The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times


30 Nov 2014
  Look What I Got

I never thought I'd manage to actually win a Nano and write 50K words in a month, but this year the conditions were perfect.


Tomorrow I'll start a new job. Wish me luck that it's going to be nice and interesting.

 


22 Nov 2014
  Nano is Going Really Well

Hallo dear readers,

I only want to inform you that the National Novel Writing Month is going really well for me this year, even better than 2012 when I also participated. So here's just an autumn pic to tide you over.

Mecklenbruch Bog / Solling in autumn

I also apologise for my lazy commenting these days. Things will get better in December. :-)
 


9 Nov 2014
  Paderborn - The Town of Charlemagne and Bishop Meinwerk

This is only a brief introduction to the history and the historical buildings of Paderborn. There's much to see, and most of the churches and other buildings presented in this post deserve their own posts in the future. But for now, come with me on a short trip through a town rich in history and architecture. Sorry the weather wasn't playing more nicely; sunny photos would have been more pretty.

Overwiew of the old centre: The west tower of the cathedral, Ikenberg Chapel (left), Chapel of St. Bartholomew (left, the one with the green roof)
and the Ottonian palace (right), with the Pader springs in the foreground

Paderborn was founded by Charlemagne in 776, during the first years of his long war to conquer the - then pagan - Saxons. He built a palatine seat and a church, both surrounded by a wall since those Saxons were not exactly a peace loving lot at the time. He also held several diets in Paderborn. The town and the bishop's see that was established in 806 would play an important role for centuries to come. The bishops were elevated to princes of the realm in 1217. My regular readers will have come across the bishops of Paderborn a few times already (fe. in the recent post about Castle Plesse and the Counts of Winzenburg). Paderborn is an archespiscopal see until today.

The Ottonian palace hall with the foundations of the Carolingian palatine seat in the foreground

Paderborn was an important palatine seat for the Ottonian kings as well. It was especially bishop Meinwerk (we came across him in the post about the Krukenburg) who held the see of Paderborn from 1009-1036 and who initiated the construction of most of the architectural landmarks of the town until today: the palatine seat, the cathedral, Abdinghof monstery and the chapter church of Busdorf. It was during Meinwerk's time (1011) that Paderborn became independent of the see of Mainz and began to establish its own role in the feudal network.

Interior of the - partly reconstructed - Ottonian palas, the great hall

The remains of the main hall of the Ottonian palatine seat and the attached Ikenberg Chapel are still substantial. Both have been reconstruced in 1978; you can clearly see the different stones that show the layers of original Ottonian and new masonry in the photo above. The foundations of the Carolingian palatine buildings, situated between the cathedral and the Ottonian hall, can be seen in the foreground; they have been excavated and preserved a few years ago.

The Museum in the Palatine Seat

The palas building of the Ottonian seat today houses a very interesting museum in the lower floor; the upper floor, the reconstruced great hall, is used for events. The pillar foundations in the lower floor are partly still Ottonian masonry and it's a nice idea to use them to support exhibits today. It gives you a good impression of the layout of the building in the past. We spent some time in the museum because the exhibits (things that have been excavated in the area of the palatine seats) are interesting and well presented.

Chapel of St.Bartholomew, interior

The Chapel of St.Bartholomew is a charming little building that dates back to the time of Bishop Meinwerk almost unaltered. It shows a three naved hall structure (though because of the small size, the naves do not stand out like in larger churches) and is the oldest building with a cross grain vaulted ceiling north of the Alpes. Romanesque churches mostly were in the basilica style (main nave higher than side naves) but crypts usually have the hall structure with three naves of equal heigth. The Chapel of St.Bartholomew may have been the model for these.

The cathedral of Paderborn, the Romanesque crypt

The history of the cathedral goes back all the way to Charlemagne, but the first building did not survive; and the one from Meinwerk's time has been altered considerably. The present church is mainly Gothic, except for the west tower, the crypt and the so-called Paradise Gate, but the interior has unfortunately been 'improved' with several huge Baroque altars and grave ornaments for dead bishops. The exterior is mostly scaffolded in right now. But the crypt, dating to 1120, is a beautiful, quiet place untouched by Baroque frills.

Abdinghof Church, the westwork

The so-called Abdinghof Monastery is another foundation of Bishop Meinwerk. It would become one of the richest and most influential monasteries in Germany during the high Middle Ages. The church, dedicated to St.Peter and Paul, has been changed from Meinwerk's building much less than the cathedral. It is still pure Romanesque and some alterations have been eliminated during the repairs after the damage of WW2, like the present, and original, flat timber ceiling in the main nave replacing the 12th century vaulted one. The main difference between the present look and the one in Meinwerk's time is the lack of murals, but those rarely survive.

Abdinghof church, interior with view to the imperial lodge

The chapter church today knows as Busdorf Church (photo below) is the last of Meinwerk's buildings I want to show you. Meinwerk wanted to build it according to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem and sent the abbot of Helmarshausen there to get the plans. Unfortunately, that first building from 1036 does not survive except for the west transept. But since the church was closed and I could only get some photos through a fence, I can't show you that one. The major parts of the church to the late 13th century (Gothic style), but the cloister is Romanesque.

Busdorf Church, the cloister

The bishops of Paderborn kept getting into trouble with the burghers of the town and so they moved their main residence a few miles out of Paderborn in 1370. Palace Neuhaus has been built in several steps; the present building is the final result, dating to the late 16th century. It's a very symmetrical four winged palace with towers in each corner, surrounded by a water filled moat. It is situated in a large and beautiful garden. The shrubs and flowers close to the palace are kept in Baroque fashion, but the rest of the garden is English in style.

The Renaissance palace Neuhaus outside Paderborn

I'm not very active on the blog and those of my friends (lazy commenter, I know) during November, because I again participate in the National Novel Writing Month, and this time my progress so far has been very satisfying. Let's hope I can keep catching words. *grin*
 




The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, and central / eastern Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.


This blog is non-commercial.

All texts and photos (if no other copyright is noted) are copyright of Gabriele Campbell.

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Location: Goettingen, Germany

I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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Mediaeval Erfurt

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Mediaeval Goslar

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St.Martin's Church
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Lübeck
St. Mary's Church, Introduction

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Magdeburg Cathedral
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Paderborn
Mediaeval Paderborn

Quedlinburg
Mediaeval Quedlinburg
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Speyer
The Cathedral: Architecture
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Stralsund
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Treffurt
A Walk through the Town

Wismar
The Old Harbour

Xanten
Mediaeval Xanten
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Castles in Bavaria

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Power Base of the Thuringian Landgraves
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Harzburg
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Hohnstein
Origins of the Counts of Hohnstein
The Family Between Welfen and Staufen
A Time of Feuds (14th-15th century)

Regenstein
Introduction
The Time of Henry the Lion

Scharzfels
Introduction
History

Other Castles
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Castles in Hessia

Kugelsburg
The Counts of Everstein
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Castles in Northern Hessia
Grebenstein
Reichenbach
Sichelnstein

Castles in Lower Saxony

Hardenberg
Introduction
Hardenberg Castle Gardens

Plesse
Rise and Fall of the Counts of Winzenburg
The Lords of Plesse
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Castles at the Weser
Bramburg
Krukenburg
Castle Polle
Two Fairy Tale Castles - Sababurg and Trendelburg

Other Castles
Adelebsen Castle - The Keep
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Castles in Thuringia

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Role of the Castle in Thuringian History

Hanstein
Introduction
Otto of Northeim
Heinrich the Lion and Otto IV
The Next Generations

Normanstein
Introduction

Wartburg
A Virtual Tour

Other Castles
Altenstein at the Werra
Castle Scharfenstein

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Churches in the Harz

Pöhlde Monastery
The Church

Steinkirche near Scharzfeld
Development of the Cave Church

Walkenried Monastery
From Monastery to Museum

Churches in Hessia

Abbey of Lorsch
The Gate Hall

Churches in Lower Saxony

Königslutter
Exterior Decorations
Cloister

Wiebrechtshausen
Nunnery and Ducal Burial

Churches in Thuringia

Göllingen Monastery
Traces of Byzantine Architecture

Churches at the Weser

Bursfelde Abbey
Early History

Helmarshausen Monastery
Remains of the Monastery
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion

Lippoldsberg Abbey
Early History
The Interior

Other Churches
Fredelsloh Chapter Church
Vernawahlshausen - Mediaeval Murals

Reconstructed Sites / Museums

Palatine Seat Tilleda
The Defenses

Viking Settlement Haithabu
Haithabu and the Archaeological Museum Schleswig
The Nydam Ship

Open Air Museums
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Post-Mediaeval Sites

Powder and Steam
Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg


England

Towns

Chester
Roman and Medieaval Chester

Hexham
The Abbey - Introduction
The Old Gaol

York
Clifford Tower
The Guild Hall
The Minster - Architecture
Monk Bar Gate and Richard III Museum
Museum Gardens
The Old Town
Along the Ouse River

Castles

Alnwick
Malcolm III and the First Battle of Alnwick

Carlisle
Introduction
Henry II and William of Scotland
Edward I to Edward III

Richmond
From the Conquest to King John
From Henry III to the Tudors
The Architecture

Scarborough
From the Romans to the Tudors
From the Civil War to the Present
The Architecture


Scotland

Towns

Edinburgh
Views from the Castle

Stirling
The Wallace Monument

Castles

Doune
A Virtual Tour of the Castle
The Early Stewart Kings
Royal Dower House, and Decline

Duart
Guarding the Sound of Mull

Dunstaffnage
An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
The Wars of Independence
The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

Stirling
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle

Abbeys and Churches

Inchcolm Abbey
Arriving at Inchcolm

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Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort
Staffa

Pre-Historic Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae


Wales

Towns

Aberystwyth
Castle and Coast

Caerleon
The Ffwrwm

Conwy
The Smallest House in Great Britain

Castles

Beaumaris
The Historical Context
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Caernarfon
Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

Cardiff
From the Romans to the Victorians

Chepstow
Beginnings unto Bigod
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Conwy
The History of the Castle
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Criccieth
Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings

Manorbier
The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

Pembroke
Pembroke Pictures
The Caves Under the Castle


Denmark

Towns

Copenhagen
To come


Norway

Towns

Oslo
The Fram Museum in Oslo

Castles and Fortresses

Arkershus Fortress in Oslo
Introduction
Akershus at the Time of King Håkon V
Architectural Development

Vardøhus Fortress
Defending the North for Centuries


Sweden

Towns

Stockholm
The Vasa Museum

Historical Landscapes

Gotland
Gnisvärd Ship Setting


Finland

Towns

Porvoo
Mediaeval Porvoo


Russia

Towns

St. Petersburg
Isaac's Cathedral
Smolny Cathedral
Impressions from the The Neva River


Estonia

Towns

Tallinn
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Latvia

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The History of Mediaeval Riga


Lithuania

Historical Landscapes

The Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit


Poland

Towns

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The History of Mediaeval Gdańsk
Mediaeval and Renaissance Gdańsk

Wrocław / Breslau
The Botanical Garden
The Wrocław Dwarfs


Czech Republic

Towns

Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
Brief History of the Town

Kutná Hora
The Sedlec Ossuary


Belgium

Towns

Antwerp
The Old Town

Bruges
Mediaeval Bruges

Ghent
Mediaeval Ghent

Tongeren
Roman and Mediaeval Remains


Luxembourg

Towns

Luxembourg City
A Tour of the Town


France

Towns

Strasbourg
A Tour of the Town


Hiking Tours and Cruises

Germany

The Baltic Sea Coast
The Flensburg Firth
Rugia - Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
Rugia - Seaside Ressort Binz
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
Oderteich Reservoir
Rappbode Reservoir
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Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Hessian Switzerland

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
The Hutewald Forest
The Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Thuringian Forests
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Rivers and Lakes
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
The Moselle
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut
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Weser Skywalk

Wildlife
Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life

Seasons
Spring in the Botanical Garden Göttingen
Spring at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Spring in the Rossbach Heath (Meissner)
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Winter Wonderland - Views from my Balcony


United Kingdom

Mountains and Valleys
West Highland Railway

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains - Inverness to John o'Groats
Some Photos from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull - Craignure to Fionnphort
Pentland Firth
Castles Seen from Afar (Dunollie and Kilchurn)
Staffa
Summer Days in Oban
Summer Nights in Oban

Wild Wales - With Castles
Views of Snowdownia
Views from Castle Battlements

Wildlife
Sea Gulls


Scandinavia

The Hurtigruten-Tour / Norway
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Wildlife
Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord


The Baltic Sea

A Baltic Sea Cruise

The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
Beaches at the Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit






Roman History
General Essays

Provinces
- Germania
- Gallia Belgica
- Britannia

Mediaeval History
General Essays

By Country
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Livonia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Bohemia

Other Times
- Prehistoric Times
- Post-Mediaeval History
-
Miscellanea
- Geology


Roman History

General Essays

The Romans at War

Forts and Fortifications
Exercise Halls
Mile Castles and Watch Towers
Soldiers' Living Quarters
Cavalry Barracks

Roman Militaria

Armour
Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapons
Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum
Daggers
Swords

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles

Life and Religion

Religion
The Mithras Cult
Isis Worship
Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms

Public Life
Roman Transport - Barges
Roman Transport - Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots

Miscellaneous Essays

The Legend of Alaric's Burial


Germania

Wars and Frontiers

Maps
Romans in Germania

Traces of the Pre-Varus Conquest
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn
Introduction

Along the Limes
The Cavalry Fort Aalen
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg


Gallia Belgica

The Batavians

The Batavian Rebellion
A Short Introduction


Britannia

Roman Frontiers in Britain

The Hadrian's Wall
Introduction
The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend


Mediaeval History

General Essays

Mediaeval Art and Craft

Mediaeval Art
Carved Monsters
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Medieaval Craftmanship
Goldsmithery
Medical Instruments

Mediaeval Warfare

Mediaeval Weapons
Swords
Trebuchets

Castles and Fortifications
Dungeons and Oubliettes

Essays about Specific Topics

Feudalism

The History of Feudalism
The Beginnings
Feudalism in the 10th Century

Privileges and Special Relationships
The Privilege of the deditio
A Note on handgenginn maðr

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings

Hanesatic Architecture
Examples of Brick Architecture

Goods and Trade
Stockfish Trade

The Order of the Teutonic Knights

Wars and Battles
The Conquest of Danzig
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

The Vikings

Viking Ships
The Nydam Ship


Germany

Geneaology

List of Mediaeval German Emperors

Geneaologies
Anglo-German Marriage Connections
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors

Kings and Emperors

The Salian Dynasty
King Heinrich IV

House Welf and House Staufen
Emperor Otto IV, Introduction

Princes and Lords

Princes
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto of Northeim
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Famous Feuds

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War - Introduction
The Star Wars


England

Kings of England

King Henry IV
King Henry's Lithuanian Crusade

Normans, Britons, Angevins

Great Fiefs - The Honour of Richmond
The Dukes of Brittany and the Honour of Richmond
The Earldom of Richmond and the Duchy of Brittany

Contested Borders

Northumbria
King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


Scotland

Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War, Part 1
King David and the Civil War, Part 2

Houses Bruce and Stewart
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle
The Early Stewart Kings

Scottish Nobles and their Quarrels

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding


Wales

Welsh Princes

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

Rebels

A History of Rebellion
From Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Denmark

Kings of Denmark

House of Knýtlinga
Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

The Duchy of Estonia
Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


Norway

Kings of Norway

Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

A Time of Feuds

Famous Nobles and their Feuds
Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Sweden

Troubles and Alliances

Scandinavian Unity
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union


Livonia
(Latvia and Estonia)

Towns of the Hanseatic League

Riga
The History of Mediaeval Riga

Tallinn
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Lithuania

The Northern Crusades

The Wars in Lithuania
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

Lithuanian Princes

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas


Poland

The Northern Crusades

The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
The Conquest of Danzig

Royal Dynasties

The Jagiełłonian Kings
Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union


Bohemia
(Including Silesia and Moravia)

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
(to come)


Other Times

Prehistoric Times

Germany

Development of Civilisation
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Orkney

Neolithic Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Scandinavia

Gotland
The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd


Post-Mediaeval History

Explorers and Discoveries

Explorers
Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

Discoveries
Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

Biographies

European Nobility
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus


Miscellanea

History in Literature and Music

History in Literature

Biographies of German Poets and Writers
Theodor Fontane

Historical Ballads by Theodor Fontane
(Translated by me)
Archibald Douglas
Gorm Grymme
Sir Walter Scott in Abbotsford
The Tragedy of Afghanistan

History in Opera

Belcanto and Historicism
Maria Padilla - Mistress Royal
The Siege of Calais in Donizetti's Opera

Not so Serious History

Romans
Building Hadrian's Wall
Playmobil Romans

Mediaeval Times
Kings Having a Bad Hair Day
The Case of the Vanished Wine Cask

Other
Rules for Writing Scottish Romances
Tourist Kitsch in St.Petersburg


Geology

Geological Landscapes

The Baltic Sea
Geology of the Curonian Spit
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

The Harz
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in the Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations

Solling-Vogler
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

The Shores of Scotland
Staffa

Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

Fossilized Ammonites
The Loket Meteorite


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