My Illlustrated Travel Journal with Essays about Roman and Mediaeval History and some Geology


28.2.07
  Feudalism 101 (Part 1)

Merovingian Times (5th-8th centuries)

"Because it is well known to everyone that I have no food and no clothes, I have prayed to your compassion and I have of my free will decided to give myself into your protection, or to commend myself to you. And I have done this; it shall be that way that you will give me food and clothes and support me in the measure as I will serve you and therewith earn your support. Until my death I am obliged to serve you and to obey you as I may as a freeborn man, and during my life I cannot withdraw from your power and protection, but I will remain in your power and protection as long as I live." (1) This formula is a rare written example for a process which usually was staged orally and by the use of symbolic gestures. The contract of commendation was concluded between two persons and ended with the death of one of the parties. It is important to note that the duties of the commendent might not interfere with his rights and dignity as a freeborn man.

Pacts between free men of lower social status and men of power have already existed in Merovingian times, and I suppose they may have existed even earlier albeit there's no proof. Roman sources did not care how exactly the relationship between fe. Arminius and his retainers, if he had such, was defined.

Those pacts were based upon service from the one side, and protection from the other side, the patrocinium. The relation between them was hierarchical, power on one side, obedience on the other. Especially kings could thus attract men, and in Merovingian times these royal retainers were called antrustiones. They formed a special sort of personal guard with a number of privileges. For example, if any of them was killed in a fight, his relatives got a higher weregild than for a non-member (2). This special status the group had in common with the Old Norse hirð, only the latter organisation lasted until the 13th century. The Merovingian antrustiones fell into decline when the Carolingian familiy rose to kingship in the 8th century.

The contract does not specify the duties of the vassal, nor the way the protection of the lord was carried out. Nor is it clear whether the commendation in these early times necessarily involved an oath of fealty, or a symbolic gesture like the manumission. But both are occasionally mentioned concerning the antrustiones (3)

The lord could keep the commendent at his court, but he could also give him a piece of his land to live upon. This was called tenure in case it was given as a loan, and usually the tenant had to pay taxes or tithes. But the lord could also give the land under more favourable conditions like tax exemption as a beneficium (4). In Merovingian times the patrocinium, based upon obedience and service from the commendent (sometimes called vassus) and protection by the lord, and the gift of a beneficium were separate institutions. That changed in Carolingian times when vassalty and beneficium became connected. (5)


Footnotes
(1) Taken from the Formulae Turonensis, No. 43. Edition: MG Formulae Merovingici et Karolini Aevi. ed. by K. Zeumer, p. 158. The formula dates from the beginning of the 8th century, but the form of it goes back to an old tradition (Ganshof, p. 4).
(2) It is not clear whether the members of the antrustiones were connected in a form of co-operative among each other (as it was the case in the hirð), or whether they as vassals of the king only were bound to him; Althoff, p. 139.
(3) Ganshof, p. 7. An example for the act in: De regis antrustione, in: Marciulfi Formulae 1.18, ed. Zeumer).
(4) The word beneficium is often used in the chartes and documents from the Merovingian times onward (Ganshof, p. 9).
(5) The word vasall (Latin vassus or vassallus) is used from the 8th century onwards. It might go back to the Celtic gwas = servant (Schulze, p. 58), but there is no absolute proof for this assumption.

Literature
  • Gerd Althoff. Verwandte, Freunde und Getreue - Zum politischen Stellenwert der Grupppenbindungen im früheren Mittelalter. Darmstadt 1990 (Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft)
  • Karl-Heinz Bender. König und Vasall. Untersuchungen zur Chanson de geste des XII. Jahrhunderts, Heidelberg, 1967 (=Studia Romanica 13)
  • James Campbell. The Anglo-Saxon State (selected essays). London and New York, 2000
  • Jean Favier. Histoire de France vol. II. Le temps de principautés - De l'an mil a 1515. Paris, 1984
  • François Louis Ganshof. Qu'est-ce que la féodalité? Bruxelles, 1944, 3rd and reworked ed. 1957 (that book still is a standard work)
  • Michael Heintze. König, Held und Sippe - Untersuchungen zur Chanson de geste des 13 und 14. Jahrhunderts und ihrer Zyklenbildung. Studia Romanica 76, Heidelberg 1991
  • John Le Patourel. Feudal Empires, Norman and Plantagenet (selected essays). London, 1984
  • Erich Köhler. Conseil des barons et jugement des barons: Epische Fatalität und Feudalrecht im altfranzösischen Rolandslied. In: H. Krauß (ed.) Altfranzösische Epik, Darmstadt 1978, S. 368-412
  • François Neveux. La Normandie: des ducs aux rois, Xe - XIIe siècle. Rennes, 1998
  • Pierre Riché. Les Carolingiens - Une famille qui fit l'Europe. Paris, 1983
  • Hans K. Schulze. Grundstrukturen der Verfassung im Mittelalter, Band 1: Stammesverband, Gefolgschaft, Lehnswesen, Grundherrschaft. Stuttgart, Berlin, Köln 1985
  • Karl Ferdinand Werner. Die Ursprünge Frankreichs bis zum Jahr 1000. München, 1995 (1st edition 1984)
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    The Lost Fort is a travel journal and history blog based on my travels in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, and other places. It includes essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, as well as some geology, illustrated with photos of old castles and churches, Roman remains, and beautiful landscapes.

    All texts (except comments by guests) and photos (if no other copyright is noted) on this blog are copyright of Gabriele Campbell.
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    Name:
    Location: Germany

    I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who hasn't yet gotten an Instagram account. :-)



    Illustrated travel essays: Roman remains, Mediaeval buildings and ruins, other places; sorted by country


    Roman Times

    The Romans at War

    Different Frontiers, Yet Alike
    Exercise Halls
    Mile Castles and Watch Towers
    Reconstructed Fort Walls
    Soldiers' Living Quarters
    Cavalry Barracks

    Roman Ships
    Transport Barges

    Life and Religion

    Religious Sites
    The Mithraeum of Brocolita
    Mithras Altars in Germania
    A Roman Memorial Stone


    Germania

    The Limes and its Forts

    Limes Fort Osterburken
    The Discovery
    The Cohort castellum
    The Annex Fort
    The Garrisons

    Limes Fort Saalburg
    Introduction
    Main Gate
    Shrine of the Standards
    The Walls
    The vicus

    Romans in Bavaria
    Overview: Aalen, Weissenburg, Regensburg
    The Fort in Aalen - Barracks

    Romans at Lippe and Ems
    Anniversary Exhibitions in Haltern am See
    Varus Statue, Haltern am See

    Romans at the Rhine
    Boppard - A 4th Century Roman Fort
    Villa Rustica Wachenheim
    Wachenheim Villa, Baths and Toilets
    Wachenheim Villa, Cellar

    Romans at the Weser
    The Roman Camp at Hedemünden
    Weapon Finds

    Roman Towns

    Augusta Treverorum (Trier)
    The Amphitheatre
    The Aula Palatina
    The Imperial Baths - Roman Times
    The Imperial Baths - Post Roman
    Porta Nigra - Roman Times
    The Roman Bridge

    Colonia Ulpia Traiana (Xanten)
    History of the Town
    The Amphitheatre in Birten

    Moguntiacum (Mainz)
    The Temple of Isis and Mater Magna


    Gallia Belgica

    Roman Towns

    Atuatuca Tungrorum
    Roman Remains in Tongeren


    Britannia

    Frontiers, Fortifications, Forts

    The Hadrian's Wall
    Introduction / Photo Collection
    Fort Baths
    Fort Headquarters
    Building the Wall
    The Wall as Defense Line

    Wall Forts - Banna (Birdoswald)
    The Dark Age Timber Halls

    Wall Forts - Segedunum (Wallsend)
    Introduction
    The Museum
    The Viewing Tower
    The Baths

    Signal Stations
    The Signal Station at Scarborough

    Roman Towns

    Eboracum (York)
    Bath in the Fortress
    Multiangular Tower

    Romans in Wales

    The Forts in Wales
    Overview

    Roman Forts - Isca (Caerleon)
    The Amphitheatre
    The Baths in the Legionary Fort


    Mediaeval Times

    Living Mediaeval
    Dungeons and Oubliettes
    Pit House (Grubenhaus)
    Medical Instruments

    Mediaeval Art
    The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
    The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
    Mediaeval Monster Carvings
    The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee - The Historical Context
    The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee - The Craftmanship

    Mediaeval Weapons
    Swords
    Trebuchets
    Combat Scenes


    Mediaeval Germany

    Towns

    Braunschweig
    Medieaval Braunschweig, Introduction
    Lion Benches in the Castle Square
    The Quadriga

    Erfurt
    A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Erfurt

    Magdeburg
    Magdeburg Cathedral
    St.Mary's Abbey - An Austere Archbishop
    St.Mary's Abbey - Reformation to Reunion

    Paderborn
    Town Portrait

    Speyer
    The Cathedral: Architecture
    Cathedral: Richard Lionheart in Speyer
    Jewish Ritual Bath

    Xanten
    Town Portrait
    The Gothic House

    Towns in the Harz

    Goslar
    Town Portrait

    Quedlinburg
    Town Portrait
    The Chapter Church

    Towns of the Hanseatic League

    Lübeck
    St. Mary's Church, Introduction

    Stralsund
    The Harbour

    Wismar
    The Old Harbour

    Castles and Fortresses

    Castles in Bavaria

    Coburg Fortress
    The History of the Fortress
    The Architecture

    Castles in the Harz

    Ebersburg
    The Architecture
    Power Base of the Thuringian Landgraves
    The Marshals of Ebersburg

    Harzburg
    The Harzburg and Otto IV

    Hohnstein
    Origins of the Counts of Hohnstein
    The Family Between Welfen and Staufen
    A Time of Feuds (14th-15th century)

    Regenstein
    Introduction
    The Time of Henry the Lion

    Scharzfels
    Introduction
    History

    Hidden Treasures
    The Stauffenburg near Seesen

    Castles in Hessia

    Castles in Northern Hessia
    Grebenstein
    Reichenbach
    Sichelnstein

    Kugelsburg
    The Counts of Everstein
    Troubled Times
    War and Decline

    Weidelsburg
    The History of the Castle
    The Architecture
    The Castle After the Restoration

    Castles in Lower Saxony

    Adelebsen / Hardeg
    The Keep of Adelebsen Castle
    The Great Hall of Hardeg Castle

    Hardenberg
    Introduction

    Plesse
    Rise and Fall of the Counts of Winzenburg
    The Lords of Plesse
    Architecture / Decline and Rediscovery

    Castles in the Solling
    Salzderhelden - A Welfen Seat
    Grubenhagen

    Castles in Thuringia

    Brandenburg
    The Double Castle
    Role of the Castle in Thuringian History

    Castles in the Eichsfeld
    Altenstein at the Werra
    Castle Scharfenstein

    Hanstein
    Introduction
    Otto of Northeim
    Heinrich the Lion and Otto IV
    The Next Generations

    Normanstein
    Introduction

    Wartburg
    A Virtual Tour

    Castles at the Weser

    Bramburg
    River Reivers

    Krukenburg
    History and Architecture
    Outbuilding 'Shepherd's Barn'

    Polle
    The Castle and its History
    Views from the Keep

    Sababurg / Trendelburg
    Two Fairy Tale Castles

    Churches and Cathedrals

    Churches in the Harz

    Steinkirche near Scharzfeld
    Development of the Cave Church

    Walkenried Monastery
    From Monastery to Museum

    Churches in Lower Saxony

    Königslutter
    Exterior Decorations
    Cloister

    Wiebrechtshausen
    Nunnery and Ducal Burial

    Churches in Thuringia

    Göllingen Monastery
    Traces of Byzantine Architecture

    Heiligenstadt
    St.Martin's Church
    St.Mary's Church

    Churches at the Weser

    Bursfelde Abbey
    Early History

    Fredelsloh Chapter Church
    History and Architecture

    Helmarshausen
    Remains of the Monastery

    Lippoldsberg Abbey
    History
    Interior

    Vernawahlshausen
    Mediaeval Murals

    Reconstructed Sites

    Palatine Seat Tilleda
    The Defenses

    Viking Settlement Haithabu
    Haithabu and the Archaeological Museum Schleswig
    The Nydam Ship

    Miscellanea

    Other Mediaeval Buildings
    Lorsch, Gate Hall
    Palatine Seat and Monastery Pöhlde

    Miscellanea - Along Weser and Werra
    Bad Karlshafen
    Hannoversch-Münden
    Uslar
    Treffurt
    Weser Ferry
    Weser Skywalk


    Mediaeval England

    Towns

    Chester
    A Walk Through the Town

    Hexham
    Old Gaol

    York
    Clifford Tower, Part 1
    Clifford Tower, Part 2
    Guild Hall
    Monk Bar Gate and Richard III Museum
    Museum Gardens
    Old Town
    Along the Ouse River

    Castles

    Castles in Cumbria

    Carlisle
    Introduction
    Henry II and William of Scotland
    The Edwards

    Castles in Northumbria and Yorkshire

    Alnwick
    Malcolm III and the First Battle of Alnwick

    Scarborough
    From the Romans to the Tudors
    From the Civil War to the Present

    Churches and Cathedrals

    Hexham Abbey
    Introduction

    York Minster
    Architecture


    Mediaeval Scotland

    Towns

    Edinburgh
    Views from the Castle

    Stirling
    The Wallace Monument

    Castles

    Central Scotland

    Doune
    A Virtual Tour
    History: The Early Stewart Kings
    History: Royal Dower House, and Decline

    Stirling
    Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle

    West Coast Castles

    Dunollie and Kilchurn
    Castles Seen from Afar

    Duart
    Guarding the Sound of Mull

    Dunstaffnage
    An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
    The Wars of Independence
    The Campbells Are Coming
    Dunstaffnage Chapel

    Abbeys and Churches

    Inchcolm Abbey
    Arriving at Inchcolm

    Other Historical Sites

    Picts and Dalriatans
    Dunadd Hill Fort
    Staffa


    Mediaeval Wales

    Towns

    Walks in Welsh Towns
    Aberystwyth: Castle and Coast
    Caerleon: The Ffwrwm
    Conwy: The Smallest House in Great Britain

    Castles

    Edwardian Castles

    Beaumaris
    The Historical Context
    The Architecture

    Caernarfon
    Master James of St.George
    The Castle Kitchens

    Conwy
    The History of the Castle
    The Architecture

    Norman Castles

    Cardiff
    History

    Chepstow
    History: Beginnings unto Bigod
    History: From Edward II to the Tudors
    History: Civil War, Restoration, and Aftermath

    Manorbier
    The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

    Pembroke
    Pembroke Pictures
    The Caves Under the Castle

    Welsh Castles

    Criccieth
    Llywelyn's Buildings
    King Edward's Buildings


    Baltic States and Poland

    Towns along the Sea Coast
    From Tallinn to Gdansk


    Flanders / Belgium

    Towns

    Antwerp
    The Old Town

    Bruges
    A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Bruges

    Ghent
    A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Ghent

    Tongeren
    Roman and Mediaeval Remains


    Scandinavia

    Norway

    Castles and Fortresses

    Defense over the Centuries
    Akershus Fortress: Middle Ages
    Akershus Fortress: Architectural Development
    Vardøhus Fortress


    Other Times

    Ages of Stone and Bronze

    Development of Civilization
    European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
    Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

    From Stone to Bronze
    Paleolithic Cave 'Steinkirche' in the Harz mountains
    Gnisvärd Ship Setting on Gotland

    Pre-Historical Orkney
    Ring of Brodgar - Introduction
    Ring of Brodgar - The Neolithic Landscape
    Skara Brae
    Life in Skara Brae


    Post-Mediaeval

    Thirty Years of War
    The Vasa Museum in Stockholm

    The Splendour of St.Petersburg
    Isaac's Cathedral
    Smolny Cathedral
    Impressions from the The Neva River

    Steampunk and Beyond
    Fram Museum, Oslo, Part 1
    Fram Museum Oslo, Part 2
    Historical Guns
    Raising a Wreck, Now and Then - The Vasa Museum
    Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg


    Tours and Cruises

    Travelling in Germany
    Hanseatic Towns at the Baltic Sea
    At the Coast of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
    Quedlinburg and Surroundings
    Halberstadt and Surroundings
    In the Land of Saale and Unstrut
    Interesting Sites in Thuringia
    Some Castles in Thuringia (2017)
    Teutoburg Forest and Paderborn
    Towns, Castles and Churches in Bavaria
    Summer Tours 2016

    Travelling in the UK
    Castles in Northumbria and Eastern Scotland
    Abbeys and Churches in Northumbria
    From Edinburgh to Oban - A Visit to Scotland
    Neolithic, Pictish and Viking Remains on Orkney
    Castles in Wales

    Cruises
    Cruise on the Baltic Sea
    The Hurtigruten Tour / Norway


    Beautiful Germany

    The Baltic Sea Coast
    From the Bay of Wismar to Hiddensee
    The Flensburg Firth
    A Tour on the Wakenitz River

    Harz National Park
    Arboretum (Bad Grund)
    Bode Valley, Rosstrappe and Devil's Wall
    Cave Dwellings in Langenstein
    Harzburg and the Ilsetal
    Oderteich Reservoir
    Views from Harz mountains

    Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
    Sea Stones, Kitzkammer, Heldrastein
    'Hessian Switzerland'
    Karst Dolines and Kalbe Lake

    Nature Park Solling-Vogler
    The Hutewald Forest
    The Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

    Rivers and Lakes
    The Danube in Spring
    Edersee Reservoir
    A Rainy Rhine Cruise
    River of the Greenest Shores - The Moselle
    Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut

    Parks and Palaces
    Botanical Garden Göttingen
    Forest Botanical Garden, Göttingen
    Hardenberg Castle Gardens
    Junkerberg Cemetary
    Wilhelmsthal Palace and Gardens

    Other Landscape Sites
    Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

    Seasons and More

    Spring
    Spring on my Balcony
    Spring at the Kiessee Lake
    Spring in the Rossbach Heath

    Summer
    Memories of Summer
    Summer Hiking Tours 2016
    Summer Thunderstorms

    Autumn
    Autumnal Views from Castle Windows
    Autumn Photos from Harz and Werra
    Autumn in the Meissner
    Autumn at Werra and Weser

    Winter
    Advent Impressions
    Christmas Decorations from the Ore Mountains
    Winter at the Kiessee Lake
    Winter Wonderland
    Winter 2010

    Wildlife
    Birds at the Feeder
    Harz Falcon Park
    Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
    Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life

    Experimental
    Alien Architecture
    Carved Monsters in Cathedrals
    Llama, Llama
    Odd Angles
    Spectacular Sunset
    Carved Animals


    Across the Channel - United Kingdom

    Mountains, Valleys, and Rivers
    Sheep Grazing Among Roman Remains
    A Ghost Cruise on the Ouse River
    West Highland Railway

    The East Coast
    By Ferry to Newcastle
    Highland Mountains - Inverness to John o'Groats
    Some Photos from the East Coast

    Scottish Sea Shores
    Crossing to Mull
    Mull - Craignure to Fionnphort
    Pentland Firth
    Staffa
    Summer Days in Oban
    Summer Nights in Oban

    Wild Wales - With Castles
    Hazy Views with Castles
    Shadows and Strongholds
    Views from Castle Battlements

    Wildlife
    Sea Gulls


    Shores of History - The Baltic Sea

    The Northern Coast
    From Gotland to St.Petersburg

    The South-Eastern Coast
    Beaches at the Curonian Spit
    From Tallinn to Gdansk


    Land of Light and Darkness - Norway

    The Hurtigruten-Tour
    Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
    Along the Coast - North of the Polar Circle
    A Voyage into Winter
    Culture and Nature in Norway
    The Farthest North

    Norway by Train
    Winter in the Mountains

    Wildlife
    Bearded Seals
    Dog Sledding With Huskies
    Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord




    Illustrated Essays about historical themes, events, and persons - mostly Roman and Mediaeval


    Roman History

    Wars and Frontiers

    Maps
    Romans in Germania

    Traces of the Pre-Varus Conquest
    Roman Camp Hedemünden
    New Finds in 2008

    The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
    Museum Park at Kalkriese

    The Battle at the Harzhorn
    Introduction

    Along the Limes
    Limes Fort Osterburken
    Limes Fort Saalburg

    Roman Frontiers in Britain
    Hadrian's Wall

    Rebellions
    The Batavian Rebellion

    Roman Militaria

    Armour
    Early Imperial Helmets
    Late Roman Helmets
    The Negau B Helmet

    Weapons
    The pilum
    Daggers
    Swords

    Other Equipment
    Roman Saddles

    Life and Religion

    Religion
    The Mithras Cult
    Isis Worship
    Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms

    Everyday Life
    Bathing Habits
    Children's Toys
    Face Pots
    Styli and Wax Tablets

    Public Life
    Roman Transport - Barges
    Roman Transport - Amphorae and Barrels
    Roman Water Supply

    Roman villae
    Villa Rustica Wachenheim

    Miscellaneous
    Legend of Alaric's Burial


    Mediaeval History

    Feudalism
    Feudalism, Beginnings
    Feudalism, 10th Century
    The Privilege of the deditio
    A Note on handgenginn maðr

    The Hanseatic League
    Introduction and Beginnings
    Stockfish Trade


    Germany

    Geneaologies

    List of Mediaeval German Emperors

    Geneaology
    Anglo-German Marriage Connections
    Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors

    Biographies

    Kings and Emperors
    King Heinrich IV
    Emperor Otto IV, Introduction

    Princes
    Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen
    The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
    Otto of Northeim
    The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
    Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

    Counts and Local Lords
    The Marshals of Ebersburg
    The Counts of Everstein
    The Counts of Hohnstein
    The Lords of Plesse
    The Counts of Reichenbach
    The Counts of Winzenburg

    Famous Feuds

    Local Feuds
    The Lüneburg Succession War
    The Thuringian Succession War - Introduction
    The Star Wars

    Royal Troubles
    Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg


    Scotland

    Scottish Kings

    House Dunkeld
    Malcolm III and Northumbria
    Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
    King David and the Civil War (1)
    King David and the Civil War (2)

    Houses Bruce and Stewart
    Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle
    The Early Stewart Kings

    Scottish Nobles and their Quarrels

    Clan Feuds
    MacLeans and MacDonalds
    A Scottish Wedding


    Wales

    The Princes of Gwynedd
    The Rise of House Aberffraw

    The Rebellions
    From Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


    Scandinavia

    Kings of Norway
    King Eirik's Scottish Marriages

    Famous Nobles and their Feuds
    Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg

    Post-Mediaeval

    Explorers
    Fram Expedition to the North Pole
    Fram Expedition to the South Pole


    Miscellanea

    Maria Padilla - Mistress Royal
    The Siege of Calais in Donizetti's Opera
    Otto von Guericke


    Geological Landscapes

    The Baltic Sea
    Geology of the Curonian Spit

    The Harz
    Karst Landscape
    Karst - Lonau Falls
    Karst - Rhume Springs

    Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
    Blue Dome near Eschwege
    Diabase and Basalt Formations
    Karst Formations

    Solling-Vogler
    Raised Bogs
    The Hannover Cliffs

    The Shores of Scotland
    Staffa

    Paleontology

    Fossils
    Ammonites


    Novels in Progress / Planning

    Roman Novels
    (Historical Fiction)

    The Saga of House Sichelstein
    (Historical Fiction)

    Kings and Rebels
    (Fantasy)

    Poetry Translations

    Historical Ballads by Theodor Fontane
    Archibald Douglas
    Gorm Grymme
    Sir Walter Scott in Abbotsford
    The Tragedy of Afghanistan

    Poems by Theodor Storm
    From Heaven into Valleys Deep
    The Grey Town By the Sea
    The Seagull Flies Ashore Now

    Other German Poems
    Kästner, Progress of Mankind
    Hebbel, Summer Picture
    Rainer Maria Rilke, Autumn Day


    Not So Serious Romans
    Aelius Rufus Visits the Future Series
    Building Hadrian's Wall
    Playmobil Romans

    Royal (Hi)Stories
    Kings Having a Bad Hair Day
    The Case of the Vanished Wine Cask

    Historical Memes
    Charlemagne meme
    Historical Christmas Wishes
    New Year Resolutions
    Aelius Rufus does a Meme
    Rules for Writing Scottish Romances

    Funny Sights
    Tourist Kitsch in St.Petersburg


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    History Blogs - Ancient

    Roman History Today
    Ancient Times (Mary Harrsch)
    Bread and Circuses (Adrian Murdoch)
    Following Hadrian (Carole Raddato)
    Mike Anderson's Ancient History Blog
    Mos Maiorum - Der römische Weg
    Per Lineam Valli (M.C. Bishop)
    Judith Weingarten

    Digging Up Fun Stuff
    The Anglo-Saxon Archaeology Blog
    Arkeologi i Nord
    The Journal of Antiquities (Britain)
    The Northern Antiquarian
    The Roman Archaeology Blog

    History Blogs - Mediaeval

    Þaér wæs Hearpan Swég
    Anglo Saxon, Norse & Celtic Blog
    Casting Light upon the Shadow (A. Whitehead)
    Norse and Viking Ramblings
    Outtakes of a Historical Novelist (Kim Rendfeld)

    Beholden Ye Aulde Blogges
    A Clerk of Oxford
    Historical Britain Blog (Mercedes Rochelle)
    Magistra et Mater (Rachel Stone)
    Michelle of Heavenfield (Michelle Ziegler)
    Senchus (Tim Clarkson)

    Royal and Other Troubles
    Edward II (Kathryn Warner)
    Henry the Young King (Kasia Ogrodnik)
    Piers Gaveston (Anerje)
    Lady Despenser's Scribery
    Simon de Montfort (Darren Baker)
    Weaving the Tapestry (Scottish Houses Dunkeld and Stewart)

    A Mixed Bag of History
    English Historical Fiction Authors
    The Freelance History Writer (Susan Abernethy)
    The History Blog
    History, the Interesting Bits (S.B. Connolly)
    Mediaeval News (Niall O'Brian)
    Time Present and Time Past (Mark Patton)

    Thoughts and Images

    Reading and Reviews
    Black Gate Blog
    The Blog That Time Forgot (Al Harron)
    Parmenion Books
    Reading the Past
    The Wertzone

    Imaginations
    David Blixt
    Ex Urbe (Ada Palmer)
    Constance A. Brewer
    Jenny Dolfen Illustrations
    Wild and Wonderful (Caroline Gill)

    Poets and Photographers (German Blogs)
    Alte Steine (Burgdame Eva)
    Durch Bücherstaub geblinzelt (Silberdistel)
    Insel-Aus-Zeit (Carmen Wedeland)

    German Travel Blogs
    Good Morning World
    Meerblog
    Sonne und Wolken
    Teilzeitreisender
    Unterwegs und Daheim

    Highland Mountains
    The Hazel Tree (Jo Woolf)
    Helen in Wales
    Mountains and Sea Scotland

    The Colours of the World
    Shutterbugs


    Research

    Archaeology
    Past Horizons
    Archaeology in Europe
    Orkneyar

    Roman History
    Deutsche Limeskommission
    Internet Ancient Sourcebook
    Livius.org
    Roman Army
    Roman Britain
    The Romans in Britain
    Vindolanda Tablets

    Not so Dark Ages
    Burgundians in the Mist
    Viking Society for Northern Research

    Mediaeval History
    De Re Militari
    Internet Mediaeval Sourcebook
    Kulturzeit
    The Labyrinth
    Mediaeval Crusades
    Medievalists.Net

    Castles
    Burgenarchiv
    Burgenwelt
    Exploring Castles
    The World of Castles

    Miscellaneous History
    Heritage Daily
    The History Files

    Post-Mediaeval Sites
    Vasa Museets Skeppsbloggen

    Mythology
    Ancient History
    Encyclopedia Mythica

    Online Journals
    Ancient Warfare
    The Heroic Age
    The History Files

    Travel and Guide Sites

    Germany - History
    Antike Stätten in Deutschland
    Burgenarchiv
    Strasse der Romanik

    Germany - Nature
    HarzLife
    Naturpark Meissner
    Naturpark Solling-Vogler

    England
    English Heritage
    Visit Northumberland

    Scotland
    The Chain Mail (Scottish History)
    Historic Scotland
    National Trust Scotland

    Books and Writing

    Writing Sites
    Absolute Write
    TheLitForum.com

    Historical Fiction
    Historical Novel Society
    Historia Magazine

    Interesting Author Websites
    Bernard Cornwell
    Dorothy Dunnett
    Steven Erikson
    Diana Gabaldon
    Guy Gavriel Kay
    George R.R. Martin
    Sharon Kay Penman
    Brandon Sanderson
    J.R.R. Tolkien
    Tad Williams


    *********************


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