The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times


2 May 2014
  Back With Booty - Churches and Cathedrals

I'm back and after sifting though some 2,000 photos, I got the usual overview for you. Since I concentrated on towns this time, I visited quite a few churches, though not every one on the way; only the important ones and those without Baroque 'improvements' inside which is, alas, rather common in southern Germany.

Bamberg Cathedral, view to the west choir

Bamberg Cathedral is a fine example of a double-quired Romanesque church.

I had some bad luck since my camera, trusted compagnon for 8 years, decided to threw a fit right inside the cathedral. Fortunately, I found a store that had one fulfilling my requirements and which is even better, albeit thrice the size of my late one. The above photo is one of the last I shot with the old camera while it still worked.

Nuremberg, St. Laurence Church, westwork

Outside views of churches are often tricky since the houses tend to sit too close, but there's a market place in front of the westwork of St.Laurence in Nuremberg which gives a good view of the fine Gothic tracework.

Nuremberg, St.Sebald Church, high quire

Both St.Laurence and St.Sebald have high quires in the Gothic style. There was a bit of a competition going on between the churches. St.Sebald first erected its soaring choir to enshrine the shrine of Saint Sebald; St.Laurence followed suit.

Nuremberg, chapel in the castle

This one is the upper storey of the double chapel in the castle, in the older Romanesque style. Unfortunately, there is no access to the lower floor which has a different set of pillars.

Regensburg Cathedral

The cathedral in Regensburg, Germany's finest example of the flamboyant late Gothic style, is a nightmare to photograph. Even the new camera couldn't catch all of it in one pic since it's so huge. And the traffic in front of it didn't help. The town has Unesco World Heritage status and should really do something about the cars racing along its most famous building.

Regensburg Cathedral, soaring spires

A closeup of some of the many details of the facades. Gargoyles, flying buttresses, decorative tracework and figures - you get everything. There's always some scaffolding somewhere, because the old stones need constant care and restoration.

Regensburg, St.Emmeram, crypt

St.Emmeram is the oldest church in Regensburg, but the Asam brethren went crazy on gilded, chubby angel-ed Baroque makeover in the main church in 1732, so the crypt is the only part retaining its Romanesque look.

Regensburg. St.Jacob, main entrance

This one is interesting because it was built in the 11th century by monks from Ireland - Scotia Maior - who brought their Celtic style of decorations and created a church unique for Bavaria. It is usually called the Schottenkirche.

(Dont forget to check below for more posts.)
 


  Back With Booty - Castles

Of course, I did some castle hunting as well. Though in case of Nuremberg, the castle is right on the hill towering the old town.

Nuremberg Castle, outer gate

I had been to Nuremberg as child and I remember some features of the castle like the way up to the gate and the fact that some buildings had a half-timbered upper storey. Some things never change, the kids still climb the red sandstone rocks on the hill leading to the gate.

Nuremberg Castle, inner bailey

It was the only day with some rain in the morning (though the next day in Regensburg was overcast as well, the exceptions of an else sunny and warm holiday). It had been a hot summer day when I first visited Nuremberg, that too I remember.

Altenburg Castle near Bamberg

Altenburg Castle is technically part of the town of Bamberg that spreads over seven hills. The cathedral is on one, another holds a monastery now closed for repair, and the highest hill farthest from the town centre is the place of the Altenburg. As if all that walking around in towns wasn't enough, I got me a veritable hike on top of it. But I can't resist additions to my castle collection.

Coburg Fortress, outer defenses of the old castle

Coburg Fortress (Veste Coburg) was not part of my planned itinerary, but since I covered the important things in Bamberg faster than I had estimated and got an extra afternoon, I decided for a little off the road trip. The regional train connections in the area are pretty good, about 40 minutes to Coburg.

Coburg Fortress, inner bailey

It's one of the largest fortresses in Germany, with origins and buildings dating to the Middle Ages, and additional fortifications during the wars in the 16th and 17th centuries. Definitely worth the detour.

Coburg Fortress, one of the armoury rooms

Several rooms can be visited, among them the armouries with lots of armour, sharp and pointy things, and historical guns of all sorts. My friend Annika will likely drool about the pretty armour. I should ask her to provide me with the correct info for my photos since I can't tell Milanese from English style. ;-)

Castle Donaustauf, second gate

Not far from Regensburg, on a mountain at the Danube, is a beautiful castle ruin. Donaustauf has once been an important castle and the remains are still formidable. And I had it all for myself (while the other places usually were busy with tourists, albeit not as bad as in high season). Maybe it's because the only way up there is to walk, heh.

Castle Donaustauf, upper keep and chapel with view towards the Danube

The castle is a veritable maze of baileys and curtain walls covering the upper part of the mountain - the above photo is the highest point.
 


  Back With Booty - Romans

The Limes, the frontier between the Roman Empire and Germania, runs south of Nuremberg and thus I was able to visit some Roman places. And Regensburg is on the Roman side anyway. Aelius Rufus was quite happy, though I had difficulties getting him out of the baths in Weissenburg. *grin*

Aalen, foundations of the principia

Aalen was a fort for an ala milliaria, a double cavalry unit. What remains today are the foundations of the principia, the main administrative building in the centre of the fort. One can only try to imagine how large the entire fort had been; part of it is now covered by a cemetary.

Aalen, remains of the principia with the shrine of the standards

The closeup shows the aedes principiorum, the shrine of the standards. Here it is a genuine apse, not a rectangular one like in the Saalburg. The unit stationed in the fort was the Ala II Flavia Pia Fidelis Milliaria.

Weissenburg, the baths

Weissenburg, the Roman Biriciana, is a cohort castellum directly at the limes. The foundations have been preserved and one of the four gates reconstructed. Near the fort are the remains of a pretty sophisticated bath complex, almost a spa.

Weissenburg, helmet on display in the museum

The museum is not large, but it got some real shinies from a hidden treasure - probably put in the earth during the Alamannic raids in the 3rd century - that has recently been discovered.

Roman Regensburg underground, parts of a wall of the legionary fort

Regensburg - Castra Regina, named for the river Regen confluencing into the Danube - was a legionary fort for 6,000 soldiers. One can still trace the principal roads in the layout of the old town, and remains of the buildings keep coming up every time a hole is dug in that area. That piece of wall is in a car parking house.

Regensburg, the porta praetoria (one of the gates of the fort)

Some remains have always been visible and integrated into the town architecture, though most of the stones were dismantled and reused. The Porta praetoria is one of the signposts of Regensburg, besides the cathedral and the 12th century bridge (which unfortunately was scaffolded in).
 


  Back With Booty - Pretty Views

All towns I visited (actually, Nuremberg is a city) date back to at least the Middle Ages and are rich in history, which means rich in old buildings other than the churches and castles. Here are a few.

Bamberg, house of the bridge guard, and town hall (the stone building in the background)
on a islet in the river Regnitz

There was some quarrel about the location of the town hall; old town (the part around the cathedral) or new town (which now is old, too), so an islet in the river was expanded by heavy oak posts rammed into the ground, and the town hall was built right on the boundary.

Bamberg, the Old Palace

The Old Palace is a group of buildings that had been used as residence by the bishop and also served as palatine seat for the emperor upon his visits in the Middle Ages when the king's household was still itinerant. Later, the bishop built a new Renaissance palace at the other side of the cathedral.

Bamberg, 'little Venice' riverfront

Pretty old timber houses lining the Regnitz. Especially lovely in the evening sun.

Nuremberg, view from the town wall to the castle

That is another childhood memory. I climbed the stairs to the battlements of the town wall then as well. You can walk along the part surrounding an extended corner of the old town at the castle. More remains of the wall are further down the hill.

Nuremberg, Artisans' Quarter

The Artisans' Quarter is located directly adjacent another remaining part of the town wall. The little houses are mostly reconstructed and sell kitch or house little pubs, but the atmosphere is somewhat Medieaval with the small spaces between the booths and the wares on display outside. I used to have a beer there on my way back to the hotel after a day of exploring.

Nuremberg, Hangman's Bridge

One of several bridges over the Pegnitz. The other ones are made of stone, and some are modern, but this ancient timber one is the prettiest of the lot.

Weissenburg, town walls

Weissenburg, built on the vicus of the Roman fort, still has a significant part of its town walls intact. The old trench has been refilled with water in one section to make it look even more original.

Near Regensburg, impressions of the Danube

Regensburg lies at the Danube, and I took a two hours cruise on the river. You know how much I like that sort of thing (I did so on the Ouse, Dee, Rhine and Mosel as well).
 




The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, the Baltic Countries, and central Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.


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Location: Goettingen, Germany

I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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Historical Places

Germany

Towns

Braunschweig
Medieaval Braunschweig
Lion Benches in the Castle Square
The Quadriga

Erfurt
Mediaeval Erfurt

Goslar
Mediaeval Goslar
The Chapel in the Klus Rock

Lübeck
St. Mary's Church

Magdeburg
Magdeburg Cathedral
Liebfrauen Church: An Austere Archbishop
Liebfrauen Church: Reformation to Reunification

Mainz
The Temple of Isis and Mater Magna

Paderborn
Mediaeval Paderborn

Quedlinburg
Mediaeval Quedlinburg
The Chapter Church

Speyer
The Cathedral: Architecture
Jewish Ritual Bath
Richard Lionheart in Speyer

Stralsund
The Harbour
Mediaeval Stralsund: The Old Town

Trier
The Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths
The Porta Nigra
The Roman Bridge

Weimar
Sites of the Weimar Classicism
The Park at the Ilm

Wismar
The Old Harbour

Xanten
Roman and Mediaeval Xanten
The Gothic House
The Amphitheatre in Birten

More Towns

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Seaside Ressort Binz

Towns at the Rhine
Boppard - The Roman Baudobriga

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Heiligenstadt
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Castles

Brandenburg (Thuringia)
History: The Double Castle
History: Albrecht II of Thuringia

Coburg Fortress (Bavaria)
History
Architecture

Ebersburg (Harz)
History: The Marshals of Ebersburg
Architecture

Hanstein (Thuringia)
History

Hardenberg (Lower Saxony)
History

Hohnstein (Harz)
History: The Counts of Hohnstein
History: Between Welfen and Staufen
History: 14th-15th Century

Kugelsburg (Hessia)
History: The Counts of Everstein
History: Later Times

Plesse (Lower Saxony)
History: The Counts of Winzenburg
History: The Lords of Plesse
Architecture

Scharzfels (Harz)
History
Architecture

Wartburg (Thuringia)
A Virtual Tour

Weidelsburg (Hessia)
History
Architecture
Revisiting the Weidelsburg

More Castles

Harz Mountains
Regenstein
Stapelburg
Stauffenburg

Hessia
Grebenstein
Reichenbach
Sichelnstein

Lower Saxony
Adelebsen
Grubenhagen
Hardeg Castle
Salzderhelden

Thuringia
Altenstein at the Werra
Scharfenstein

Castles at the Weser
Bramburg
Krukenburg: Castle and Chapel
Castle Polle: An Everstein Seat
Sababurg and Trendelburg

Abbeys and Churches

Early Mediaeval Churches
Göllingen Monastery
Lorsch Abbey: The Carolingian Gate Hall

Churches in the Harz Area
Pöhlde: Remains of the Monastery
Hahnenklee: The Stave Church
Scharzfeld: The Cave Church
Walkenried Monastery
Wiebrechtshausen

Churches in Hessia
Wilhelmshausen / Fulda Valley

Weser Abbeys: Bursfelde
Early History

Weser Abbeys: Helmarshausen
Remains of the Monastery
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion

Weser Abbeys: Lippoldsberg
Early History
The Interior of the Church

Other Churches in the Weser Area
Fredelsloh Chapter Church
Gehrden / Brakel
Vernawahlshausen: Mediaeval Murals

Museums and Reconstructed Sites

Open Air Museums
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Palatine Seat Tilleda
The Defenses

Viking Settlement Haithabu
Haithabu and the Archaeological Museum Schleswig
The Nydam Ship

Post-Mediaeval Exhibits
Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg

Romans Remains

Traces of a Failed Invasion
Roman Exhibitions, Haltern am See
Varus Statue, Haltern am See
The Roman Camp at Hedemünden

Limes Fort Aalen
The Barracks

Limes Fort Osterburken
The Discovery
The Cohort castellum
The Annex Fort
The Garrisons

Limes Fort Saalburg
A Reconstructed Limes Fort
Shrine of the Standards

Roman villae at the Moselle
The Villa Urbana in Longuich

Roman villae at the Rhine
The Villa at Wachenheim: Introduction
Wachenheim: Baths and Toilets
Wachenheim: The Cellar

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Neolithic Burials
Neolithic Burials in the Everstorf Forest and Rugia
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age
Bronze and Iron Age Remains at the Werra


England

Towns

Chester
Roman and Medieaval Chester

Hexham
The Abbey - Introduction
The Old Gaol

York
Clifford Tower
The Guild Hall
Monk Bar Gate and Richard III Museum
Museum Gardens and Mulitangular Tower
The Old Town
Roman Bath in the Fortress
York Minster: Architecture

Castles

Carlisle
History: King David
History: Henry II and William of Scotland
History: Edward I to Edward III

Richmond
History: Conquest to King John
History: Henry III to the Tudors
Architecture

Scarborough
History: Romans to the Tudors
History: Civil War to the Present
Architecture

Roman Remains

Wall Fort Birdoswald
The Dark Age Timber Halls

Wall Fort Segedunum
Museum and Viewing Tower
The Baths

Other Roman Sites
The Mithraeum at Brocolita
The Signal Station at Scarborough


Scotland

Towns

Edinburgh
Views from the Castle

Stirling
The Wallace Monument

Castles

Doune
A Virtual Tour
History: The Early Stewart Kings
History: Royal Dower House

Dunstaffnage
History: An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
History: The Wars of Independence
History: The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

Stirling
History: Robert the Bruce

Castles at the Scottish West Coast
Duart Castle
Dunollie and Kilchurn

Abbeys and Churches

Inchcolm Abbey
Arriving at Inchcolm

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Neolithic Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae

Brochs and Cairns
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Introduction

Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort
Staffa


Wales

Towns

Aberystwyth
Castle and Coast

Caerleon
The Ffwrwm
The Roman Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort

Conwy
The Smallest House in Great Britain

Castles

Beaumaris
History
Architecture

Caernarfon
Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

Chepstow
History: Beginnings unto Bigod
History: Edward II to the Tudors
History: Civil War

Conwy
History
Architecture

Criccieth
Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings

Pembroke
Photo Impressions
The Caves Under the Castle

Castles in Southern Wales
Cardiff
Manorbier


Denmark

Museums and Reconstructed Sites

Viking Museum Roskilde
To come


Norway

Castles and Fortresses

Akershus Fortress in Oslo
History: The Time of King Håkon V
Architecture

Vardøhus Fortress
History

Museums / Reconstructed Sites

The Fram Museum in Oslo


Sweden

Museums and Reconstructed Sites

The Vasa Museum in Stockholm

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Gotland
Gnisvärd Ship Setting


Finland

Towns

Porvoo
Mediaeval Porvoo


Estonia

Towns

Tallinn
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Latvia

Towns

Riga
The History of Mediaeval Riga


Lithuania

Historical Landscapes

The Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit


Poland

Towns

Gdańsk / Danzig
History of Mediaeval Gdańsk
Mediaeval and Renaissance Gdańsk

Kraków
The Old Town
Jewish Kraków - Kazimierz and the Ghetto

Wrocław / Breslau
The Botanical Garden
The Wrocław Dwarfs

Castles

Ogrodzieniec Castle
A Virtual Tour
History: First Castle to the Boner Family


Czechia

Towns

Cheb / Eger
The Old Town

Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
Brief History of the Town

Kutná Hora
The Sedlec Ossuary
The Medieaval Town and St.Barbara's Church


Belgium

Towns

Antwerp
The Old Town

Bruges
Mediaeval Bruges

Ghent
Mediaeval Ghent

Tongeren
Roman and Mediaeval Remains


Luxembourg

Towns

Luxembourg City
A Tour of the Town


City Trips

St.Petersburg (Russia)
Impressions from the Neva River

Strasbourg (France)
A Tour of the Town


Hiking Tours and Cruises

Germany

The Baltic Sea Coast
Flensburg Firth
Rugia: Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
Rugia; The Pier of Sellin
Rugia: More Photo Impressions
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

The Lüneburg Heath
Hiking Tours in the Lüneburg Heath

Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Devil's Wall
Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
Oderteich Reservoir
Rappbode Reservoir
Views from Harz mountains

Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Around Bad Sooden-Allendorf
Hessian Switzerland

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
The Forest Pasture Project
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Nature Park Reinhardswald
Old Forest at the Sababurg

Thuringian Forests
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

Rivers and Lakes
Bruchteiche / Bad Sooden Allendorf
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
The Moselle
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut
Weser River Ferry
Weser Skywalk

Wildlife
Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life
Red squirrels

Seasons
Spring in the Botanical Garden Göttingen
Spring in the Hardenberg Castle Gardens
Spring at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Spring in the Meissner
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake


United Kingdom

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains: Inverness to John o'Groats
Some Photos from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull: Craignure to Fionnphort
Pentland Firth
Staffa
Summer Days in Oban
Summer Nights in Oban

Scotland by Train
West Highland Railway

Wild Wales - With Castles
Views of Snowdownia
Views from Castle Battlements

Wildlife
Sea Gulls


Scandinavia

The Hurtigruten-Tour / Norway
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Wildlife
Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord


The Baltic Sea

A Baltic Sea Cruise

The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
Beaches at the Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit



Mediaeval History
- General Essays
- Specific Topics

History by Country
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Livonia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Bohemia

Roman History
- The Romans at War
- Roman Life and Religion

Other Times
- Neolithicum to Iron Age
- Post-Mediaeval History
-
Miscellanea
- Geology


Mediaeval History

General Essays

Mediaeval Art and Craft

Mediaeval Art
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
The Hunting Frieze in Königslutter Cathedral
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Medieaval Craftmanship
Goldsmithery
Medical Instruments

Mediaeval Warfare

Mediaeval Weapons
Swords
Trebuchets

Castles and Fortifications
Dungeons and Oubliettes


Specific Topics

Feudalism

The History of Feudalism
The Beginnings
Feudalism in the 10th Century

Privileges and Special Relationships
The Privilege of the deditio
A Note on handgenginn maðr

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings

Hanseatic Architecture
Examples of Brick Architecture
Hall Houses (Dielenhäuser)

Goods and Trade
Stockfish Trade

Towns of the Hanseatic League
Riga
Stralsund
Tallinn / Reval

The Order of the Teutonic Knights

Wars and Battles
The Conquest of Danzig
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

The Vikings

Viking Ships
The Nydam Ship


Some historical events are linked under more than one country / subtitle due to the overarching nature of history.


History by Country

Germany

Geneaology

List of Mediaeval German Emperors

Geneaologies
Anglo-German Marriage Connections
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors

Kings and Emperors

The Salian Dynasty
King Heinrich IV

House Welf and House Staufen
Emperor Otto IV, Introduction

Princes and Lords

Princes
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Duke Otto of Northeim
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Feuds and Rebellions

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War
The Star Wars


England

Kings of England

King Henry IV
King Henry's Lithuanian Crusade

Normans, Britons, Angevins

Great Noble Houses
The Dukes of Brittany
The Earls of Richmond

Contested Borders

Northumbria
King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


Scotland

Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War, Part 1
King David and the Civil War, Part 2

Houses Bruce and Stewart
The Early Stewart Kings

Local Troubles

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding

Scotland and England

The Wars of Independence
Alexander of Argyll
The Fight for Stirling Castle


Wales

Welsh Princes

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

Wales and England

A History of Rebellion
Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Denmark

Kings of Denmark

House of Knýtlinga
Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

The Duchy of Estonia
Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


Norway

Kings of Norway

Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

Feuds and Rebellions

Rebels
Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Sweden

Troubles and Alliances

Scandinavian Unity
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union


Livonia
(Latvia and Estonia)

Livonian Towns

Riga
The History of Mediaeval Riga

Tallinn
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Lithuania

Lithuanian Princes

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas

The Northern Crusades

The Wars in Lithuania
The Siege of Vilnius 1390


Poland

Royal Dynasties

The Jagiełłonian Kings
Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union

The Northern Crusades

The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
The Conquest of Danzig


Bohemia

Royal Dynasties

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
King Sigismund and the Hussite Wars


Roman History

The Romans at War

Forts and Fortifications

The German Limes
The Cavalry Fort Aalen
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg

The Hadrian's Wall
Introduction
The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend

Border Life
Exercise Halls
Mile Castles and Watch Towers
Soldiers' Living Quarters
Cavalry Barracks

Campaigns and Battles

Maps
The Romans in Germania

The Pre-Varus Invasion in Germania
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn
Introduction

The Batavian Rebellion
A Short Introduction

Miscellaneous Events

The Legend of Alaric's Burial

Roman Militaria

Armour
Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapons
Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum
Daggers
Swords

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles


Roman Life and Religion

Religion and Public Life

Religion
Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms
Isis Worship
Memorial Stones
The Mithras Cult

Public Life
Roman Transport: Barges
Roman Transport: Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Architecture
Roman Public Baths

Domestic Life

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots


Other Times

Neolithicum to Iron Age

Germany

Development of Civilisation
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
The Hutewald Project in the Solling
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Neolithic Remains
Stone Burials of the Funnelbeaker Culture
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age / Iron Age
The Nydam Ship

Scotland

Neolithic Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Bronze Age / Iron Age
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Their Function in Iron Age Society

Scandinavia

Bronze / Iron Age
The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd / Gotland


Post-Mediaeval History

Explorers and Discoveries

Explorers
Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

Discoveries
Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)


Miscellanea

History in Literature and Music

History and Literature

The Weimar Classicism
The Weimar Classicism - Introduction

Theodor Fontane
Short Biography of Theodor Fontane
Fontane Ballads, translated by me
Archibald Douglas
Gorm Grymme
Sir Walter Scott in Abbotsford
The Tragedy of Afghanistan

History in Opera

Belcanto and Historicism
Maria Padilla - Mistress Royal
The Siege of Calais in Donizetti's Opera

Not so Serious History

Romans
Building Hadrian's Wall
Playmobil Romans

Mediaeval Times
Kings Having a Bad Hair Day
The Case of the Vanished Wine Cask

Other
Rules for Writing Scottish Romances


Geology

Geological Landscapes

The Baltic Sea
Geology of the Curonian Spit
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

The Harz
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in the Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs
Sandstone Formations: Daneil's Cave
Sandstone Formations: Devil's Wall
Sandstone Formations: The Klus Rock

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations
Salt Springs at the Werra

Solling-Vogler
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

The Shores of Scotland
Staffa

Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

Fossilized Ammonites
The Loket Meteorite


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