The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times


22 May 2017
  12th Bloggiversary

My blog is celebrating its 12th anniversary this year. This makes it one of the rare species of Neanderthal blogs that survived the rise of Homo Facebookiensis and Homo Instagramis - though I can still find some other Neanderthal blogs on my blogroll.

Standing stones of Stenness, Orkney (visited in 2013)

I tried to teach my layout some modern tricks of flint knapping, but it didn't work out with that odd mix of travel journal and history blog, and the comprehensive archive I've accumulated over the last 12 years. So I only merged some posts - I tended to write more but shorter posts during the first years - and decluttered and restructured the sidebar archives.

View from the Fløyen to Bergen

I've traveled a fair bit during those last 12 years, even if a lot of it took place in my native Germany. But we got plenty of beautiful nature, lots of castles and a number of charming old towns, so I haven't tired of exploring this country yet. But of course, going abroad is a lot of fun.

Honnigsvåg, north of the Polar Circle

One of the most memorable tours was the one I did in April 2011 when I traveled from Copenhagen via Oslo to Bergen and then took the Hurtigruten Cruise. If you like snow and want to escape the large tourist groups, a spring voyage is the best time.

Stockholm

Another great voyage was the Baltic Sea Cruise in May 2012. The weather was perfect, warm and sunny. Returning to Stockholm where I lived for 18 months in the late 80ies was a trip back the memory lane, and St.Petersburg was just splendid. It was the time of the white nights, which made it even more beautiful.

St.Petersburg in the evening sun

The UK, especially Scotland, never fail to attract me. I've been there serveral times, and the archive shows a number of posts about Scottish history and Scottish castles (or Welsh castles, for that matter).

View from Stirling Castle to the Scottish Highlands

No wonder, with views like this.

So I'll keep traveling, and blogging with those old flint tools of mine, and hope my readers will continue to enjoy my little corner of the internet.
 


1 May 2017
  Roman and Mediaeval Vestiges in Tongeren

On my way back, I spent a day in Tongeren, a smaller town that often gets missed by tourists focussing on the Big Three, though it is well worth a visit. It is a nice place with some impressive Roman walls, a must see Roman museum, and a fine Gothic basilica. The sun decided to come back as well, so it was fun to walk around. (No boat tour this time, there are not so many canals.)

The 2nd century Roman wall

Tongeren started out as a Roman municipium called Atuatuca Tungrorum, a town situated on the crossing of several military roads. It lies futher east than the cities of Ghent, Bruges and Antwerp, at the foothills of the Ardenne mountains. But the documented history of the area goes back to this chap who defeated several of Caesar's legions in a place called Atuatuca in 54 BC.

Statue of Ambiorix

Ambiorix, chieftain - sometimes also called king - of the Eburones got his own statue on the market square in Tongeren. Of course, Caesar came back with more legions and conquered the tribes of the Belgae. Ambiorix disappeared into the woods and into legend, and another tribe, the Tungri, gave its name to the settlement that soon grew near a Roman fort.

Another remaining piece of the Roman wall

Like every Roman town, Atuatuca Tungrorum got a town wall. Luckily, some parts of it survive until today, though only the inner ashley and mortar kernel remains; the outer stone blocks went into the Mediaeval town wall, the old Romanesque basilica and other places. It is still impressive, though.

Exhibits in the Gallo-Roman Museum

Rich Gallo-Roman citizens and owners of the villae soon surrounding the town liked impressive burials. That way, lots of finds have come to light during various excavations. They are presented in the Provinciaal Gallo-Romeins Museum, together with other finds from the area all the way back to the Neanderthals.

Celtic torques and coins

Of course, there are exhibits from the culture of the Celtic tribes as well, like these gold torques and coins.

The remains of the burials have been moved into the museum, where the colours and decorations can be preserved better than on the original sites of the finds.

Roman tombs in the museum

The museum is located directly beside the Gothic 'Basilica of Our Dear Lady'. That church may be less spectacular than the cathedral in Antwerp or St.Bavo in Ghent, but I liked it better because the interior is unmarred by chubby Baroque angels and Rococo frills. There are also less tourists around.

Basilica of Our Dear Lady

The basilica is based on the foundations of older churches. A cathedral chapter and monastery existed here since Carolingian times. The construction of the present three naved basilica with transept started in 1240 and took until the 16th century, thus the influence of the late Brabantian Gothic is stronger in some parts, like the main tower.

Interior of the basilica

The loveliest part is the cloister which is still Romanesque. It can be accessed via the Teseum, a museum that displays church treasures and which is located in the former chapter hall and a remaining Romanesque tower. The golden bling is fun to begin with, but it was the cloister where I spent most time, just sitting in the garden and enjoying a quiet moment.

The lovely Romanesque cloister

One should take the eyes off the bling for a bit and have a look at the architecture of the chapter hall and the tower. Next year, a glass floor will show more of the foundations of the older churches that have been discovered during renovations.

Chapter hall of the basilica

Tongeren has a béguinage as well, though it is smaller than the ones in Ghent and Bruges. There is a restaurant hiding in one of the gardens, a modern art exhibition in the chapel and some pretty vistas in the sun. Unfortunately, the little museum that shows the living conditions in one of the houses was closed.

The béguinage

Tongeren once had six town gates, but only the Moerenpoort from 1379 survives. The worst setback of the town, which played a larger role in the Middle Ages than today, was the sacking by the French troops of King Louis XIV in 1677 where large parts of Tongeren were destroyed.

The Moerenpoort

The Mediaeval town wall was built in 1241 after an attack by Duke Hendrik of Brabant. Some of those Roman stones came quite handy for its construction. Parts of the wall luckily survived the French attack from 1677.

The Mediaeval town wall

Today, Tongeren is a place to see for people interested in Roman history, and worth a stop if you like Mediaeval history and architecture as well.
 




The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, and central / eastern Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.


This blog is non-commercial.

All texts and photos (if no other copyright is noted) are copyright of Gabriele Campbell.

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Location: Goettingen, Germany

I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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Mediaeval Goslar

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Lübeck
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Paderborn
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Mediaeval Quedlinburg
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Speyer
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Jewish Ritual Bath

Stralsund
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Treffurt
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Wismar
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Xanten
Mediaeval Xanten
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Brandenburg (Thuringia)
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Role of the Castle in Thuringian History

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Hanstein (Thuringia)
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Otto of Northeim
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Hardenberg (Lower Saxony)
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Hardenberg Castle Gardens

Harzburg (Harz Mountains)
The Harzburg and Otto IV

Hohnstein (Harz Mountains)
Origins of the Counts of Hohnstein
The Family Between Welfen and Staufen
A Time of Feuds (14th-15th century)

Kugelsburg (Hessia)
The Counts of Everstein
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Rise and Fall of the Counts of Winzenburg
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Regenstein (Harz Mountains)
Introduction
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Introduction
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Castles in Thuringia
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Abbeys and Churches

Bursfelde Abbey
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Helmarshausen Monastery
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Königslutter Cathedral
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Lippoldsberg Abbey
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Walkenried Monastery
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Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
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England

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Scarborough
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A Virtual Tour of the Castle
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Stirling
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Skara Brae


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Aberystwyth
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Beaumaris
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Conwy
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Criccieth
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Manorbier
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Pembroke
Pembroke Pictures
The Caves Under the Castle


Denmark

Towns

Copenhagen
To come


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Arkershus Fortress in Oslo
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Akershus at the Time of King Håkon V
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Vardøhus Fortress
Defending the North for Centuries


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Gotland
Gnisvärd Ship Setting


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Porvoo
Mediaeval Porvoo


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Isaac's Cathedral
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Impressions from the The Neva River


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Historical Landscapes

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Poland

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The Botanical Garden
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Czech Republic

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Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
Brief History of the Town

Kutná Hora
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Belgium

Towns

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The Old Town

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Ghent
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Tongeren
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Luxembourg

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Luxembourg City
A Tour of the Town


France

Towns

Strasbourg
A Tour of the Town


Hiking Tours and Cruises

Germany

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A Tour on the Wakenitz River

Harz National Park
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Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
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Nature Park Solling-Vogler
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Thuringian Forests
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Rivers and Lakes
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A Rainy Rhine Cruise
The Moselle
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Weser Skywalk

Wildlife
Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life

Seasons
Spring in the Botanical Garden Göttingen
Spring at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Spring in the Rossbach Heath (Meissner)
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Winter Wonderland - Views from my Balcony


United Kingdom

Mountains and Valleys
West Highland Railway

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains - Inverness to John o'Groats
Some Photos from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
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Mull - Craignure to Fionnphort
Pentland Firth
Castles Seen from Afar (Dunollie and Kilchurn)
Staffa
Summer Days in Oban
Summer Nights in Oban

Wild Wales - With Castles
Views of Snowdownia
Views from Castle Battlements

Wildlife
Sea Gulls


Scandinavia

The Hurtigruten-Tour / Norway
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Wildlife
Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord


The Baltic Sea

A Baltic Sea Cruise

The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
Beaches at the Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit






Roman History
General Essays

Provinces
- Germania
- Gallia Belgica
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Mediaeval History
General Essays

By Country
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Livonia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Bohemia

Other Times
- Prehistoric Times
- Post-Mediaeval History
-
Miscellanea
- Geology


Roman History

General Essays

The Romans at War

Forts and Fortifications
Exercise Halls
Mile Castles and Watch Towers
Soldiers' Living Quarters
Cavalry Barracks

Roman Militaria

Armour
Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapons
Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum
Daggers
Swords

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles

Life and Religion

Religion
The Mithras Cult
Isis Worship
Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms

Public Life
Roman Transport - Barges
Roman Transport - Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots

Miscellaneous Essays

The Legend of Alaric's Burial


Germania

Wars and Frontiers

Maps
Romans in Germania

Traces of the Pre-Varus Conquest
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn
Introduction

Along the Limes
The Cavalry Fort Aalen
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg


Gallia Belgica

The Batavians

The Batavian Rebellion
A Short Introduction


Britannia

Roman Frontiers in Britain

The Hadrian's Wall
Introduction
The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend


Mediaeval History

General Essays

Mediaeval Art and Craft

Mediaeval Art
Carved Monsters
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Medieaval Craftmanship
Goldsmithery
Medical Instruments

Mediaeval Warfare

Mediaeval Weapons
Swords
Trebuchets

Castles and Fortifications
Dungeons and Oubliettes

Essays about Specific Topics

Feudalism

The History of Feudalism
The Beginnings
Feudalism in the 10th Century

Privileges and Special Relationships
The Privilege of the deditio
A Note on handgenginn maðr

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings

Hanesatic Architecture
Examples of Brick Architecture

Goods and Trade
Stockfish Trade

The Order of the Teutonic Knights

Wars and Battles
The Conquest of Danzig
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

The Vikings

Viking Ships
The Nydam Ship


Germany

Geneaology

List of Mediaeval German Emperors

Geneaologies
Anglo-German Marriage Connections
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors

Kings and Emperors

The Salian Dynasty
King Heinrich IV

House Welf and House Staufen
Emperor Otto IV, Introduction

Princes and Lords

Princes
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto of Northeim
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Famous Feuds

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War - Introduction
The Star Wars


England

Kings of England

King Henry IV
King Henry's Lithuanian Crusade

Normans, Britons, Angevins

Great Fiefs - The Honour of Richmond
The Dukes of Brittany and the Honour of Richmond
The Earldom of Richmond and the Duchy of Brittany

Contested Borders

Northumbria
King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


Scotland

Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War, Part 1
King David and the Civil War, Part 2

Houses Bruce and Stewart
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle
The Early Stewart Kings

Scottish Nobles and their Quarrels

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding


Wales

Welsh Princes

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

Rebels

A History of Rebellion
From Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Denmark

Kings of Denmark

House of Knýtlinga
Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

The Duchy of Estonia
Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


Norway

Kings of Norway

Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

A Time of Feuds

Famous Nobles and their Feuds
Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Sweden

Troubles and Alliances

Scandinavian Unity
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union


Livonia
(Latvia and Estonia)

Towns of the Hanseatic League

Riga
The History of Mediaeval Riga

Tallinn
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Lithuania

The Northern Crusades

The Wars in Lithuania
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

Lithuanian Princes

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas


Poland

The Northern Crusades

The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
The Conquest of Danzig

Royal Dynasties

The Jagiełłonian Kings
Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union


Bohemia
(Including Silesia and Moravia)

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
(to come)


Other Times

Prehistoric Times

Germany

Development of Civilisation
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Orkney

Neolithic Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Scandinavia

Gotland
The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd


Post-Mediaeval History

Explorers and Discoveries

Explorers
Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

Discoveries
Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

Biographies

European Nobility
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus


Miscellanea

History in Literature and Music

History in Literature

Biographies of German Poets and Writers
Theodor Fontane

Historical Ballads by Theodor Fontane
(Translated by me)
Archibald Douglas
Gorm Grymme
Sir Walter Scott in Abbotsford
The Tragedy of Afghanistan

History in Opera

Belcanto and Historicism
Maria Padilla - Mistress Royal
The Siege of Calais in Donizetti's Opera

Not so Serious History

Romans
Building Hadrian's Wall
Playmobil Romans

Mediaeval Times
Kings Having a Bad Hair Day
The Case of the Vanished Wine Cask

Other
Rules for Writing Scottish Romances
Tourist Kitsch in St.Petersburg


Geology

Geological Landscapes

The Baltic Sea
Geology of the Curonian Spit
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

The Harz
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in the Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations

Solling-Vogler
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

The Shores of Scotland
Staffa

Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

Fossilized Ammonites
The Loket Meteorite


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