My History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times


23/03/2019
  Lithuanian History: Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila Algirdaitis and Vytautas Kęstutaitis

I mentioned the union of Poland and Lithuania under Władysław Jagiełło of Poland, formerly Jogaila of Lithuania, only briefly in my post about the history of Gdańsk. Of course, the process, and the years leading up to it, did not go as smoothly as such a brief mention may suggest. When I read up on the details, I got interested in this little piece of history, not the least because the crusades against the still pagan Lithuanians involved some noblemen from England, among them the future Henry IV. I'm preparing a post about his adventures, so this essay serves to present the historical background.

Map (copyright: Wikipedia Commons)

The map above shows the countries in north-eastern Europe in the 14th century. The borders are not exactly the same as today, but it gives a good overview: Livonia and Courland cover what are basically present day Latvia and Estonia, Baltic lands then held by the Teutonic Knights. Poland today encompasses Prussia - except for the Kaliningrad Oblast - and Silesia (the latter was part of Bohemia in the 14th century), as well as part of Pomerania. The other part of Pomerania is now the German county of Vorpommern. Contested Samogitia today is Lithuanian. To the east, Lithuania's borders stretched far into what is now Belarus and Ukraine; at its largest expanse, towns like Kiev and Smolensk belonged to the grand duchy, while Lviv/Lemberg, part of former Halych-Volhynia, was Polish.

Those had been part of the Kievan Rus and came under dominion of the Golden Horde in the 1240ies. By the mid 1300ies, the Tatar grip had lessened, and some of the Ruthenian dukes prefered Lithuanian suzerainity. There were a few conquests, but most of the gains in the east were made by marriages (1).

Lithuania proper was a country of vast forests and swamps, difficult to penetrate for the mounted Teutonic Knights, or the horse archers of the Golden Horde who never ventured that far. The grand duchy of Lithuania developed during the 13th century from a bunch of feuding Baltic tribes. The pressure of the raids by the Teutonic Knights may in fact have added to this development. By the time of Gediminas (ca. 1275 - Dec. 1341), a dynasty of local rulers, mostly members of the extended family, governed the Lithuanian commonwealth - to use a modern word for the Mediaeval conglomerate of duchies of different people and religions - under the supreme rule of the Grand Duke. Surprisingly, the system worked under Gediminas as well as his sons. It may have helped that the ongoing expansion offered the chance for younger sons and cousins to gain some land.

Lithuanian rulers used the Ruthenian written language (Lithuanian was no written language at the time) and government structures which were better developed than their own. With the Ruthenian lands came the Orthodox religion, but the Lithuanians remained pagans. The princes sometimes used the promise of conversion to the Catholic faith in their dealings with the Catholic Order of the Teutonic Knights and western rulers (2, though. Once, Gediminas even played the Pope against the Teutonic Knights (and married his daughter to the crown prince of Poland, Casimir III). Intermarriage between the ruling Lithuanian and Ruthenian elites became frequent, and some Lithuanian nobles accepted Orthodox baptism.

Lithuanian Forest

After Gediminas' death, two of his sons ruled jointly (after they had ousted the obviously incompetent brother who had inherited Vilnius): Algirdas (ca. 1296 - May 1377) and Kęstutis (ca. 1297 - Aug. 1382). Algirdas inherited the duchy and town of Vilnius and was responsible for the defense - and possible expansion - of the eastern Ruthenian duchies and dealing with the Golden Horde. He already had inherited Vitebsk (today in Belarus) from his first wife and had ties to Tver in Russia by his second wife, Uliana of Tver.

Kęstutis (who was married to Birute of Samogitia) held the duchy and castle of Trakai; his responsibility lay in the west, the dealings with Poland and Hungary, and the fight against the Teutonic Order. The latter included an adventure when Kęstutis, held in honourable captivity in Małbork Castle, escaped by climbing up a chimney, snatching a white cloak with the black cross and galloping off on the grand master's own horse, a feat he accomplished at the age of 60something.

Algirdas designed Jogaila (ca. 1350 - 1434), the eldest son of his second marriage, as heir; Kęstutis his son Vytautas (ca. 1350 - 1430). Both youths seemed to have gotten along well as boys, but when Algirdas died in 1377, the precarious power balance broke. The eldest son from Algirdas' first marriage, Andrej of Polotsk (today in Belarus), who had accepted Orthodox baptism, rose against Jogaila. Moreover, Kęstutis wanted to become sole Grand Duke and not rule jointly with his nephew.

Małbork Castle, the main gate

Jogaila sent his younger brother Skirgaila to take Polotsk. Andrej fled to Moscow where he forged an alliance with the Grand Duke Dmitry Donskoy and the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights, who attacked Samogitia and threatened Vilnius. Kęstutis had no choice but to make a truce with the Teutonic Knights and his nephew (Sept. 1379). What followed was a game of double dealing diplomacy that would not be misplaced in A Song of Ice and Fire. In February 1380, Jogaila made a separate truce with the Order that protected his own possessions, but not the lands held by Kęstutis, and put an end to the Order supporting Andrej of Polotsk who was still sulking in Moscow. Three months later, Jogaila and the Grand Master Winrich of Kniprode signed the Treaty of Dovydiškės which went a step further, stating that Jogaila would not interfere if the Teutonic Knights attacked Kęstutis or his children.

The treaty may have served to keep Jogaila's back free in dealing with both his half-brother Andrej and the rebellious inhabitants of Polotsk who had driven Skirgaila out, but it could also be seen as a step towards opening the country to Catholicism and bringing Lithuania into the fold of European kingdoms - something 80 year old Kęstutis was firmly set against.

Meanwhile, Kęstutis had received a warning about the Dovydiškės treaty (3). While Jogaila was busy sorting things in Polotsk, Kęstutis took Vilnius and the title of Grand Duke. Jogaila was taken prisoner on his way back to Vilnius and had to pledge loyalty to his uncle. He was given the patrimonies of Vitebsk and Kreva.

Małbork Castle, decorated arcades in the inner bailey

But Jogaila wasn't the man to dangle his legs in Vitebsk for long. In June 1382, while his uncle was away on business in Novgorod and his cousin Vytautas enjyoing his rule in Trakai, Jogaila retook Vilnius and the throne, welcomed by the merchants who didn't like Kęstutis' politics that harmed the trade with Livonia. Upon hearing the news, Vytautas fled to Samogitia. He and Kęstutis gathered an army and marched towards Trakai.

The armies of Kęstutis and the alliance of Jogaila's troops, supported by a contingent of Teutonic Knights, met near Trakai in August 1382. Both sides agreed to negotiations, but when Kęstutis and Vytautas arrived in Jogaila's camp, he took them captive and sent them to Kreva Castle; the Samogitian army disbanded. A few days later, Kęstutis was found dead (4). Vytautas managed to escape a few months later by disguising as his wife, who had been allowed to visit him. He eventually fled to his former enemies, the Teutonic Knights.

The Teutonic Order was none too keen on having a strong grand duke in Jogaila, and tried to inflict such harsh terms on him if he wanted to continue the truce (for example, he was not allowed to start any war without the Order's permission, which would have made it impossible to deal with Andrej of Polotsk) that he refused to ratify the Treaty of Dubysa. So the Order was not unhappy to make a peace deal with Vytautas instead, playing the cousins against each other. Vytautas promised to become a vassal of the Order and cede Samogitia to them - harsh terms as well, those.

The Grand Master's Palace

Jogaila understood that he needed to bring his country into the fold of the Christian states in order for Lithuania to survive. An alliance with the duchy of Moscow and marriage to a Moskovitian princess was discussed, but accepting the Orthodox faith would have opened the door to the claims of his elder half-brothers and threaten a dominance of the Ruthenian parts of the duchy. A Catholic conversion on the other side, would pull the teeth of the Teutonic Knights who called their ongoing raids into Lithuanian territory a crusade against heathens, and give the Catholic-to-be part of the nobility and populace an identity of their own.

Thus the interest of several Polish nobles to consider Jogaila as husband for their queen Jadwiga (Hedwig) came at the right moment. The Poles needed a king with a strong backing to hold out against the other strong dynasties like the Luxemburgians in Bohemia and the Angevins in Hungary. A local Piast prince with little actual power would not do, and certainly not that Hapsburg boy Jadwiga had been betrothed to (5).

Jogaila contacted his cousin Vytautas in secret and offered him a vague promise of returning Trakai to him once Skirgaila had established himself in Polotsk. In July 1384, Vytautas abandoned the Teutonic Knights, burning two of their castles on the way back home, and a month later he put his name on the Treaty of Krevo. In 1386, Jogaila, now baptised Władysław Jagiełło, was crowned King of Poland.

The summer refectory

Jagiełło now spent most of his time in Poland. Andrej promptly saw another chance in gaining Polotsk, or even the throne of Lithuania. But Jagiełło marched with an army to meet him faster than Andrej thought possible; moreover Vytautas cooperated for a change. Andrej was defeated and brought to Poland in chains. But Jagiełło needed a trusted man to rule Lithuania for him. The one he trusted best was his brother Skirgaila, so Jagiełło appointed him regent - which included the possession of Vilnius and Trakai (besides Polotsk). That irked Vytautas who had been promised Trakai. He wasn't content with the provinces Jagiełło offered him in recompensation.

Skirgaila may have been an apt administrator, but he failed to gain the acceptance of the populace in Vilnius as well (the same problem he had in Polotsk). Vytautas, who must have had a great deal of charisma, received clandestine support, but he failed to take Vilnius and had to flee Lithuania once more. The Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights looked a bit askance at him, not having forgotten his earlier defection and the destroyed castles. He demanded pretty much all of Vytautas' extended family as hostages and Samogitia as price, should they aid Vytautas again.

Technically, Lithuania was now a Christian country, a fact that would have made it impossible for the Teutonic Knights to call the war a crusade. But they argued that the baptism of Jogaila (and Vytautas, but that little inconvenience was conveniently overlooked) and other nobles was a ruse, that the people still practiced pagan rituals, and that a newfound monastery somewhere had been attacked. So this was still considered a crusade and advertised as such in Europe. One of those to follow the call was Henry Bolingbroke, the future King Henry IV of England.

The Teutonic Knights with their allies, followers of Vytautas from Lithuania and Ruthenia, as well as the visiting guest knights, laid siege to Vilnius in September 1390, but failed to take the town. Only the outer castle was destroyed. Disease broke out in the besieger's camp, supplies ran out and the autumn rains set in, therefore the siege was lifted after five weeks.

Lithuanian forest

But Jagiełło had to consolidate his power in Poland which was not uncontested until he produced an heir (6), and therefore wanted a solution to the Lithuanian problem. He contacted Vytautas in secret through his envoy, Henry of Masovia, the bishop of Płosk. Vytautas was offered to become Grand Duke of Lithuania while Jagiełło would be Supreme Duke. That made Vytautas his cousin's vassal, but with considerable power of his own.

Vytautas had to tread carefully since the grand master of the Order, Konrad of Wallenrode, did not really trust him. But Vytautas managed to get most of the members of his family who stood in as hostages to safe places by summer 1392. He had been given the - hastily erected - timber castle of Ritterswerder on an island in the Nemen (Memel) river as residence. Since the negotiations took place in secret, the Teutonic Knights must have been rather surprised to find the burnt ruins of the castle one morning, and Vytautas and his retainers gone, leaving behind a trail of some more destroyed fortresses - quite a habit of his by that time.

Jagiełło and Vytautas (who had been baptized Vitold Alexander; 7) signed the Ostrów Agreement in summer 1392. Vytautas ruled Lithuania as Grand Duke for 38 year and henceforth remained at peace with his cousin. The quarrels with the Teutonic Knights over the possession of Samogitia did not end in 1392, though. But the Order now faced two powerful men and countries acting together. The alliance would eventually lead to the the Battle of Grunwald in 1410.

The Teutonic Knights at war, 19th century fresco in Małbork Castle

Footnotes
1) That's a rather simplified summary, of course, but I don't want to trouble the readers with yet another set of unfamiliar names and strange places. One of the duchies that rose out of the Kievan Rus after the disintegration of the Golden Horde was the Grand Duchy of Moscow. It would clash with the Polish-Lithuanian Union more than once.
2) Playing the Catholic against the Orthodox faith was a game that worked pretty well, since the Catholics considered the Orthodox to be incorrigible apostates who refused to acknowlegde the supreme authority of the pope in Rome, while the Orthodox deemed the Catholics to be a miserable bunch of heretics because they had added the word filioque to the Nicaean Creed (thus claiming that the Holy Spirit descended through father and son).
3) The most likely candidate to tattle the tale to Vytautas was Günther von Hohenstein (yes, a member of that family), the Komtur of Brandenburg, who was the godfather of Kęstutis' daughter Danuta Anna who had married Duke Janusz of Masovia.
4) As usual in such a case, there were rumours that Jogaila had a hand in his uncle's death, but it was never proven. Suicide or simply death of old age - he was in his 80ies, after all - are possible scenarios as well. He got a splendid pagan funeral, incremated on a pyre together with his favourite horse and dogs, and even a slave or two.
5) Wilhelm of Hapsburg slunk back to Austria, refusing the recompensation money and muttering curses about that 'Lithuanian Saracen'. Young Jadwiga soon recovered from the shock of having to marry an man almost three times her age instead of her childhood friend, and took her part in ruling Poland.
6) His marriage with Jadwiga would not produce any living offspring. He married three more times and had several sons with the last wife, Sophia of Halshany, daughter of Ivan Olshansky, a close friend and brother-in-law of Vytautas.
7) He used his Christian names only in official documents.

Literature
Robert Frost: The Oxford History of Poland-Lithuania, vol. 1, The Making of the Polish-Lithuanian Union 1385-1569; Oxford 2015, paperback ed. 2018
Jürgen Sarnowsky: Der Deutsche Orden, München 2007
William Urban: The Teutonic Knights. A Military History, 2003; reprint by Frontline Publ. 2018

 




The Lost Fort is a history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, and central / eastern Europe. It includes essays on Roman and Mediaeval history and architecture, as well as some geology, illustrated with my own photos of old castles and churches, Roman remains, pretty towns and beautiful landscapes.

This blog is non-commercial.

All texts (except comments by guests) and photos (if no other copyright is noted) on this blog are copyright of Gabriele Campbell.

GDPR Privacy Policy
Contact

My Photo
Name:
Location: Goettingen, Germany

I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
(See here for Sidebar / Archives for mobile devices)



Anchor links lead to the respective sub-category in the sidebar

Peregrinationes
Visiting Historical Sites

Loci Amoeni
Hiking Tours and Landscapes

Roman Remains
- Germania
- Britannia

Mediaeval and Early Modern Places
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Scandinavia
- The Baltic States
- Russia
- Poland and the Czech Republic
- Belgium and Luxembourg
- Other Places




Roman Remains

The Romans at War

Different Frontiers, Yet Alike
Exercise Halls
Mile Castles and Watch Towers
Reconstructed Fort Walls
Soldiers' Living Quarters
Cavalry Barracks

Roman Ships
Transport Barges

Life and Religion

Religious Sites
The Mithraeum of Brocolita
Mithras Altars in Germania
A Roman Memorial Stone


Germania
(Including Gallia Belgica and Raetia)

A Failed Conquest

Romans at Lippe and Ems
Anniversary Exhibitions in Haltern am See
Varus Statue, Haltern am See

Romans at the Weser
The Roman Camp at Hedemünden

Provinces and Borderlands

The Limes and its Forts

Osterburken
The Discovery
The Cohort castellum
The Annex Fort
The Garrisons

Saalburg
Introduction
Main Gate
Shrine of the Standards
The Walls
The vicus

The Cavalry Fort in Aalen
The Fort in Aalen - Barracks

Romans at Rhine and Moselle

Settlements and vici
Boppard - A 4th Century Roman Fort

The Villa Rustica in Wachenheim
Introduction
Baths and Toilets
The Cellar

Villae at the Moselle
The Villa Urbana in Longuich

Roman Towns

Moguntiacum (Mainz)
The Temple of Isis and Mater Magna

Augusta Treverorum (Trier)
The Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths - Roman Times
The Imperial Baths - Post Roman
Porta Nigra - Roman Times
The Roman Bridge

Atuatuca Tungrorum (Tongeren / Belgium)
Roman Remains in Tongeren

Colonia Ulpia Traiana (Xanten)
History of the Town
The Amphitheatre in Birten


Britannia

Frontiers, Fortifications, Forts

The Hadrian's Wall
Introduction / Photo Collection
Fort Baths
Fort Headquarters
Building the Wall
The Wall as Defense Line

Wall Forts - Banna (Birdoswald)
The Dark Age Timber Halls

Wall Forts - Segedunum (Wallsend)
Introduction
The Museum
The Viewing Tower
The Baths

Signal Stations
The Signal Station at Scarborough

Roman Towns

Eboracum (York)
Bath in the Fortress
Multiangular Tower

The Romans in Wales

Roman Forts - Isca (Caerleon)
The Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort


Mediaeval and Early Modern Places

Living Mediaeval
Dungeons and Oubliettes
Pit House (Grubenhaus)
Medical Instruments

Mediaeval Art
Carved Monsters
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee - The Historical Context
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee - The Craftmanship

Mediaeval Weapons
Swords
Trebuchets
Combat Scenes


Germany

- Towns
- Castles and Fortresses
- Churches and Cathedrals
- Other Sites

Towns

Braunschweig
Medieaval Braunschweig, Introduction
Lion Benches in the Castle Square
The Quadriga

Erfurt
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Erfurt

Magdeburg
Magdeburg Cathedral
St.Mary's Abbey - An Austere Archbishop
St.Mary's Abbey - Reformation to Reunion

Paderborn
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Paderborn

Speyer
The Cathedral: Architecture
Cathedral: Richard Lionheart in Speyer
Jewish Ritual Bath

Xanten
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Xanten
The Gothic House

Towns in the Harz

Goslar
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Goslar

Quedlinburg
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Quedlinburg
The Chapter Church

Towns of the Hanseatic League

Gothic Brick Architecture

Lübeck
St. Mary's Church, Introduction

Stralsund
The Harbour

Wismar
The Old Harbour

Castles and Fortresses

Castles in Bavaria

Coburg Fortress
The History of the Fortress
The Architecture

Castles in the Harz

Ebersburg
The Architecture
Power Base of the Thuringian Landgraves
The Marshals of Ebersburg

Harzburg
The Harzburg and Otto IV

Hohnstein
Origins of the Counts of Hohnstein
The Family Between Welfen and Staufen
A Time of Feuds (14th-15th century)

Regenstein
Introduction
The Time of Henry the Lion

Scharzfels
Introduction
History

Hidden Treasures
The Stauffenburg near Seesen

Castles in Hessia

Castles in Northern Hessia
Grebenstein
Reichenbach
Sichelnstein

Kugelsburg
The Counts of Everstein
Troubled Times
War and Decline

Weidelsburg
The History of the Castle
The Architecture
The Castle After the Restoration

Castles in Lower Saxony

Adelebsen / Hardeg
The Keep of Adelebsen Castle
The Great Hall of Hardeg Castle

Hardenberg
Introduction

Plesse
Rise and Fall of the Counts of Winzenburg
The Lords of Plesse
Architecture / Decline and Rediscovery

Castles in the Solling
Salzderhelden - A Welfen Seat
Grubenhagen

Castles in Thuringia

Brandenburg
The Double Castle
Role of the Castle in Thuringian History

Castles in the Eichsfeld
Altenstein at the Werra
Castle Scharfenstein

Hanstein
Introduction
Otto of Northeim
Heinrich the Lion and Otto IV
The Next Generations

Normanstein
Introduction

Wartburg
A Virtual Tour

Castles at the Weser

Bramburg
River Reivers

Krukenburg
History and Architecture
Outbuilding 'Shepherd's Barn'

Polle
The Castle and its History

Sababurg / Trendelburg
Two Fairy Tale Castles

Churches and Cathedrals

Churches in the Harz

Palatine Seat and Monastery Pöhlde
The Church

Steinkirche near Scharzfeld
Development of the Cave Church

Walkenried Monastery
From Monastery to Museum

Churches in Lower Saxony

Königslutter
Exterior Decorations
Cloister

Wiebrechtshausen
Nunnery and Ducal Burial

Churches in Thuringia

Göllingen Monastery
Traces of Byzantine Architecture

Heiligenstadt
St.Martin's Church
St.Mary's Church

Churches at the Weser

Bursfelde Abbey
Early History

Fredelsloh Chapter Church
History and Architecture

Helmarshausen
Remains of the Monastery

Lippoldsberg Abbey
History
Interior

Vernawahlshausen
Mediaeval Murals

Churches in Rhineland-Palatinate

Lorsch Abbey
Lorsch, Gate Hall

Reconstructed Sites / Open Air Museums

Palatine Seat Tilleda
The Defenses

Viking Settlement Haithabu
Haithabu and the Archaeological Museum Schleswig
The Nydam Ship

Development of Civilization
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Miscellanea

Along Weser and Werra
Uslar - Pretty Old Houses
Treffurt - A Walk through the Town
Weser Ferry
Weser Skywalk

Powder and Steam
Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg


England

Towns

Chester
A Virtual Tour of the Town

Hexham
Old Gaol

York
Clifford Tower
Guild Hall
Monk Bar Gate and Richard III Museum
Museum Gardens
Old Town
Along the Ouse River

Castles

Castles in Cumbria

Carlisle
Introduction
Henry II and William of Scotland
The Edwards

Castles in Northumbria and Yorkshire

Alnwick
Malcolm III and the First Battle of Alnwick

Richmond
From the Conquest to King John
From Henry III to the Tudors

Scarborough
From the Romans to the Tudors
From the Civil War to the Present
The Architecture

Churches and Cathedrals

Hexham Abbey
Introduction

York Minster
Architecture


Scotland

Towns

Edinburgh
Views from the Castle

Stirling
The Wallace Monument

Castles

Central Scotland

Doune
A Virtual Tour
History: The Early Stewart Kings
History: Royal Dower House, and Decline

Stirling
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle

West Coast Castles

Dunollie and Kilchurn
Castles Seen from Afar

Duart
Guarding the Sound of Mull

Dunstaffnage
An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
The Wars of Independence
The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

Abbeys and Churches

Inchcolm Abbey
Arriving at Inchcolm

Other Historical Sites

Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort
Staffa

Pre-Historic Orkney
Ring of Brodgar - Introduction
Ring of Brodgar - The Neolithic Landscape
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae


Wales

Welsh Towns

Aberystwyth: Castle and Coast
Caerleon: The Ffwrwm
Conwy: The Smallest House in Great Britain

Castles

Edwardian Castles

Beaumaris
The Historical Context
The Architecture

Caernarfon
Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

Conwy
The History of the Castle
The Architecture

Norman Castles

Cardiff
History

Chepstow
History: Beginnings unto Bigod
History: From Edward II to the Tudors
History: Civil War, Restoration, and Aftermath

Manorbier
The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

Pembroke
Pembroke Pictures
The Caves Under the Castle

Welsh Castles

Criccieth
Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings


Scandinavia

Norway

Towns

Oslo
The Fram Museum in Oslo

Castles and Fortresses

Arkershus Fortress in Oslo
Introduction
Akershus at the Time of King Håkon V
Architectural Development

Vardøhus Fortress
Defending the North for Centuries

Sweden

Towns

Stockholm
The Vasa Museum

Historical Landscapes

Gotland
Gnisvärd Ship Setting


The Baltic States

Lithuania

Historical Landscapes

The Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit


Russia

The Splendour of St.Petersburg

Cathedrals
Isaac's Cathedral
Smolny Cathedral

The Neva
Impressions from the The Neva River


Poland and the Czech Republic

Czech Republic

Towns

Kutná Hora
The Sedlec Ossuary

Poland

Towns

Gdańsk / Danzig
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval and Renaissance Danzig

Wrocław / Breslau
The Wrocław Dwarfs


Belgium and Luxembourg

Belgium / Flanders

Towns

Antwerp
The Old Town

Bruges
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Bruges

Ghent
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Ghent

Tongeren
Roman and Mediaeval Remains

Luxembourg

Luxembourg City
A Virtual Tour of the Town


Other Places

Strasbourg / France
A Virtual Tour of the Town


- Germany
- United Kingdom
- Scandinavia
- Baltic Sea


Beautiful Germany

The Baltic Sea Coast
The Flensburg Firth
Rugia - Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
Rugia - Seaside Ressort Binz
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
Oderteich Reservoir
Rappbode Reservoir
Views from Harz mountains

Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Hessian Switzerland

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
The Hutewald Forest
The Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Thuringian Forests
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

Rivers and Lakes
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
River of the Greenest Shores - The Moselle
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut

Parks and Palaces
Botanical Garden Göttingen
Hardenberg Castle Gardens
Wilhelmsthal Palace and Gardens

Wildlife
Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life

Seasons

Spring
Spring at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Spring in the Rossbach Heath (Meissner)

Summer
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016

Autumn
Autumnal Views from Castle Windows
Autumn Photos from Harz and Werra
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser

Winter
Spectacular Sunset
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Winter Wonderland - Views from my Balcony


Across the Channel - United Kingdom

Mountains and Valleys
Sheep Grazing Among Roman Remains
West Highland Railway

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains - Inverness to John o'Groats
Some Photos from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull - Craignure to Fionnphort
Pentland Firth
Staffa
Summer Days in Oban
Summer Nights in Oban

Wild Wales - With Castles
Hazy Views with Castles
Shadows and Strongholds
Views from Castle Battlements

Wildlife
Sea Gulls


Land of Light and Darkness - Scandinavia

Norway

The Hurtigruten-Tour
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Wildlife
Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord


Shores of History - The Baltic Sea

Baltic Sea Cruise

Lithuania

Nida and the Curonian Spit
Beaches at the Curonian Spit




Historia
Geologia

Comblogium (Blog Roll)
Conexiones (Links)

Roman History
- Germania
- Britannia

Mediaeval History
- Germany
- England and Normandy
- Scotland
- Wales
- Scandinavia
- The Baltic States
- Poland
- Bohemia
- Flanders and Luxembourg

Other Times
Miscellanea


Roman History

Roman Militaria

Armour
Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapons
Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum
Daggers
Swords

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles

Life and Religion

Religion
The Mithras Cult
Isis Worship
Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots
Styli and Wax Tablets

Public Life
Roman Transport - Barges
Roman Transport - Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Miscellaneous
Legend of Alaric's Burial


Germania
(Including Gallia Belgica and Raetia)

Wars and Frontiers

Maps
Romans in Germania

Traces of the Pre-Varus Conquest
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn
Introduction

Along the Limes
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg

Rebellions
The Batavian Rebellion


Britannia

Roman Frontiers in Britain

The Hadrian's Wall
Introduction


Mediaeval History

Feudalism

The History of Feudalism
The Beginnings
Feudalism in the 10th Century

Essays about Specific Topics
The Privilege of the deditio
A Note on handgenginn maðr

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings

Essays about Specific Topics
Examples of Brick Architecture
Stockfish Trade

The Order of the Teutonic Knights

Wars and Battles
The Conquest of Danzig


Germany

Geneaologies

List of Mediaeval German Emperors

Geneaology
Anglo-German Marriage Connections
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors

Biographies

Kings and Emperors
King Heinrich IV
Emperor Otto IV, Introduction

Princes
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto of Northeim
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Famous Feuds

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War - Introduction
The Star Wars

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg


England and Normandy

From the Conquest to King John

Normans, Britons, and Angevins
The Dukes of Brittany and the Honour of Richmond

Contested Borders
King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots

From Henry III to the War of the Roses

Great Fiefs
The Earldom of Richmond and the Duchy of Brittany


Scotland

Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War (1)
King David and the Civil War (2)

Houses Bruce and Stewart
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle
The Early Stewart Kings

Scottish Nobles and their Quarrels

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding


Wales

Princes and Rebels

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

The Rebellions
From Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Scandinavia

Norway

Kings of Norway and their Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

Famous Nobles and their Feuds
Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


The Baltic States

Lithuania

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas


Poland

The Teutonic Knights in Poland
The Conquest of Danzig

The Jagiełłonian Kings

The Polish-Lithuanian Union
Forging the Union


Bohemia

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
(to come)


Flanders and Luxembourg

The Counts of Flanders
(to come)


Other Times

Neolithicum to Iron Age

Germany

European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Scandinavia and Orkney

Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Scandinavia
Ship Setting on Gotland

Post-Mediaeval History

Discoveries
Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

Explorers
Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

European Nobility
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus


Miscellanea

History in Literature and Music

History in Literature

Biographies of German Poets and Writers
Theodor Fontane

Historical Ballads by Theodor Fontane (my translation)
Archibald Douglas
Gorm Grymme
Sir Walter Scott in Abbotsford
The Tragedy of Afghanistan

My Novels in Progress
Roman Novels
The Saga of House Sichelstein
Kings and Rebels

History in Opera

Belcanto and Historicism
Maria Padilla - Mistress Royal
The Siege of Calais in Donizetti's Opera

Fun Stuff

Not So Serious Romans
Aelius Rufus Visits the Future Series
Building Hadrian's Wall
Playmobil Romans

Royal (Hi)Stories
Kings Having a Bad Hair Day
The Case of the Vanished Wine Cask

Historical Memes
Charlemagne meme
Historical Christmas Wishes
New Year Resolutions
Aelius Rufus does a Meme
Rules for Writing Scottish Romances

Funny Sights
Tourist Kitsch in St.Petersburg


Geological Landscapes

The Baltic Sea
Geology of the Curonian Spit
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

The Harz
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in the Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations

Solling-Vogler
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

The Shores of Scotland
Staffa

Palaeontology

Fossils
Ammonites


*********************

Links leading outside my blog will open in a new window. I do not take any responsibility for the content of linked sites.

History Blogs - Ancient

Roman History Today
Ancient Times (Mary Harrsch)
Following Hadrian (Carole Raddato)
Mike Anderson's Ancient History Blog
Mos Maiorum - Der römische Weg
Per Lineam Valli (M.C. Bishop)

Digging Up Fun Stuff
The Anglo-Saxon Archaeology Blog
Arkeologi i Nord
The Journal of Antiquities (Britain)
The Northern Antiquarian
The Roman Archaeology Blog

History Blogs - Mediaeval

Þaér wæs Hearpan Swég
Anglo Saxon, Norse & Celtic Blog
Casting Light upon the Shadow (A. Whitehead)
Norse and Viking Ramblings
Outtakes of a Historical Novelist (Kim Rendfeld)

Beholden Ye Aulde Blogges
A Clerk of Oxford
Daily Medieval
Historical Britain Blog (Mercedes Rochelle)
Magistra et Mater (Rachel Stone)
North Ages
Senchus (Tim Clarkson)
Viking Strathclyde (Tim Clarkson)

Royal and Other Troubles
Edward II (Kathryn Warner)
Henry the Young King (Kasia Ogrodnik)
Piers Gaveston (Anerje)
Lady Despenser's Scribery
Simon de Montfort (Darren Baker)
Weaving the Tapestry (Scottish Houses Dunkeld and Stewart)

A Mixed Bag of History
English Historical Fiction Authors
The Freelance History Writer (Susan Abernethy)
The History Blog
History, the Interesting Bits (S.B. Connolly)
Mediaeval Manuscripts Blog
Mediaeval News (Niall O'Brian)
Time Present and Time Past (Mark Patton)

Thoughts and Images

Reading and Reviews
Black Gate Blog
The Blog That Time Forgot (Al Harron)
Parmenion Books
The Wertzone

Imaginations
David Blixt
Ex Urbe (Ada Palmer)
Constance A. Brewer
Jenny Dolfen Illustrations
Wild and Wonderful (Caroline Gill)

German Blogs
Alte Steine
Anwolf
Meerblog

Highland Mountains
The Hazel Tree (Jo Woolf)
Helen in Wales
Mountains and Sea Scotland

The Colours of the World
Shutterbugs


Research

Archaeology
Past Horizons
Archaeology in Europe
Orkneyar

Roman History
Deutsche Limeskommission
Internet Ancient Sourcebook
Livius.org
Roman Army
Roman Britain
The Romans in Britain
Vindolanda Tablets

Mediaeval History
De Re Militari
Internet Mediaeval Sourcebook
Kulturzeit
The Labyrinth
Mediaeval Crusades
Medievalists.Net
Viking Society for Northern Research

Castles
Burgenarchiv
Burgerbe
Burgenwelt
Exploring Castles
The World of Castles

Miscellaneous History
Heritage Daily
The History Files

Mythology
Ancient History
Encyclopedia Mythica

Online Journals
Ancient Warfare
The Heroic Age
The History Files

Travel and Guide Sites

Germany - History
Antike Stätten in Deutschland
Burgenarchiv
Strasse der Romanik

Germany - Nature
HarzLife
Naturpark Meissner
Naturpark Solling-Vogler

England
English Heritage
Visit Northumberland

Scotland
The Chain Mail (Scottish History)
Historic Scotland
National Trust Scotland

Reiseblogs
Reisen & Fotografie (Tobias Hoiten)
fern & nah (Christian Oeser)

Books and Writing

Interesting Author Websites
Jacqueline Carey
Bernard Cornwell
Dorothy Dunnett (Dorothy Dunnett Society)
Steven Erikson
Diana Gabaldon
Guy Gavriel Kay
George R.R. Martin
Sharon Kay Penman
J.R.R. Tolkien (The Tolkien Society)
Tad Williams

Historical Fiction
Historical Novel Society
Historia Magazine

Writing Sites
Absolute Write
TheLitForum.com
National Novel Writing Month


*********************


05/2005 / 08/2005 / 09/2005 / 11/2005 / 12/2005 / 02/2006 / 03/2006 / 04/2006 / 05/2006 / 08/2006 / 09/2006 / 10/2006 / 11/2006 / 12/2006 / 01/2007 / 02/2007 / 03/2007 / 04/2007 / 05/2007 / 06/2007 / 07/2007 / 08/2007 / 09/2007 / 10/2007 / 11/2007 / 12/2007 / 01/2008 / 02/2008 / 03/2008 / 04/2008 / 05/2008 / 06/2008 / 07/2008 / 08/2008 / 09/2008 / 10/2008 / 11/2008 / 12/2008 / 01/2009 / 02/2009 / 03/2009 / 04/2009 / 05/2009 / 06/2009 / 07/2009 / 08/2009 / 09/2009 / 10/2009 / 11/2009 / 12/2009 / 01/2010 / 02/2010 / 03/2010 / 04/2010 / 05/2010 / 06/2010 / 07/2010 / 08/2010 / 09/2010 / 10/2010 / 11/2010 / 12/2010 / 01/2011 / 02/2011 / 03/2011 / 04/2011 / 05/2011 / 06/2011 / 07/2011 / 08/2011 / 09/2011 / 10/2011 / 11/2011 / 12/2011 / 01/2012 / 02/2012 / 03/2012 / 04/2012 / 05/2012 / 06/2012 / 07/2012 / 08/2012 / 09/2012 / 10/2012 / 11/2012 / 12/2012 / 01/2013 / 02/2013 / 03/2013 / 04/2013 / 05/2013 / 06/2013 / 07/2013 / 08/2013 / 09/2013 / 10/2013 / 11/2013 / 12/2013 / 01/2014 / 02/2014 / 03/2014 / 04/2014 / 05/2014 / 06/2014 / 07/2014 / 08/2014 / 09/2014 / 10/2014 / 11/2014 / 12/2014 / 01/2015 / 02/2015 / 03/2015 / 04/2015 / 05/2015 / 06/2015 / 07/2015 / 08/2015 / 09/2015 / 10/2015 / 11/2015 / 12/2015 / 01/2016 / 02/2016 / 03/2016 / 04/2016 / 05/2016 / 06/2016 / 07/2016 / 08/2016 / 09/2016 / 10/2016 / 11/2016 / 12/2016 / 01/2017 / 02/2017 / 03/2017 / 04/2017 / 05/2017 / 06/2017 / 07/2017 / 08/2017 / 09/2017 / 10/2017 / 11/2017 / 12/2017 / 01/2018 / 02/2018 / 03/2018 / 04/2018 / 05/2018 / 06/2018 / 07/2018 / 08/2018 / 09/2018 / 10/2018 / 11/2018 / 12/2018 / 02/2019 / 03/2019 / 04/2019 / 05/2019 /


Powered by Blogger