) which had been a summer residence of rich Germans post WW2. The writer Thomas Mann spent some time there, and it would still make a good writer's retreat today; the place is very quiet, with the lagoon on one side and only a mile or so to the Baltic Sea.

A fisherman's hut in Nida

Gdansk and Malbork Castle (Poland)

Gdansk is another town with a great Hanseatic tradition and lots of beautiful old houses as well as an interesting cathedral. It's also a centre of amber working and amber trade, in good Medieaval tradition when amber was one of its main export articles. Yes, I got me a bracelet.

Gabled houses in Gdansk

Amber trade was in the hands of the Teutonic Knights, and boy, did they build a whopping big castle a bit inland. Sorry, Edward I, but your Welsh castles have nothing to the Marienburg (Malbork Castle). I was lucky to be able to spend several hours there, exploring at least part of it.

Marienburg (Malbork) Castle, middle and inner bailey

Kiel Canal (Germany)

Better know as Nord-Ostsee-Kanal in Germany. Since the Albatros sailed off from Bremerhaven at the North Sea, we had to cross the canal to get to the Baltic Sea (it's much shorter than rounding the entire peninsula), and on the way back it took place mostly during daylight. It was almost like a river cruise.

Traffic on the Kiel Canal

Bremen (Germany)

On the way back, I stopped in Bremen for a few hours, to add another Hanseatic town to my collection. Its Renaissance town hall is one of the most beautiful in Europe, and there's a cathedral and some narrow streets with old houses as well.

Bremen, the town hall

Blog fodder for months to come, and I haven't even finished all posts about the Welsh castles from 2008. *sigh*
 


10/05/2012
  Crossing the Weser and soon to Cruise the High Seas

I've mentioned before that one way to cross the Weser river are cable ferries that are still operating in some places.

A Weser ferry

We went that way a week ago because we found this on the other side. *grin* (Well, I found it on a website and we went there on purpose).


Castle Polle

It's Castle Polle, one of the castles in possession of the Counts of Everstein about whom I blogged when I had visited one of their other castles. Other than the Kugelsburg which was held by a chatellain, Polle was actually inhabited by the family.


View to the palas and the Weser, from the top of the keep

You can't blame them because they got those views from the windows of the palas (which today is sadly lacking two walls, a roof, and an upper storey) and the keep.

View to the other side
The river actually makes a turn in the left corner; the houses in the background sit along the shore

This post is also to announce that I'm going the cruise the high seas - the Baltic Sea, to be exact, in the wake of Vikings, cogs and cathedrals of the Hansa Leage, as well as some pirates and Teutonic Knights, with the shiny splendour of Russian palaces thrown in for more fun.

Outer curtain wall with the Weser beneath

The itinerary will encompass Visby and Gotland, Stockholm (I've lived there but it should be nice to return to some of my favourite haunts with a digital camera), Helsinki, St.Petersburg, Tallinn (which was known as Reval until WW2), Riga, Klaipeda / Nida (Lithuania) and Gdansk with a tour to Marienburg / Malbork Castle. And time enough at every stop to really explore the towns.

Zoomed in view from the castle keep to the Weser

I'll got as far east as last year (Kirkenes in Norway), but this time we'll cross two actual time zones to St.Petersburg which is the easternmost point of the voyage. The Baltic Sea is very different from the North and Arctic Seas, and the coasts are different as well. I'll hope for a good photo booty to share upon my return.
 


08/05/2012
  Dunstaffnage Chapel

Not much is known about the chapel that lies abut 150 metres from the castle, except that is was built by Duncan MacDougall of Lorn, builder of the castle, as well.

Way from the castle to the chapel
(maybe the place of Lord John's assassination?)

Duncan must have had access to some really good masons because the stonework and the decorations are quite outstanding for the time. The guidebook even says that no other chapel on the Scottish mainland from that time (~ 1220) can rival it.

View into the nave from the west entrance

Well, even its ruins make for some nice photos, and so this is more or less a 'photo spam' post. :) And the last to deal with Dunstaffnage and its history. I really need to sorta 'cross out' some of my sites; the list of future posts is way too long and getting longer.

View to the chancel with the former altar site

The chapel is single naved and about 20 metres long (6 metres wide); the chancel was divided from the main room by a timber screen. Paired lancet windows on all three sides illuminated the chancel while only two single windows in the south and north wall let some light into the main room. The altar was thus bathed in light - at least on sunny days.

One of the double lancet windows

The windows show some fine dog teeth decorations and widely splayed arches. The three entrances also were decorated, but only some fragments remain. They likely had arched doorways. Nothing is known about possible murals though my guess is there may have been some, going by the overall quality of the building.

View from the (former) altar into the main room

The chapel served as family chapel for the lord of the castle, though services there could well have been attended by visitors of the lords and / or keepers as well, including maybe King James IV. Its former splendour certainly may have appealed even to a king.

View into the nave from a side entrance

But the chapel already was in ruins in 1740 when a burial aisle was built to the east end that would serve as cemetary for the Campbell captains of the castle.

 


06/05/2012
  Dunstaffnage Castle - The Campbells Are Coming

For some 150 years, Dunstaffnage Castle remained a crown possession. It appeared in the spotlight of history a few times, like in 1431, when King James I took the castle and hanged about 300 rebels who had sheltered there after the battle of Inverlochy. James had taken Alexander MacDonald of Islay, Earl of Ross prisoner and that of course, led a number of Scottish clans to rebellion. They were successful at first, but as so often, the rebellion disintegrated and Alexander only came free with King James' death in 1437.

Another view of the battlements

Another sad affair took place in 1463. The keeper of Dunstaffnage at the time was John Stewart 2nd Lord of Lorn. He had a rival in Alan MacDougall, my guess is about the woman John was going to marry and who already was the mother of, or pregnant with, his son. I could not find out her name, maybe she was the 'unknown MacLaren' cited in the Peerage (10798). Alan and his men attacked John on the way to Dunstaffnage chapel close to the castle and fatally wounded him. But John managed to crawl to the altar and complete the marriage vows before he expired. You could not find a better opera scene, lol.

Angus MacDougall took the castle, but King James III re-seized it and gave it to Colin Campbell 1st Earl of Argyll in 1470. The castle and the keepership which also was hereditary held by a Campbell, remained in the hands of the family until 1958.

Remains of the 'new house' from 1725

The Campbell keepers were obliged to keep the castle in good repair and garrisoned with 'six able and decent men with armour and arms sufficient for war', as well as a porter and a watchman. That was only a peace time garrison, of course, it would need more men to defend the place.

Some changes in the gatehouse and the north-east living quarters date to the 15th century. The castle did need some prettying-up since kings sometimes sojourned there, so James IV. Dunstaffnage also served as base for military forays into the Hebrideans against the MacDonald Lord of the Isles.

During the Civil War, the castle held out against the forces of Montrose in 1644, and three years later managed to capture Montrose's second-in-command, Sir Alexander MacDonald, who was then hanged from the castle battlements; his body buried outside the chapel. There's a pattern here; it seems Bannockburn was the last time the MacDonalds and Campbells, both fighting at the side of King Robert, got along.


The 'new house', the fireplace

The Campbells fared less well when both the 8th and 9th Earl of Argyll were executed for treason. Partly due to the machinations of his enemies, partly maybe the to power he held,, the 9th Earl, Archibald Campbell, had incurred the wrath of James Duke of York (the later King James II of England and James VII of Scotland), was imprisoned and put to trial. But Archibald escaped from Edinburgh. A few years later, he got involved in the 1685 rising against King James who had converted to Catholicism - while the Campbells were Protestants. But his small host was overcome, the earl captured and exectued, while Dunstaffnage Castle was taken and burned by royalist troops, though not completely destroyed.

But the family was back during the Jacobite Risings in 1715 and 1745. Dunstaffnage at the time was occupied by government troops. Flora MacDonald, the woman who hepled Bonny Prince Charlie to escape out of Scotland, stayed there briefly on her way to prison in England.

A view from the battlements to Loch Etive

A new house was added to the castle in 1725 in the place of the old kitchen house. The captain lived in the castle until 1810, but it started to decay so badly that he found a better house to live in and left the castle to a tennant.

The Duke of Argyll started to undertake restoration work prior to WW1 (esp. the gatehouse) but it was delayed during the war, and later plans for a complete restoration were never fulfilled. After WW2, the roof of the 'new house' had collapsed, thus leaving the only still habitable place - besides the gatehouse - in ruins as well. In 1958, both the Duke of Argyll and the hereditary captain (the 21st) agreed to give the castle into the care of Historic Scotland.

 




The Lost Fort is a history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, and other places. It includes essays on Roman and Mediaeval history and architecture, as well as some geology, illustrated with my own photos of old castles and churches, Roman remains, pretty towns and beautiful landscapes.

This blog is non-commercial.

All texts (except comments by guests) and photos (if no other copyright is noted) on this blog are copyright of Gabriele Campbell.

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Location: Goettingen, Germany

I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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Roman Remains in Tongeren

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Porta Nigra - Roman Times
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Wall Forts - Banna (Birdoswald)
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Wall Forts - Segedunum (Wallsend)
Introduction
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The Signal Station at Scarborough

Roman Towns

Eboracum (York)
Bath in the Fortress
Multiangular Tower

The Romans in Wales

Roman Forts - Isca (Caerleon)
The Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort


Mediaeval and Early Modern Places

Living Mediaeval
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Medical Instruments

Mediaeval Art
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee - The Historical Context
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee - The Craftmanship

Mediaeval Weapons
Swords
Trebuchets
Combat Scenes


Germany

Towns

Braunschweig
Medieaval Braunschweig, Introduction
Lion Benches in the Castle Square
The Quadriga

Erfurt
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Erfurt

Magdeburg
Magdeburg Cathedral
St.Mary's Abbey - An Austere Archbishop
St.Mary's Abbey - Reformation to Reunion

Paderborn
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Paderborn

Speyer
The Cathedral: Architecture
Cathedral: Richard Lionheart in Speyer
Jewish Ritual Bath

Xanten
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Xanten
The Gothic House

Towns in the Harz

Goslar
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Goslar

Quedlinburg
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Quedlinburg
The Chapter Church

Towns of the Hanseatic League

Lübeck
St. Mary's Church, Introduction

Stralsund
The Harbour

Wismar
The Old Harbour

Castles and Fortresses

Castles in Bavaria

Coburg Fortress
The History of the Fortress
The Architecture

Castles in the Harz

Ebersburg
The Architecture
Power Base of the Thuringian Landgraves
The Marshals of Ebersburg

Harzburg
The Harzburg and Otto IV

Hohnstein
Origins of the Counts of Hohnstein
The Family Between Welfen and Staufen
A Time of Feuds (14th-15th century)

Regenstein
Introduction
The Time of Henry the Lion

Scharzfels
Introduction
History

Hidden Treasures
The Stauffenburg near Seesen

Castles in Hessia

Castles in Northern Hessia
Grebenstein
Reichenbach
Sichelnstein

Kugelsburg
The Counts of Everstein
Troubled Times
War and Decline

Weidelsburg
The History of the Castle
The Architecture
The Castle After the Restoration

Castles in Lower Saxony

Adelebsen / Hardeg
The Keep of Adelebsen Castle
The Great Hall of Hardeg Castle

Hardenberg
Introduction

Plesse
Rise and Fall of the Counts of Winzenburg
The Lords of Plesse
Architecture / Decline and Rediscovery

Castles in the Solling
Salzderhelden - A Welfen Seat
Grubenhagen

Castles in Thuringia

Brandenburg
The Double Castle
Role of the Castle in Thuringian History

Castles in the Eichsfeld
Altenstein at the Werra
Castle Scharfenstein

Hanstein
Introduction
Otto of Northeim
Heinrich the Lion and Otto IV
The Next Generations

Normanstein
Introduction

Wartburg
A Virtual Tour

Castles at the Weser

Bramburg
River Reivers

Krukenburg
History and Architecture
Outbuilding 'Shepherd's Barn'

Polle
The Castle and its History

Sababurg / Trendelburg
Two Fairy Tale Castles

Churches and Cathedrals

Churches in the Harz

Steinkirche near Scharzfeld
Development of the Cave Church

Walkenried Monastery
From Monastery to Museum

Churches in Lower Saxony

Königslutter
Exterior Decorations
Cloister

Wiebrechtshausen
Nunnery and Ducal Burial

Churches in Thuringia

Göllingen Monastery
Traces of Byzantine Architecture

Heiligenstadt
St.Martin's Church
St.Mary's Church

Churches at the Weser

Bursfelde Abbey
Early History

Fredelsloh Chapter Church
History and Architecture

Helmarshausen
Remains of the Monastery

Lippoldsberg Abbey
History
Interior

Vernawahlshausen
Mediaeval Murals

Reconstructed Sites

Palatine Seat Tilleda
The Defenses

Viking Settlement Haithabu
Haithabu and the Archaeological Museum Schleswig
The Nydam Ship

Miscellanea

Other Mediaeval Buildings
Lorsch, Gate Hall
Palatine Seat and Monastery Pöhlde

Along Weser and Werra
Uslar - Pretty Old Houses
Treffurt - A Walk through the Town
Weser Ferry
Weser Skywalk


England

Towns

Chester
A Virtual Tour of the Town

Hexham
Old Gaol

York
Clifford Tower
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Monk Bar Gate and Richard III Museum
Museum Gardens
Old Town
Along the Ouse River

Castles

Castles in Cumbria

Carlisle
Introduction
Henry II and William of Scotland
The Edwards

Castles in Northumbria and Yorkshire

Alnwick
Malcolm III and the First Battle of Alnwick

Richmond
From the Conquest to King John
From Henry III to the Tudors

Scarborough
From the Romans to the Tudors
From the Civil War to the Present
The Architecture

Churches and Cathedrals

Hexham Abbey
Introduction

York Minster
Architecture


Scotland

Towns

Edinburgh
Views from the Castle

Stirling
The Wallace Monument

Castles

Central Scotland

Doune
A Virtual Tour
History: The Early Stewart Kings
History: Royal Dower House, and Decline

Stirling
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle

West Coast Castles

Dunollie and Kilchurn
Castles Seen from Afar

Duart
Guarding the Sound of Mull

Dunstaffnage
An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
The Wars of Independence
The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

Abbeys and Churches

Inchcolm Abbey
Arriving at Inchcolm

Other Historical Sites

Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort
Staffa


Wales

Towns

Walks in Welsh Towns
Aberystwyth: Castle and Coast
Caerleon: The Ffwrwm
Conwy: The Smallest House in Great Britain

Castles

Edwardian Castles

Beaumaris
The Historical Context
The Architecture

Caernarfon
Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

Conwy
The History of the Castle
The Architecture

Norman Castles

Cardiff
History

Chepstow
History: Beginnings unto Bigod
History: From Edward II to the Tudors
History: Civil War, Restoration, and Aftermath

Manorbier
The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

Pembroke
Pembroke Pictures
The Caves Under the Castle

Welsh Castles

Criccieth
Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings


Scandinavia

Norway

Castles and Fortresses

Defense over the Centuries
Akershus Fortress: Middle Ages
Akershus Fortress: Architectural Development
Vardøhus Fortress

Sweden

Towns

Stockholm
The Vasa Museum


Russia

The Splendour of St.Petersburg

Cathedrals
Isaac's Cathedral
Smolny Cathedral

The Neva
Impressions from the The Neva River


Poland and the Baltic States

Lithuania

Historical Landscapes
The Curonian Spit


Belgium and Luxembourg

Belgium / Flanders

Towns

Antwerp
The Old Town

Bruges
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Bruges

Ghent
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Ghent

Tongeren
Roman and Mediaeval Remains

Luxembourg

Luxembourg City
A Virtual Tour of the Town


France

Strasbourg
A Virtual Tour of the Town


Other Times

Prehistoric Times to Iron Age

Ages of Stone and Bronze

Development of Civilization
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

From Stone to Bronze
Paleolithic Cave 'Steinkirche' in the Harz mountains
Gnisvärd Ship Setting on Gotland

Pre-Historic Orkney
Ring of Brodgar - Introduction
Ring of Brodgar - The Neolithic Landscape
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae


Post-Mediaeval Times

Powder and Steam

Development of Weapons
Historical Guns

Steampunk and Beyond
The Fram Museum in Oslo
Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg


- Germany
- United Kingdom
- Scandinavia
- Baltic Sea


Beautiful Germany

The Baltic Sea Coast
The Flensburg Firth
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley, Rosstrappe and Devil's Wall
Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
Oderteich Reservoir
Views from Harz mountains

Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Sea Stones, Kitzkammer, Heldrastein
Hessian Switzerland
Karst Dolines and Kalbe Lake

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
The Hutewald Forest
The Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Thuringian Forests
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

Rivers and Lakes
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
River of the Greenest Shores - The Moselle
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut

Parks and Palaces
Botanical Garden Göttingen
Forest Botanical Garden, Göttingen
Hardenberg Castle Gardens
Wilhelmsthal Palace and Gardens

Seasons and More

Spring
Spring - Views from my Balcony
Spring at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Spring in the Rossbach Heath (Meissner)

Summer
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016
Summer Thunderstorms

Autumn
Autumnal Views from Castle Windows
Autumn Photos from Harz and Werra
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser

Winter
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Winter Wonderland - Views from my Balcony

Wildlife
Birds at the Feeder
Harz Falcon Park
Llama, Llama
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life

Experimental
Carved Monsters in Cathedrals
Odd Angles
Spectacular Sunset
Carved Animals


Across the Channel - United Kingdom

Mountains and Valleys
Sheep Grazing Among Roman Remains
West Highland Railway

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains - Inverness to John o'Groats
Some Photos from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull - Craignure to Fionnphort
Pentland Firth
Staffa
Summer Days in Oban
Summer Nights in Oban

Wild Wales - With Castles
Hazy Views with Castles
Shadows and Strongholds
Views from Castle Battlements

Wildlife
Sea Gulls


Land of Light and Darkness - Scandinavia

Norway

The Hurtigruten-Tour
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Wildlife
Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord


Shores of History - The Baltic Sea

Baltic Sea Cruise

Lithuania

Nida and the Curonian Spit
Beaches at the Curonian Spit




Historia
Geologia
Delectatio (Fun Stuff)
Comblogium (Blog Roll)
Conexiones (Links)

- Roman History
- Mediaeval History
- Other Times and Miscellanea


Roman History

Wars and Frontiers

Maps
Romans in Germania

Traces of the Pre-Varus Conquest
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn
Introduction

Along the Limes
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg

Roman Frontiers in Britain
Hadrian's Wall

Rebellions
The Batavian Rebellion

Roman Militaria

Armour
Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapons
The pilum
Daggers
Swords

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles

Life and Religion

Religion
The Mithras Cult
Isis Worship
Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots
Styli and Wax Tablets

Public Life
Roman Transport - Barges
Roman Transport - Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Roman villae
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Miscellaneous
Legend of Alaric's Burial


Mediaeval History

Feudalism
Feudalism, Beginnings
Feudalism, 10th Century
The Privilege of the deditio
A Note on handgenginn maðr

The Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings
Stockfish Trade


Germany

Geneaologies

List of Mediaeval German Emperors

Geneaology
Anglo-German Marriage Connections
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors

Biographies

Kings and Emperors
King Heinrich IV
Emperor Otto IV, Introduction

Princes
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto of Northeim
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Famous Feuds

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War - Introduction
The Star Wars

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg


England and Normandy

From the Conquest to King John

Normans, Britons, and Angevins
The Dukes of Brittany and the Honour of Richmond

From Henry III to the War of the Roses

Great Fiefs
The Earldom of Richmond and the Duchy of Brittany


Scotland

Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War (1)
King David and the Civil War (2)

Houses Bruce and Stewart
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle
The Early Stewart Kings

Scottish Nobles and their Quarrels

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding


Wales

Princes and Rebels

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

The Rebellions
From Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Scandinavia

Kings and Vikings

Kings of Norway
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages

Famous Nobles and their Feuds
Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Other Times and Miscellanea

Post-Mediaeval History

Discoveries
Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

Explorers
Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

History in Opera and Literature

Opera

Belcanto and Historicism
Maria Padilla - Mistress Royal
The Siege of Calais in Donizetti's Opera

Historical Ballads

Ballads by Th. Fontane, translated by me
About Theodor Fontane
Archibald Douglas
Gorm Grymme
Sir Walter Scott in Abbotsford
The Tragedy of Afghanistan


Geological Landscapes

The Baltic Sea
Geology of the Curonian Spit

The Harz
Karst Landscape
Karst - Lonau Falls
Karst - Rhume Springs

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations

Solling-Vogler
Raised Bogs
The Hannover Cliffs

The Shores of Scotland
Staffa

Paleontology

Fossils
Ammonites


Fun Stuff

Not So Serious Romans
Aelius Rufus Visits the Future Series
Building Hadrian's Wall
Playmobil Romans

Royal (Hi)Stories
Kings Having a Bad Hair Day
The Case of the Vanished Wine Cask

Historical Memes
Charlemagne meme
Historical Christmas Wishes
New Year Resolutions
Aelius Rufus does a Meme
Rules for Writing Scottish Romances

Funny Sights
Tourist Kitsch in St.Petersburg

My Novels in Progress / Planning

I'm a bit of a writer, too; here are the novel projects on which I'm currently working

Roman Novels (Historical Fiction)
The Saga of House Sichelstein (Historical Fiction)
Kings and Rebels (Fantasy)


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Links leading outside my blog will open in a new window. I do not take any responsibility for the content of linked sites.

History Blogs - Ancient

Roman History Today
Ancient Times (Mary Harrsch)
Bread and Circuses (Adrian Murdoch)
Following Hadrian (Carole Raddato)
Mike Anderson's Ancient History Blog
Mos Maiorum - Der römische Weg
Per Lineam Valli (M.C. Bishop)
Zenobia (Judith Weingarten)

Digging Up Fun Stuff
The Anglo-Saxon Archaeology Blog
Arkeologi i Nord
The Journal of Antiquities (Britain)
The Northern Antiquarian
The Roman Archaeology Blog

History Blogs - Mediaeval

Þaér wæs Hearpan Swég
Anglo Saxon, Norse & Celtic Blog
Casting Light upon the Shadow (A. Whitehead)
Norse and Viking Ramblings
Outtakes of a Historical Novelist (Kim Rendfeld)

Beholden Ye Aulde Blogges
A Clerk of Oxford
Daily Medieval
Historical Britain Blog (Mercedes Rochelle)
Magistra et Mater (Rachel Stone)
Michelle of Heavenfield (Michelle Ziegler)
Senchus (Tim Clarkson)
Viking Strathclyde (Tim Clarkson)

Royal and Other Troubles
Edward II (Kathryn Warner)
Henry the Young King (Kasia Ogrodnik)
Piers Gaveston (Anerje)
Lady Despenser's Scribery
Simon de Montfort (Darren Baker)
Weaving the Tapestry (Scottish Houses Dunkeld and Stewart)

A Mixed Bag of History
English Historical Fiction Authors
The Freelance History Writer (Susan Abernethy)
The History Blog
History, the Interesting Bits (S.B. Connolly)
Mediaeval Manuscripts Blog
Mediaeval News (Niall O'Brian)
Time Present and Time Past (Mark Patton)

Thoughts and Images

Reading and Reviews
Black Gate Blog
The Blog That Time Forgot (Al Harron)
Parmenion Books
Reading the Past
The Wertzone

Imaginations
David Blixt
Ex Urbe (Ada Palmer)
Constance A. Brewer
Jenny Dolfen Illustrations
Wild and Wonderful (Caroline Gill)

German Travel Blogs
Alte Steine
Blickgewinkelt
Meerblog
Reiseaufnahmen
Sonne und Wolken
Teilzeitreisender
Travelita
Unterwegs und Daheim

Highland Mountains
The Hazel Tree (Jo Woolf)
Helen in Wales
Mountains and Sea Scotland

The Colours of the World
Shutterbugs


Research

Archaeology
Past Horizons
Archaeology in Europe
Orkneyar

Roman History
Deutsche Limeskommission
Internet Ancient Sourcebook
Livius.org
Roman Army
Roman Britain
The Romans in Britain
Vindolanda Tablets

Not so Dark Ages
Burgundians in the Mist
Viking Society for Northern Research

Mediaeval History
De Re Militari
Internet Mediaeval Sourcebook
Kulturzeit
The Labyrinth
Mediaeval Crusades
Medievalists.Net

Castles
Burgenarchiv
Burgerbe
Burgenwelt
Exploring Castles
The World of Castles

Miscellaneous History
Heritage Daily
The History Files

Mythology
Ancient History
Encyclopedia Mythica

Online Journals
Ancient Warfare
The Heroic Age
The History Files

Travel and Guide Sites

Germany - History
Antike Stätten in Deutschland
Burgenarchiv
Strasse der Romanik

Germany - Nature
HarzLife
Naturpark Meissner
Naturpark Solling-Vogler

England
English Heritage
Visit Northumberland

Scotland
The Chain Mail (Scottish History)
Historic Scotland
National Trust Scotland

Books and Writing

Interesting Author Websites
Bernard Cornwell
Dorothy Dunnett
Steven Erikson
Diana Gabaldon
Guy Gavriel Kay
George R.R. Martin
Sharon Kay Penman
Brandon Sanderson
J.R.R. Tolkien
Tad Williams

Historical Fiction
Historical Novel Society
Historia Magazine

Writing Sites
Absolute Write
TheLitForum.com
National Novel Writing Month


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