The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times

21 May 2018
  Pretty Houses and a Famous Minster – A Virtual Tour through Strasbourg

Strasbourg is a pretty town and even prettier in sunshine. But since I visited the place on a sunny Sunday in late April, there were more tourists than in Bruges. It was almost impossible to get photos without people standing in front of the vistas.

The Minster in Strasbourg, westwork

Strasbourg is best known for the famous Minster (Cathedral of Our Lady). Its construction began in the 12th century, but it would take until 1439 to finish the building - and only the north tower was erected to its intended hight of 142 metres. At that time, the Minster of Strasbourg was the tallest building in the known world, surpassing the pyramids of Gizeh.

The Minster, interior

You see what I said about people? On Sundays, the times when tourists can visit the interior are limited due to the religious activities going on in the church, and then they stream in all at once. I had planned to arrive at Saturday early afternoon to avoid this problem, but a strike in France obliged me to spend five hours on trains instead of the two hours I had planned, therefore I arrived in the evening.

The Minster, exterior

Although the construction began at a time when the Romanesque style was still prevalent, the Minster today looks like a purely Gothic building, and a splendind one at that. Particulary the westwork of red sandstone (see above) with its statues and ornaments is stunning.

Palais Rohan, the river side

The Palais Rohan directly behind the minster was commissioned by a cardinal, member of the House Rohan . It was finished in 1742, a fine example of Baroque architecture. Today it houses several musuems, among them the Musée Archaéologique.

The Frauenwerksmuseum

The Musée de l'Œvre Notre Dame dates to the 13th century - with 17th century extensions - and hosts the Museum of the History of Arts. The double-gabled building also is the seat of the cathedral workshop since the Middle Ages (from whence the name 'Work of Our Lady').

The Maison Kammerzell

The House Kammerzell at the place in front of the minster is the finest timbered house in Strasbourg. It was built in 1427 and altered in 1589; the most spendid example of late Gothic secular timber architecture in the former Holy Roman Empire. The facade displays carving of mythological and Biblical figures.

The photo shows the timbered upper floors; the basic storey is made of stone, but there were those ugly stalls that sell tourist kitch in front of it.

The Place Gutenberg

The Gutenberg Place is named after the famous printer who lived in Strasbourg 1434 - 1444. It is framed mostly by Renaissance buildings, among them the former town hall. The Gutenberg statue dates to the 19th century.

St.Thomas' Church

Strasbourg has more than one church, of course. St.Thomas' Church took several centuries to complete (1196 - 1526). The five-naved hall church shows a mix of Romanesque and Gothic elements. It proved much quieter and a lot less tourist-y than the minster.

Mediterranean flair - houses in the Grand Rue

The Grand Rue is the main street of the old town. It already was the main road of the Roman fort at the site. Most of the houses we can admire today were built by artisans and craftsmen in the 16th to 18th centuries.

Half-timbered houses in Petite France

Petite France - Little France - is the name of the quarter which in Mediaeval times housed the workshops and living places of tanners, butchers, fishermen and other smelly and less savoury occupations. Later it became the site of brothels and cheap pubs. The name 'Little France' comes from the French disease (syphilis) which could easily be contacted there.

The Tanners' Street in Petite France

Nowadays the pretty half-timbered houses in the typical style of the Rhineland, dating mostly to the 16th and 17th centuries, have been renovated, and the Petite France has become one of the tourist attractions of Strasbourg. There are a lot of small winstubs (wine houses) and gift shops.

More pretty houses in Petite France

The old town of Strasbourg is located on a isle between two branches of the river Ill shortly before it confluences into the Rhine. The Roman fort was located on the island, later the Mediaeval town developed at the site which is known as Grande Île. The entire 'Grand Island' was granted UNESCO World Heritage status in 1988.

Petite France seen from the boat

With so much water about, boat tours around the Grand Island and the river Ill leading to the European Quarter are offered on a regular schedule. In fact, they are so popular that it is best to book a few hours in advance. On a sunny evening, such a tour is a lovely way to explore the town.

The navigation lock

With the construction of the Barrage Vauban, the Vauban Dam (photos see below) in 1690, the water level changed and made a navigation lock neccesary. Its passage is part of the boat tour.

More pretty houses, this time at the lock

The lock is situated in the French quarter. You can see the boat coming up in the foreground, and some more lovely half-timbered houses in the background.

The Ponts Couverts

Most famous among the many bridges connecting the Grand Island with the rest of the town are the Ponts Couverts, once bridges covered by roofs as shelter for bowmen. They are part of the 13th century town fortifications. The four towers that protected the bridges are still intact, but the roofs of the bridges have been removed in the 18th century.

Ponts Couverts, seen from the boat

A system of sluices and timber screens under the bridges allowed a controlled flooding of parts of the town in case of defense. Later, the Vauban fortifications would take over the main line of defense.

The Barrage Vauban, seen from the boat

The Vauban Dam worked pretty much the same way as the Ponts Couverts; it could be closed by shutters under the archs to rise the water level, which meant that the Petite France would be partly flooded - one would sacrify a poor quater to defend the more important areas around the minster and the Place Kléber.

The Vauban fortifications

The dam is named after the famous French general and military engineer Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban (1633 - 1707). His most importat works - more than 150 in all - were constructed during the reign of King Louis XIV and included town or sea fortifications in Luxembourg, Calais, La Rochelle and Arras. Vauban became Marshal of France in 1703, aged 70.

Pretty houses at the Ponts Couverts

The morning sun, the fresh green of spring, and those nice old houses in half-timbered style or coloured roughcast make for lovely photos. I picked just a few out of some 250 I took in Strasbourg for this post.

Chestnut trees in bloom along the Ill

The boat tour includes a turn to the European Quarter, else I would not have bothered to walk out there and look at lots of glass. The passage on the Ill along the chestnut alley is really lovely in spring.

European Parliament

Strasbourg is one of the official seats of the European Parliament. The building dates to 1999 and includes more than a thousand offices, 18 great halls, restaurants, hairdressers and lots of other amenities. During the session weeks, a whole trek of politicians, bureaucrats and administration members travels from Brussels to Strasbourg, including a score of trucks full of files.

European Court of Human Rights

The aluminium complex (1994) of the European Court of Rights is supposed to look like the scales of justice from above. The angle from the river gives an idea of that though it is not perfect. The main court room covers 860 square metres with 260 seats; there are ten more courts and meeting rooms.

Pretty houses behind the Minster

Those typical Rhineland style half-timbered houses, often with pretty decorations, can be found the in the quarter around the minster as well. My hotel was in that street, but impossible to photograph because the street is so narrow.

6 May 2018
  What I Visited – Castles in the Eifel and Luxembourg

As promised, here is the introductory post about the castles and fortifications I visited. As usual, longer posts will follow sometime.

I decided for the Manderscheid Castles in the Eifel instead of one of the castles directly at the Moselle, because they offer some spectacular ruins and are less tourist infected than fe. Castle Eltz.

Castle Lower Manderscheid (Niedermanderscheid) seen from the upper castle

The double castle of Manderscheid in the Eifel is an impressive structure, particularly the castle of Lower Manderscheid (Niedermanderscheid). It was the only day of my journey that started with rain, but fortunately, the sun came out later and enabled me to enjoy the hiking tour of both castles. On a wet day, the Eiffel slate is rather slippery. (And after two British castles on dreary days, some ruins in the sunshine make for a nice change.)

Lower Manderscheid – A castle of different layers

The castles got involved in the conflicts between the duchy of Luxembourg and the archbishopric of Trier several times. Both castles are separated by a valley which they control. The lower castle dates to the late 12th century; the upper one to the 14th century, but the site plays a role since Ottonian times.

The Bock Fortifications in Luxembourg City

Luxembourg City started out on the foundations of a Roman castellum on the rocks above the river Alzette. One Count Siegfried obtained the land in 963 and built the first castle (likely a timber fortification). Mid-12th century, a town had developed which was protected by a wall. More walls were built as the town grew. During the various Hapsburg, French and whatever dominations of Luxembourg, the fortifications were continually enlarged in the 16th – 18th centuries, including some 15 miles of casemattes.

Castle Vianden, Luxembourg

Castle Vianden is one of the largest castles west of the Rhine that remains intact – or, to be honest, has been restored to its former glory. Again, the castle was built on the site of a Roman fort from the 4th century AD. The castle became one of the mightiest in the area when the Lords of Vianden chose it as their main seat in the 12th century. They remained one of the most powerful noble houses until the 15th century.

The open gallery in Castle Vianden

1417, the castle came into possession of the House Orange-Nassau (King Willem Alexander of the Netherlands belongs to that family). They built a Renaissance palace in the castle. The castle was confiscated during the French Revolution but returned to the Grand Duke of Luxembourg (of the House Nassau), but the time of castles was past and it fell into decline. Since 1977, the castle belongs to the state of Luxembourg and has been restored.

Castle Bourscheid, Luxembourg

Castle Bourscheid is situated on a promontory, but the access is today is from the village above; a two kilometres walk. The castle dates to the late 11th century and is the largest in Luxembourg in terms of surface area. The inner bailey with the keep and palas was built between 1050 -1300, the outer bailey with additional curtain walls, zwinger and towers in the 14th century. Today, only ruins are left.

BTW, don’t miss the post about the Romans at the Moselle below.

  What I Visited - Romans at the Moselle

I'm back with another bunch of photos, so here is one of the usual introductory posts. There are a lot or Roman remains, particularly villae, around Trier and along the Moselle. The land is now mostly part of Germany, but in Roman times it belonged to the province of Gallia Belgica and was strongly influenced by Roman civilization.

The Porta Nigra at night

I said in the post below that I wanted to revisit the Porta Nigra because I didn't take enough photos of it during my first visit. Well, there is no shortage of photos now. *grin*

Barbara Baths, detail

The Barbara Baths, named after a Mediaeval village that is now a suburb of Trier, are one of several Roman baths in Trier. They had been closed due to repairs in 2006. The remains are now accessible via a walkway above the ruins. They date to the second half of the 2nd century AD

The Wine Ship sculpture in the Rheinisches Landesmuseum Trier

The Rheinisches Landesmuseum in Trier has been expanded, so I revisited that one as well. The wine ship sculpture is one of the most famous finds along the Moselle that is exhibited in the museum. But there are plenty of other sculptures and various artifacts.

Musée Archaéologique Strasbourg, Roman militaria

Another musuem with Roman finds is the Musée Archaéologique in Strasbourg, the ancient Roman Argentoratum. The town goes back to a Roman military camp at the time of Drusus the Elder (12 BC) and developed into one of the centres of the province Germania Superior. Few Roman traces have survived in the town itself, but plenty have been found in the surroundings.

The villa rustica in Mehring

A villa rustica is basically a farm with a rather fancy main building. The one in Mehring dates to the 2nd century AD, but has been altered a few times during the following centuries. The villa has been partly excavated (the rest is hiding beneath modern houses) and the porticus (entrance) with the two corner avant-corpses has been reconstructed.

The villa urbana in Longuich

A villa urbana can be described as a manor. The one in Longuich likely belonged to a retired Roman official. It too, has been partly excavated and some of the main building restored. Remains of the baths can be seen through grilled doors. Its situation in the vineyard terrasses above the Moselle is quite pretty.

The reconstructed villa in Borg

The Roman villa in Borg is one of the largest in the Saar/Moselle district. In this case, it was decided for a complete reconstruction of the main building and the gate house on the old foundations, with murals, furniture and everything. There is even a taberna offering Roman food. Yes, I tried it - no fishy garum, though.

Villa in Borg, detail shot of the main building

The villa in Nennig (below) is famous for its 3rd century mosaic depicting scenes from the arena that once graced the entrance hall. With about 15 x 10 metres, it is the largest in situ mosaic north of the Alps. The mosaic is protected by a building. Some foundations of the villa have been excavated, but part of it lies beneath a church.

The mosaic of the villa in Nennig

Roman remains were not the only thing I visited, of course. Next will be some more castles for my collection.

The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, the Baltic Countries, and central Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.

This blog is non-commercial.

All texts and photos (if no other copyright is noted) are copyright of Gabriele Campbell.

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Location: Goettingen, Germany

I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History, interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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Historical Places

- Towns
- Castles
- Abbeys and Churches
- Roman Remains
- Neolithicum and Bronze Age
- Museums
City Trips

Hiking Tours and Cruises

United Kingdom
Baltic Sea

Historical Places



Bad Sooden-Allendorf
Historical Town and Graduation Tower
Bruchteiche Reservoir

A Seaside Resort

Lion Benches in the Castle Square
The Quadriga

Mediaeval Erfurt

Mediaeval Goslar
Chapel in the Klus Rock

Churches St.Martin and St.Mary

St. Mary's Church

Church of Our Lady: History

The Temple of Isis and Mater Magna

Mediaeval Paderborn

Mediaeval Quedlinburg
The Chapter Church

The Cathedral: Architecture
Jewish Ritual Bath

The Harbour
The Old Town

Mediaeval Lanes and Old Houses

The Roman Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths
The Porta Nigra

Sites of the Weimar Classicism
The Park at the Ilm

The Old Harbour

Roman and Mediaeval Xanten
The Gothic House


The Keep

Altenstein (Werra)
A Border Castle

Weser River Reivers

Brandenburg (Thuringia)
The Beginnings
Albrecht II of Thuringia

Coburg Fortress

The Marshals of Ebersburg


History of the Keep


Hardeg Castle
The Great Hall


Heldenburg (Salzderhelden)
A Welfen Seat

Hohnstein (Harz)
The Counts of Hohnstein
Between Welfen and Staufen
14th-15th Century

Built to Protect a Chapel

The Counts of Everstein
Later Times

The Counts of Winzenburg
The Lords of Plesse

Polle Castle
An Everstein Stronghold


Reichenbach (Hessia)

Photo Impressions

From Castle to Convention Centre



Stauffenburg (Harz)
A Secret Mistress

A Little Known Ruin in the Harz

Photo Impressions

A Virtual Tour

Revisiting the Weidelsburg

Abbeys and Churches

Early History of the Abbey

A Romanesque Basilica

A Romanesque Church

The Byzantine Crypt

The Stave Church

Remains of the Monastery

Early History of the Abbey
Interior of the Church

The Carolingian Gate Hall

Remains of the Monastery

Scharzfeld (Harz)
The Cave Church

Mediaeval Murals

The Monastery - Introduction

Romanesque Church and a Ducal Burial

Wilhelmshausen (Kassel)
The Romanesque Church

Roman Remains

Augusta Treverorum / Trier
The Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths
The Porta Nigra
The Roman Bridge

Colonia Ulpia Traiana / Xanten
Roman Xanten
The Amphitheatre in Birten

Limes Fort Aalen
The Barracks

Limes Fort Osterburken
The Discovery
The Cohort castellum
The Annex Fort
The Garrisons

Limes Fort Saalburg
A Reconstructed Limes Fort
Shrine of the Standards

Romans in North Rhine-Westphalia
Playmobil Romans, LWL Museum Haltern
Varus Statue, Haltern am See

Romans at the Moselle
The Villa Urbana in Longuich

Romans at the Rhine
Boppard - The Roman Baudobriga
The Villa at Wachenheim

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Neolithic Burials
Neolithic Burials in the Everstorf Forest and Rugia
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age
Bronze and Iron Age Remains at the Werra

Museums / Reconstructed Sites

Palatine Seat Tilleda
The Defenses

Viking Settlement Haithabu
The Nydam Ship

Open Air Museums
European Bread Museum Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Post-Mediaeval Exhibits
Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg



Roman and Medieaval Chester

The Abbey - Introduction
The Old Gaol

Clifford Tower
The Guild Hall
Monk Bar Gate with Richard III Museum
Museum Gardens
Houses in the Old Town
York Minster: Architecture



Conquest to King John
Henry III to the Tudors

Romans to the Tudors
Civil War to the Present

Roman Remains

Eboracum / York
Roman Bath in the Fortress

Wall Fort Birdoswald
The Dark Age Timber Halls

Wall Fort Segedunum
Museum and Viewing Tower
The Baths

Other Roman Sites
The Mithraeum at Brocolita
The Signal Station at Scarborough



Views from the Castle

The Wallace Monument


A Virtual Tour
History: The Early Stewart Kings
History: Royal Dower House

Duart Castle
Guarding the Sound of Mull

An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
The Wars of Independence
The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

Robert the Bruce

Abbeys and Churches

Arriving at Inchcolm Abbey

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Neolithic Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae

Brochs and Cairns
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Introduction

Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort



Castle and Coast

The Ffwrwm
The Roman Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort

The Smallest House in Great Britain



Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

From Romans to Victorians

Beginnings unto Bigod
Edward II to the Tudors
Civil War


Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings

The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

Photo Impressions
The Caves Under the Castle

Roman Remains

Isca Silurum / Caerleon
The Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort


Castles and Fortresses

Akershus Fortress in Oslo
Kings and Pirates
The Time of King Håkon V

Vardøhus Fortress


The Fram Museum in Oslo



Viking Museum Roskilde
To come


Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Gnisvärd Ship Setting


The Vasa Museum in Stockholm



Mediaeval Porvoo



The History of Mediaeval Tallinn



The History of Mediaeval Riga



Photo Impressions



Gdańsk / Danzig
History of Mediaeval Gdańsk
Mediaeval and Renaissance Gdańsk

The Old Town
Jewish Kraków - Kazimierz and the Ghetto

Wrocław / Breslau
The Botanical Garden
The Wrocław Dwarfs


Ogrodzieniec Castle
A Virtual Tour
First Castle to the Boner Family



Cheb / Eger
The Old Town

Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
Brief History of the Town

Kutná Hora
The Sedlec Ossuary
The Medieaval Town and St.Barbara's Church



The Old Town

Mediaeval Bruges

Mediaeval Ghent

Mediaeval Buildings

Roman Remains

Atuatuca Tungrorum / Tongeren
Roman Remains in the Town



Luxembourg City
A Tour of the Town

City Trips

St.Petersburg (Russia)
Impressions from the Neva River

Strasbourg (France)
A Tour of the Town

Hiking Tours and Cruises


Baltic Sea Coast
Flensburg Firth
Rugia: Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
Rugia: Photo Impressions
Rugia: The Pier of Sellin
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

Lüneburg Heath
Hiking Tours in the Lüneburg Heath

Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Devil's Wall
Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
Oderteich Reservoir
Rappbode Reservoir
Views from Harz mountains

Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Bruchteiche / Bad Sooden Allendorf
Hessian Switzerland

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
The Forest Pasture Project
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Nature Park Reinhardswald
Old Forest at the Sababurg

Thuringian Forests
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

Rivers and Lakes
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut
Weser River Ferry
Weser Skywalk

Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life
Red squirrels

Spring Impressions from Göttingen
Spring in the Hardenberg Castle Gardens
Spring in the Meissner
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake

United Kingdom

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains: Inverness to John o'Groats
Impressions from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull: Craignure to Fionnphort
Dunollie and Kilchurn: Photo Impressions
Pentland Firth
Summer in Oban

Scotland by Train
West Highland Railway

Views of Snowdownia

Sea Gulls


Coast of Norway: Hurtigruten-Tour
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord

The Baltic Sea

A Baltic Sea Cruise

The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
Beaches at the Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit

Mediaeval History

General Essays

by Country
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Livonia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Bohemia
- Luxembourg
- Flanders

Roman History

The Romans at War
Famous Romans
Roman Life and Religion

Other Times

Neolithicum to Iron Age
Post-Mediaeval History
History and Literature

Mediaeval History

General Essays

Mediaeval Warfare


Late Mediaeval Swords

Mediaeval Art and Craft

Mediaeval Art
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
The Hunting Frieze in Königslutter Cathedral
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Medical Instruments


The History of Feudalism
The Beginnings
Feudalism in the 10th Century

Special Cases
The privilege of the deditio

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings

Hanseatic Architecture
Examples of Brick Architecture
Hall Houses (Dielenhäuser)

Goods and Trade
Stockfish Trade

Towns of the Hanseatic League
Tallinn / Reval

The Order of the Teutonic Knights

Wars and Battles
The Conquest of Danzig
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

The Vikings

Viking Material Culture
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Viking Ships
The Nydam Ship

Essays by Country



List of Mediaeval German Emperors
Anglo-German Marriage Connections

Kings and Emperors

The Salian Dynasty
King Heinrich IV

Staufen against Welfen
Emperor Otto IV

Princes and Lords

House Welfen
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen

The Landgraves of Thuringia
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

Dukes and Princes of other Families
Duke Otto of Northeim
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Feuds and Rebellions

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War
The Star Wars


Kings of England

House Plantagenet
Richard Lionheart in Speyer
King Henry IV's Lithuanian Crusade

Normans, Britons, Angevins

Great Noble Houses
The Dukes of Brittany
The Earls of Richmond

Contested Borders

King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War, Part 1
King David and the Civil War, Part 2

Houses Bruce and Stewart
The Early Stewart Kings

Local Troubles

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding

Scotland and England

The Wars of Independence
Alexander of Argyll
The Fight for Stirling Castle


Welsh Princes

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

Wales and England

A History of Rebellion
Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Kings of Denmark

House of Knýtlinga
Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

The Duchy of Estonia
Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


Kings of Norway

Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

Feuds and Rebellions

Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Troubles and Alliances

Scandinavian Unity
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

(Latvia and Estonia)

Contested Territories

Livonian Towns
The History of Mediaeval Riga
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Lithuanian Princes

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas

The Northern Crusades

The Wars in Lithuania
The Siege of Vilnius 1390


Royal Dynasties

The Jagiełłonian Kings
Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union

The Northern Crusades

The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
The Conquest of Danzig


Royal Dynasties

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
King Sigismund and the Hussite Wars


House Luxembourg
King Sigismund


More to come

Roman History

The Romans at War

Forts and Fortifications

The German Limes
The Cavalry Fort Aalen
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg

The Hadrian's Wall
The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend

Border Life
Exercise Halls
Mile Castles and Watch Towers
Soldiers' Living Quarters
Cavalry Barracks

Campaigns and Battles

The Romans in Germania

The Pre-Varus Invasion in Germania
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn

The Batavian Rebellion
A Short Introduction

Roman Militaria

Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles

Famous Romans

The Late Empire

The Legend of Alaric's Burial

Roman Life and Religion

Religion and Public Life

Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms
Isis Worship
Memorial Stones
The Mithras Cult

Public Life
Roman Transport: Barges
Roman Transport: Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Roman Public Baths

Domestic Life

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots

Other Times

Neolithicum to Iron Age


Development of Civilisation
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
The Hutewald Project in the Solling
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Neolithic Remains
Stone Burials of the Funnelbeaker Culture
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age / Iron Age
The Nydam Ship


Neolithic Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Bronze Age / Iron Age
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Their Function in Iron Age Society


Bronze / Iron Age
The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd / Gotland

Post-Mediaeval History

Explorers and Discoveries

Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

History and Literature


The Weimar Classicism


Geological Landscapes: Germany

Baltic Sea Coast
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

Harz Mountains
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs
Sandstone Formations: Daneil's Cave
Sandstone Formations: Devil's Wall
Sandstone Formations: The Klus Rock

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations
Salt Springs at the Werra

Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

Geological Landscapes: Great Britain

The Shores of Scotland

Geological Landscapes: Baltic Sea

Geology of the Curonian Spit

Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

Fossilized Ammonites
The Loket Meteorite (Czechia)

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