The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times


18 Jun 2017
  Border Castle and Forester's Lodge - The Altenstein at the Werra

There are several castles named Altenstein or Altenburg in Germany. The one I'm writing about here are a few ruins hidden in a forest near Bad Sooden-Allendorf, on a promontory 350 metres above a rivulet confluencing into the Werra, with no tourists around. But it was one of those border castles between Hessia and Thuringia which has played a role in history, albeit a small one.

The ruins of Castle Altenstein near Bad Sooden-Allendorf

Today, the castle belongs to Thuringia, but during history, it was part of the landgraviate of Hessia most of the time. The Altenstein is first mentioned in 1329 (see below), but it is well possible that the castle was part of the 'eight fortified places' which Duke Albrecht of Braunschweig gave to the margrave Heinrich of Meissen as ransom. The War of the Thuringian Succession (1) had attracted several nobles who wanted to bite off a chunk of the Thurigian possessions. It didn't go well for Albrecht who was captured by margrave Heinrich. Heinrich of Meissen gave the 'fortified places', which included Eschwege, Allendorf and Witzenhausen, to the young landgrave Heinrich of Hessia (the son of Sophie of Brabant) in 1264, in exchange for other lands and privileges.

Remains of the hall and nothern curtain wall

In 1329, Landgrave Heinrich II of Hessia pawned out the 'new castle' of Altenstein and some villages to the knight Berthold Eselskopf (no idea why the guy was called Donkey's Head) and Hugo from the Mark (2). The mention of the 'nuwe hus Aldensteyn' is interesting because it implies that there has been an old house or castle prior to 1329 which was in need of repair or rebuilding, a task which Berthold Eselskopf and Hugo obviously already had begun to undertake. Landgrave Heinrich promised to refund the expenses of further repairs and new buildings should he redeem the pawn.

How old was the castle at that point and why would Berthold and Hugo put money into its upkeep? As mentioned above, the Altenstein may have been part of Albrecht of Braunschweig's ransom and then would date back to prior to 1264. Another possibility is that the Altenstein was part of the lands of the counts of Bilstein which they sold to Landgrave Heinrich I of Hessia in 1301. Berthold Eselskopf and Hugo of the Mark in that case could have been vassals of the counts of Bilstein and transfered the feudal relationship to the landgrave of Hessia in 1301 (3). We will likely never find out for sure, but one can assume that both Berthold Eselskopf and Hugo (and his wife) regarded the Altenstein as quasi-allodial possession or they would not have invested their own money.

Interior of the ruins of the hall and chapel

It was not unusual for the landgrave of Hessia to pawn out land to trusted vassals because he needed a lot of money. Relations with the archbishop of Mainz, who held lands in the nearby Eichsfeld, were still more than a bit strained, and a place like the Altenstein would be of interest to both.

It looks like the Eselskopf family was busy trying to take advantage of those problems. There are several notes in chronicles and chartes from the 1340ies, all involving members of the Eselskopf and Weberstedt families (the Weberstedt obviously also held feudal rights to the Altenstein; maybe they were the family of Hugo of the Mark's wife Gertrud). Like so often, the chronicles don't specify the crimes, only mention things like 'he shall end the acts because of which he has been seperated from his lord', or 'the aforementioned acts'. No pity with modern historians, those chroncilers. But it seems clear that the Eselskopf and Weberstedt families got involved in quarrels between the landgrave of Hessia and the archbishop of Mainz, and were not always on the side to which they belonged by feudal obligations. They promised in November 1346 that they would not commit 'unjust robbery' but instead would bring the quarrels to the court of the landgrave, to name one example.

Hall and chapel seen from the west

In the following decennies one can trace several financial transactions among the local nobility which all include clauses about the rights of the landgraves to redeem the Altenstein and how do deal with the financial mess that would cause.

Different angle from the north-west

There was a feud between the counts of Hanstein - vassals of the archbishop of Mainz - and the Dalwigk family and the counts of Boyneburg who at that time held castle Altenstein for the landgraves of Hessia, which ended with a peace contract in 1377.

The Altenstein was captured by Braunschweigian forces during the Star Wars between Duke Otto of Braunschweig, the archbishop of Mainz and the landgraves of Hessia and Thuringia. The castle came back to Hessia in 1438 and was given to the Bischoffshausen family who held it until 1643.

The northern curtain wall

Times had changed and now the nobility, often in debt, pawned out their castles to the dukes and princes of the realm. In this case, the Bischoffshausen brothers pawned out the castle with several villages and forests to Landgravine Amalie Elisabeth of Hessia. Which is interesting insofar as for one, the landgraves must have redeemed the pawn at some point, and second, the Bischoffshausen probably held allodial rights to the castle, or it would have been difficult to pawn out the place without agreement of their lord.

The interior was not in a good shape. The booklet about the Altenstein (see footnotes) gives an old list of broken furniture (beds, chests, wardrobes, banks, but also doors and windows) which 'if it was to be used must be repaired'. We don't know if the reeve who was installed in the Altenstein kept the old stuff or brought his own. But such lists show that furniture in bad repair still had a value, or it would not have been mentioned at all and simply thrown out instead.

Remains of the northern dike

The castle was badly damaged during the Thirty Years War. I suppose the forests and fields were the true value of the deal at the time; the Altenstein became the lodging of a forester. At first, the mayor (Schultheiss) also lived on the Altenstein and court of justice was held there, but the court was moved to Allendorf and the mayor got himself a pretty house in town.

The inner bailey

We can catch another glimpse of the life on the Altenstein in about 1800. At that time, the remaining buildings of the castle were in dire need of an Extreme House Makeover. The forester Wiegand spent years writing letters to the revenue of Hessia, listing the damage and asking for repair and finances to order repair work himself, but as so often, money was slow in coming.

1799: There were holes in the floor and planks rotten, several parts of the half timbered walls (Gefache) in the second floor had fallen out, windows were missing (those got replaced pretty fast which was the exception), the well was blocked, the stone water trough broken, the oven in the living room smoked so badly that it was impossible to stay there for long, and one of the gables was on the verge of falling off and taking most of the roof with it. The stable and granary were unusable. In spring 1801, his maid broke through the floor and injured herself badly.

Well, the floor was at least completely renewed with planks after that and Wiegand got a new stone water trough. The smoking oven continued to be an issue, though. It took until 1806 before most of the mess was repaired except for a leaky roof, and that was at least on the to do list. Wiegand got an annual salary of 200 thaler; the repair stuff cost more than 150 thaler, so he could not have paid it off his salary.

The chapel seen from the west

It looks like the forester's lodge got a better upkeep in the 20th century. One can see the main building, the former eastern palas of the castle, on some old photos from the 1930ies. The rest of the castle were but ruins. The Altenstein became popular as hiking destination, and the forester's wife sold beverages and rented out some rooms.

The remains of the hall seen from the inner bailey

Castle Altenstein belonged to Hessia, but after the exchange of territories in September 1945 between the Sovjet and American zones of occupation, it came to Thuringia in the former GDR. A forester still lived there until 1955; then the building was used as children's holiday home, but lack of money for the upkeep of the house soon led to the first traces of decay, and in 1961, the castle and forester's lodge were abandoned. Since the area belonged to the restricted zone, no one could hike up to the Altenstein any longer. The remaining buildings were torn down in 1973 (there are no traces left today), though the ruins of the castle proper were left alone and only crumbled a bit further, until a group of dedicated people did some renovation work in 2001. Today, the Altenstein is again a fine hiking destination.

Walls among trees and leaves

The promontory on which castle Altenstein sits has steep slopes on three sides, only to the north a dike was dug out; remains of it can still be seen. The castle had a rectangular shape with a palas building and a gate house to the east (which no longer exists) and another hall - sometimes described as keep (4) - with a chapel to the west. The other walls were framed with stables, granaries and other timber buildings which have long since disappeared.

Two main buildings may have been necessary because the castle often was divided between two families (f.e. the Eselskopf and Weberstedt in the 14th century). What can still be seen is a part of the northern curtain wall with remains of the western the hall and the chapel. Not a spectacular ruin, but a charming one.

View from the castle into the valley

Footnotes
1) After the last Ludowing landgrave Heinrich Raspe died without offspring in 1247, the cousins came out of the woodworks. His father, landgrave Hermann I, had been married twice. The daughter of the first marriage, Jutta, wed Dietrich Margrave of Meissen from the Wettin family ; their son was Heinrich of Meissen. A daughter from his second marriage (and sister to Heinrich Raspe) was Sophia, who in turn married Hendrik II Duke of Brabant and became known as Sophia of Brabant. She claimed Thuringia for her son. Her daughter was married to Duke Albrecht of Braunschweig, a reason for him to join the fun. The archbishop of Mainz had interests in the lands as well, which should not come as a surprise.
2) Wikipedia says that Hugo was Eberhard's squire, but the book about the Altenstein doesn't mention that detail. It seems unlikely to me that a lord and his squire would hold equal shares in a transaction. Moreover, Kuno was married, which was unusual for a squire.
3) The book about the Altenstein states this as fact, but cannot offer proof.
4) The walls of the building are only 1,20 metres thick which would be unusually fragile for a keep.

Literature
York-Egbert König, Karl Kollmann, Erna Ursel Lange: Der Altenstein 1329-2004 ­– 675 Jahre im hessisch-eichsfeldischen Grenzland. Eschwege/Heiligenstadt 2004
Wilfried Warsitzka: Die Thüringer Landgrafen. 2nd revised edition, Erfurt, 2009
 




The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, and central / eastern Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.


This blog is non-commercial.

All texts and photos (if no other copyright is noted) are copyright of Gabriele Campbell.

GDPR Privacy Policy


My Photo
Name:
Location: Goettingen, Germany

I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
(See here for Archives for mobile devices)



Anchor links lead to the respective sub-category in the sidebar

Historical Places
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Finland
- Estonia
- Latvia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Czechia
- Belgium
- Luxembourg
- City Trips

Hiking Tours and Cruises
- Germany
- United Kingdom
- Scandinavia
- Baltic Sea





Historical Places

Germany

Towns

Braunschweig
Medieaval Braunschweig
Lion Benches in the Castle Square
The Quadriga

Erfurt
Mediaeval Erfurt

Goslar
Mediaeval Goslar
The Chapel in the Klus Rock

Lübeck
St. Mary's Church

Magdeburg
Magdeburg Cathedral
Liebfrauen Church: An Austere Archbishop
Liebfrauen Church: Reformation to Reunification

Mainz
The Temple of Isis and Mater Magna

Paderborn
Mediaeval Paderborn

Quedlinburg
Mediaeval Quedlinburg
The Chapter Church

Speyer
The Cathedral: Architecture
Jewish Ritual Bath
Richard Lionheart in Speyer

Stralsund
The Harbour
Mediaeval Stralsund: The Old Town

Trier
The Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths
The Porta Nigra
The Roman Bridge

Weimar
Sites of the Weimar Classicism
The Park at the Ilm

Wismar
The Old Harbour

Xanten
Roman and Mediaeval Xanten
The Gothic House
The Amphitheatre in Birten

Other Towns
Seaside Ressort Binz
Boppard - The Roman Baudobriga
Heiligenstadt
Treffurt

Castles

Brandenburg
History: The Double Castle
History: Albrecht II of Thuringia

Coburg Fortress
History
Architecture

Ebersburg
History: The Marshals of Ebersburg
Architecture

Hanstein
History

Hardenberg
History

Hohnstein
History: The Counts of Hohnstein
History: Between Welfen and Staufen
History: 14th-15th Century

Kugelsburg
History: The Counts of Everstein
History: Later Times

Plesse
History: The Counts of Winzenburg
History: The Lords of Plesse
Architecture

Scharzfels
History
Architecture

Wartburg
A Virtual Tour

Weidelsburg
History
Architecture
Revisiting the Weidelsburg

Castles in the Harz Mountains
Regenstein
Stapelburg
Stauffenburg

Castles in Hessia
Grebenstein
Reichenbach
Sichelnstein

Castles in Lower Saxony
Adelebsen
Grubenhagen
Hardeg Castle
Salzderhelden

Castles in Thuringia
Altenstein at the Werra
Scharfenstein

Castles at the Weser
Bramburg
Krukenburg: Castle and Chapel
Castle Polle: An Everstein Seat
Sababurg and Trendelburg

Abbeys and Churches

Early Mediaeval Churches
Göllingen Monastery
Lorsch Abbey: The Carolingian Gate Hall

Churches in the Harz Area
Pöhlde: Remains of the Monastery
Hahnenklee: The Stave Church
Scharzfeld: The Cave Church
Walkenried Monastery
Wiebrechtshausen

Churches in Hessia
Wilhelmshausen / Fulda Valley

Weser Abbeys: Bursfelde
Early History

Weser Abbeys: Helmarshausen
Remains of the Monastery
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion

Weser Abbeys: Lippoldsberg
Early History
The Interior of the Church

Other Churches in the Weser Area
Fredelsloh Chapter Church
Gehrden / Brakel
Vernawahlshausen: Mediaeval Murals

Museums and Reconstructed Sites

Open Air Museums
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Palatine Seat Tilleda
The Defenses

Viking Settlement Haithabu
Haithabu and the Archaeological Museum Schleswig
The Nydam Ship

Post-Mediaeval Exhibits
Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg

Romans Remains

Traces of a Failed Invasion
Roman Exhibitions, Haltern am See
Varus Statue, Haltern am See
The Roman Camp at Hedemünden

Limes Fort Aalen
The Barracks

Limes Fort Osterburken
The Discovery
The Cohort castellum
The Annex Fort
The Garrisons

Limes Fort Saalburg
A Reconstructed Limes Fort
Shrine of the Standards

Roman villae at the Moselle
The Villa Urbana in Longuich

Roman villae at the Rhine
The Villa at Wachenheim: Introduction
Wachenheim: Baths and Toilets
Wachenheim: The Cellar

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Neolithic Burials
Neolithic Burials in the Everstorf Forest and Rugia
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age
Bronze and Iron Age Remains at the Werra


England

Towns

Chester
Roman and Medieaval Chester

Hexham
The Abbey - Introduction
The Old Gaol

York
Clifford Tower
The Guild Hall
Monk Bar Gate and Richard III Museum
Museum Gardens and Mulitangular Tower
The Old Town
Roman Bath in the Fortress
York Minster: Architecture

Castles

Carlisle
History: King David
History: Henry II and William of Scotland
History: Edward I to Edward III

Richmond
History: Conquest to King John
History: Henry III to the Tudors
Architecture

Scarborough
History: Romans to the Tudors
History: Civil War to the Present
Architecture

Roman Remains

Wall Fort Birdoswald
The Dark Age Timber Halls

Wall Fort Segedunum
Museum and Viewing Tower
The Baths

Other Roman Sites
The Mithraeum at Brocolita
The Signal Station at Scarborough


Scotland

Towns

Edinburgh
Views from the Castle

Stirling
The Wallace Monument

Castles

Doune
A Virtual Tour
History: The Early Stewart Kings
History: Royal Dower House

Dunstaffnage
History: An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
History: The Wars of Independence
History: The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

Stirling
History: Robert the Bruce

Castles at the Scottish West Coast
Duart Castle
Dunollie and Kilchurn

Abbeys and Churches

Inchcolm Abbey
Arriving at Inchcolm

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Neolithic Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae

Brochs and Cairns
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Introduction

Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort
Staffa


Wales

Towns

Aberystwyth
Castle and Coast

Caerleon
The Ffwrwm
The Roman Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort

Conwy
The Smallest House in Great Britain

Castles

Beaumaris
History
Architecture

Caernarfon
Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

Chepstow
History: Beginnings unto Bigod
History: Edward II to the Tudors
History: Civil War

Conwy
History
Architecture

Criccieth
Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings

Pembroke
Photo Impressions
The Caves Under the Castle

Castles in Southern Wales
Cardiff
Manorbier


Denmark

Museums and Reconstructed Sites

Viking Museum Roskilde
To come


Norway

Castles and Fortresses

Akershus Fortress in Oslo
History: The Time of King Håkon V
Architecture

Vardøhus Fortress
History

Museums / Reconstructed Sites

The Fram Museum in Oslo


Sweden

Museums and Reconstructed Sites

The Vasa Museum in Stockholm

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Gotland
Gnisvärd Ship Setting


Finland

Towns

Porvoo
Mediaeval Porvoo


Estonia

Towns

Tallinn
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Latvia

Towns

Riga
The History of Mediaeval Riga


Lithuania

Historical Landscapes

The Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit


Poland

Towns

Gdańsk / Danzig
History of Mediaeval Gdańsk
Mediaeval and Renaissance Gdańsk

Kraków
The Old Town
Jewish Kraków - Kazimierz and the Ghetto

Wrocław / Breslau
The Botanical Garden
The Wrocław Dwarfs

Castles

Ogrodzieniec Castle
A Virtual Tour
History: First Castle to the Boner Family


Czechia

Towns

Cheb / Eger
The Old Town

Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
Brief History of the Town

Kutná Hora
The Sedlec Ossuary
The Medieaval Town and St.Barbara's Church


Belgium

Towns

Antwerp
The Old Town

Bruges
Mediaeval Bruges

Ghent
Mediaeval Ghent

Tongeren
Roman and Mediaeval Remains


Luxembourg

Towns

Luxembourg City
A Tour of the Town


City Trips

St.Petersburg (Russia)
Impressions from the Neva River

Strasbourg (France)
A Tour of the Town


Hiking Tours and Cruises

Germany

The Baltic Sea Coast
Flensburg Firth
Rugia: Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
Rugia; The Pier of Sellin
Rugia: More Photo Impressions
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

The Lüneburg Heath
Hiking Tours in the Lüneburg Heath

Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Devil's Wall
Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
Oderteich Reservoir
Rappbode Reservoir
Views from Harz mountains

Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Around Bad Sooden-Allendorf
Hessian Switzerland

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
The Forest Pasture Project
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Nature Park Reinhardswald
Old Forest at the Sababurg

Thuringian Forests
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

Rivers and Lakes
Bruchteiche / Bad Sooden Allendorf
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
The Moselle
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut
Weser River Ferry
Weser Skywalk

Wildlife
Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life
Red squirrels

Seasons
Spring in the Botanical Garden Göttingen
Spring in the Hardenberg Castle Gardens
Spring at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Spring in the Meissner
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake


United Kingdom

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains: Inverness to John o'Groats
Some Photos from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull: Craignure to Fionnphort
Pentland Firth
Staffa
Summer Days in Oban
Summer Nights in Oban

Scotland by Train
West Highland Railway

Wild Wales - With Castles
Views of Snowdownia
Views from Castle Battlements

Wildlife
Sea Gulls


Scandinavia

The Hurtigruten-Tour / Norway
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Wildlife
Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord


The Baltic Sea

A Baltic Sea Cruise

The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
Beaches at the Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit



Mediaeval History
- General Essays
- Specific Topics

History by Country
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Livonia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Bohemia

Roman History
- The Romans at War
- Roman Life and Religion

Other Times
- Neolithicum to Iron Age
- Post-Mediaeval History
-
Miscellanea
- Geology


Mediaeval History

General Essays

Mediaeval Art and Craft

Mediaeval Art
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Upside-Down World
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Medieaval Craftmanship
Goldsmithery
Medical Instruments

Mediaeval Warfare

Mediaeval Weapons
Swords
Trebuchets

Castles and Fortifications
Dungeons and Oubliettes


Specific Topics

Feudalism

The History of Feudalism
The Beginnings
Feudalism in the 10th Century

Privileges and Special Relationships
The Privilege of the deditio
A Note on handgenginn maðr

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings

Hanseatic Architecture
Examples of Brick Architecture
Hall Houses (Dielenhäuser)

Goods and Trade
Stockfish Trade

Towns of the Hanseatic League
Riga
Stralsund
Tallinn / Reval

The Order of the Teutonic Knights

Wars and Battles
The Conquest of Danzig
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

The Vikings

Viking Ships
The Nydam Ship


Some historical events are linked under more than one country / subtitle due to the overarching nature of history.


History by Country

Germany

Geneaology

List of Mediaeval German Emperors

Geneaologies
Anglo-German Marriage Connections
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors

Kings and Emperors

The Salian Dynasty
King Heinrich IV

House Welf and House Staufen
Emperor Otto IV, Introduction

Princes and Lords

Princes
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Duke Otto of Northeim
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Feuds and Rebellions

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War
The Star Wars


England

Kings of England

King Henry IV
King Henry's Lithuanian Crusade

Normans, Britons, Angevins

Great Noble Houses
The Dukes of Brittany
The Earls of Richmond

Contested Borders

Northumbria
King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


Scotland

Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War, Part 1
King David and the Civil War, Part 2

Houses Bruce and Stewart
The Early Stewart Kings

Local Troubles

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding

Scotland and England

The Wars of Independence
Alexander of Argyll
The Fight for Stirling Castle


Wales

Welsh Princes

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

Wales and England

A History of Rebellion
Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Denmark

Kings of Denmark

House of Knýtlinga
Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

The Duchy of Estonia
Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


Norway

Kings of Norway

Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

Feuds and Rebellions

Rebels
Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Sweden

Troubles and Alliances

Scandinavian Unity
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union


Livonia
(Latvia and Estonia)

Livonian Towns

Riga
The History of Mediaeval Riga

Tallinn
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Lithuania

Lithuanian Princes

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas

The Northern Crusades

The Wars in Lithuania
The Siege of Vilnius 1390


Poland

Royal Dynasties

The Jagiełłonian Kings
Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union

The Northern Crusades

The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
The Conquest of Danzig


Bohemia

Royal Dynasties

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
King Sigismund and the Hussite Wars


Roman History

The Romans at War

Forts and Fortifications

The German Limes
The Cavalry Fort Aalen
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg

The Hadrian's Wall
Introduction
The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend

Border Life
Exercise Halls
Mile Castles and Watch Towers
Soldiers' Living Quarters
Cavalry Barracks

Campaigns and Battles

Maps
The Romans in Germania

The Pre-Varus Invasion in Germania
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn
Introduction

The Batavian Rebellion
A Short Introduction

Miscellaneous Events

The Legend of Alaric's Burial

Roman Militaria

Armour
Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapons
Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum
Daggers
Swords

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles


Roman Life and Religion

Religion and Public Life

Religion
Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms
Isis Worship
Memorial Stones
The Mithras Cult

Public Life
Roman Transport: Barges
Roman Transport: Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Architecture
Roman Public Baths

Domestic Life

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots


Other Times

Neolithicum to Iron Age

Germany

Development of Civilisation
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
The Hutewald Project in the Solling
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Neolithic Remains
Stone Burials of the Funnelbeaker Culture
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age / Iron Age
The Nydam Ship

Scotland

Neolithic Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Bronze Age / Iron Age
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Their Function in Iron Age Society

Scandinavia

Bronze / Iron Age
The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd / Gotland


Post-Mediaeval History

Explorers and Discoveries

Explorers
Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

Discoveries
Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)


Miscellanea

History in Literature and Music

History and Literature

The Weimar Classicism
The Weimar Classicism - Introduction

Theodor Fontane
Short Biography of Theodor Fontane
Fontane Ballads, translated by me
Archibald Douglas
Gorm Grymme
Sir Walter Scott in Abbotsford
The Tragedy of Afghanistan

History in Opera

Belcanto and Historicism
Maria Padilla - Mistress Royal
The Siege of Calais in Donizetti's Opera

Not so Serious History

Romans
Building Hadrian's Wall
Playmobil Romans

Mediaeval Times
Kings Having a Bad Hair Day
The Case of the Vanished Wine Cask

Other
Rules for Writing Scottish Romances


Geology

Geological Landscapes

The Baltic Sea
Geology of the Curonian Spit
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

The Harz
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in the Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs
Sandstone Formations: Daneil's Cave
Sandstone Formations: Devil's Wall
Sandstone Formations: The Klus Rock

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations
Salt Springs at the Werra

Solling-Vogler
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

The Shores of Scotland
Staffa

Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

Fossilized Ammonites
The Loket Meteorite


05/05 / 08/05 / 09/05 / 11/05 / 12/05 / 02/06 / 03/06 / 04/06 / 05/06 / 08/06 / 09/06 / 10/06 / 12/06 / 01/07 / 02/07 / 03/07 / 04/07 / 05/07 / 06/07 / 07/07 / 08/07 / 09/07 / 10/07 / 11/07 / 12/07 / 01/08 / 02/08 / 03/08 / 04/08 / 05/08 / 06/08 / 07/08 / 08/08 / 09/08 / 10/08 / 11/08 / 12/08 / 01/09 / 02/09 / 03/09 / 04/09 / 05/09 / 06/09 / 07/09 / 08/09 / 09/09 / 10/09 / 11/09 / 12/09 / 01/10 / 02/10 / 03/10 / 04/10 / 05/10 / 06/10 / 07/10 / 08/10 / 09/10 / 10/10 / 11/10 / 12/10 / 01/11 / 02/11 / 03/11 / 04/11 / 05/11 / 06/11 / 07/11 / 08/11 / 09/11 / 10/11 / 11/11 / 12/11 / 01/12 / 02/12 / 03/12 / 04/12 / 05/12 / 06/12 / 07/12 / 08/12 / 09/12 / 10/12 / 11/12 / 12/12 / 01/13 / 02/13 / 03/13 / 04/13 / 05/13 / 06/13 / 07/13 / 08/13 / 09/13 / 10/13 / 11/13 / 12/13 / 01/14 / 02/14 / 03/14 / 04/14 / 05/14 / 06/14 / 07/14 / 08/14 / 09/14 / 10/14 / 11/14 / 12/14 / 01/15 / 02/15 / 03/15 / 04/15 / 05/15 / 06/15 / 07/15 / 08/15 / 09/15 / 10/15 / 11/15 / 12/15 / 01/16 / 02/16 / 03/16 / 04/16 / 05/16 / 06/16 / 07/16 / 08/16 / 09/16 / 10/16 / 11/16 / 12/16 / 01/17 / 02/17 / 03/17 / 04/17 / 05/17 / 06/17 / 07/17 / 08/17 / 09/17 / 10/17 / 11/17 / 12/17 / 01/18 / 02/18 / 03/18 / 04/18 / 05/18 / 06/18 / 07/18 / 08/18 / 09/18 / 10/18 / 11/18 / 12/18 / 02/19 / 03/19 / 04/19 / 05/19 / 06/19 / 07/19 / 08/19 / 09/19 / 10/19 / 12/19 / 01/20 / 02/20 / 03/20 / 04/20 / 05/20 / 06/20 / 07/20 / 08/20 / 09/20 / 10/20 / 11/20 / 12/20 / 02/21 / 03/21 / 04/21 / 05/21 / 06/21 / 07/21 / 08/21 / 09/21 / 10/21 / 11/21 / 01/22 /


Powered by Blogger