The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times


21 Jul 2019
  Pretty Porvoo - A Mediaeval Town in Finland

I'm not only collecting new travel destinations and lots of photos, I still have an archive full of material from former tours. So here's one of the places I've visited during my Baltic Sea Cruise in 2012: Porvoo in Finland.

The old town with its 550 buildings is a treasure of old timbered houses in bright colours, and cobblestone lanes, plus a fine stone and brick church. Come and walk along with me a bit.

Cute timber houses

Porvoo (also known by its Swedish name Borgå) lies some 50 kilometres east of Helsinki. The layout of the old town dates to the Middle Ages, but Porvoo suffered from several severe fires, most of them due to wars, so most ot the houses date to the 1760ies. But the inhabitants stubbornly erected them on the same sites and pretty much to the same design several times over.

Porvoo was lucky to escape a Town Makeover, since the magistrate - after popular resistance to the new urban plans in the 19th century - decided to set up a new town on the other side of the river instead of destroying the old houses and replacing them with higher buildings to create more accomodation space.

Another lane with timber houses

Porvoo is connected to Gulf of Finland and the Baltic Sea by the river Porvoonjoki which had been a trade route already for the Iron Age tribe of the Tavastians, who still were around in the Middle Ages. Since they remained pagan, the Catholic Church and Birger Jarl, the regent of Sweden, lauchned a crusade and defeated them in 1250ies. Afterwards, the area was colonised by German and Swedish craftsmen and merchants; their main settlement was called Saksala.

Old warehouses at the harbour

The settlement got the rights of a town in 1346 by the Swedish king Magnus IV Eriksson, making Porvoo the second oldest town in Finland.

Other sources have 1380, but it makes sense to agree with the date of King Magnus' reign, since it would fit with the peace of Nöteborg (1339), where Magnus and the Grand Prince of Moscow divided their spheres of influence in Finland. Magnus may have been interested in enhancing the importance of the harbour and market place Saksala / Porvoo that way.

Houses at the harbour

The red warehouses at the river are an iconic sight of Porvoo. The current ones are about 300 years old, but there had been storage houses at the harbour before. The red ochre paint was added in the 18th century to honour the visit of King Gustav III of Sweden.

The red paint not only makes the houses look more pretty, it also prevents the timber from damage by water and sun. Today, most of the buildings host shops and restaurants. More houses that follow the old pattern have been added.

Houses at the market square

King Gustav Vasa of Sweden started his own town project with the foundation of Helsinki (Helsingfors) in 1550. To get rid of the competition, he ordered the citizens of Porvoo to move to the new town. He also introduced the Lutheran Church in Sweden.

The decline of Porvoo lasted only a short time. Gustav Vasa's successor Johan III reestablished the town privileges of Porvoo in 1579 (1). A little historical connection for you: Johan was married to Katarzyna (Catherine) Jagiełłonica of the Polish-Lithuanian ruling family; their son Sigismund would eventually inherit both thrones, until he was deposed from the Swedish throne by his uncle Karl XI in 1604.

The town hall

Finland remained a zone of contest of influence between Sweden and Russia. Porvoo was more than once involved in the frequent Russo-Swedish wars (2). During the war at the end of the 16th century, the town was twice burned by the Russian army.

Porvoo was again destroyed in 1708 during the Great Northern War. But even without war, Porvoo met with destruction during the great fire of 1760. The town was rebuilt on its Mediaeval foundations once again.

Another lovely house

Finland was finally conquered by Russia in the early 19th century, and annexed to Russia as an autonomous grand duchy with its own constitution. And it was in Porvoo, not Helsinki, where the defining diet was held in 1809. Tsar Alexander I visited the town and confirmed the new Finnish constitution - which was basically the Swedish one from 1772.

The cathedral of Porvoo

One of the central meeting places of the diet was the cathedral of Porvoo. It stands on top of the hill around which the town clutters. Its oldest parts date to 1410, replacing an elder timber construction. The building was expanded in the mid -15th century.

The church was victim of war and fire more than once, much like the town, which may explain the mix of stone and bricks that have been used for its construction. Last time a fire broke out was in 2006; the timber roof was destroyed, though the stone and brick parts survived mostly intact.

Detail of the gable decorations

The church may have been built by the anonymous German 'Pernjanan mestari' who also constructed several other churches in Finland following the same pattern. The outstanding feature of the church in Porvoo is its separate belfry (those are commonly found in Flanders, but not in Germany and Scandinavia).

Interestingly, the cathedral is still dedicated to Mary, something you would more likely expect for a Catholic church.

The belfry

The charming little church was elevated to cathedral when the Protestant episcopal see was moved from Vyborg (Swedish: Viborg) to Porvoo in 1721. At that time, Porvoo was the second largest city in Finland.

Vyborg had been in Swedish hands, but was conquered by Tsar Peter the Great during the Great Northern War in 1710. Today, the town belongs to the Leningrad Oblast in Russia, after it had been recaptured from Finland during WW2.

Cathedral, interior

Porvoo / Borgå is the episcopal see of the Swedish speaking communities in Finland as well as the German-Lutherian parish in Helsinki since 1923. In 1992, the Porvoo Common Statement was issued and celebrated in the cathedral. It is an inter-church agreement of a non-institutional community of four Anglican and eight Nordic and Baltic-Lutheran churches to work together.

Lane with small houses and tourists

Footnotes
1) Johann was a son of Gustav Vasa by his second wife and succeeded his half-brother Erik XIV in 1568, after the latter had been deposed due to madness.
2) A list of the wars can be found on Wikipedia.
 


7 Jul 2019
  Richmond Castle - Later History of the Castle and its Architecture

I've detailed the history of Richmond Castle in the context of the Honour of Richmond in two posts (here and here). But with some more photos and information left, there is material for a final post about the castle.

The later history of the castle is less glamorous, but Richmond is among the places that gained interest as picturesque tourist sites since J.M.W. Turner and other artists painted the ruins in the 18th and 19th century. It still looks quite picturesque today.

View from the cockpit garden to the castle

The castle was derelict in 1538. The third duke of Richmond carried out some repairs to the keep in the 1760ies. One of his successors leased the castle out to the army. They gave it to the New York Militia in 1855, who used it as their headquarters and built a barrack block against the western curtain wall. The keep was used as depot and another building set up beside the gate (that one still exists today).

Military use continued when the castle became the headquarters of the Northern Territorial Army in 1908 under the command of Robert Baden-Powell who later founded the Boy Scouts.

Richmond Castle, curtain walls from the outside

During WW1, the castle served as base for a Non-Combatant Corps. Those were made up of conscientious objectors, conscripts who would not fight but contributed to the war in non-combat roles. They lived in camps under miliary discipline.

Some of those went even further and refused to be involved in any work connected with the war due to their belief. Sixteen of those were detained at Richmond in the building at the gate which formerly had serverd as armoury for the militia and was now changed into prison cells. They were sent to France in May 1916, charged under Field Regulations and condemned to death, but the sentence was commuted to then years hard labour.

The Victorian barrack block at the western curtain wall was demonlished in 1931. The roof of the keep was used as watch post during WW2, and the cells held prisoners of war.

Curtain walls, different angle

The castle was given into the care of English Heritage in 1984. I was there on a dreary day with few other visitors around. Despite the grey sky, it proved a fine addition to my 'castle collection'.

Domestic range along the curtain walls

Richmond Castle is situated above a cliff lining the valley of the river Swale. Most of the 11th century curtain walls have survived. Considerable ruins also remain of the buildings lining the curtain walls. That makes Richmond Castle one of the best preserved examples of Norman buildings in Britain.

On the battlements (to the left is the curtain wall of the Cockpit Garden)

There had been a barbican and outer bailey in front of the main gate, but nothing remains of it. Another bailey overlooking the river on the other side of the caste is known as Cockpit Garden. Parts of its wall are almost intact. Today the place has been styled as Baroque garden, and it may have been used as garden already in the Middle Ages, providing the castle with vegetables and herbs. A door leading to it from the solar of Scolland's Hall could also point at the use of the garden as pleasure ground.

The keep (with the 19th century barrack to the right)

The most outstanding feature of Richmond Castle is the keep. Instead of the motte-and-bailey type which also is a Norman pattern, the keep of Richmond is a square keep (like Carlise or Bamburgh). It is topped by four square turrets. Three windows overlook the market place. They might have given access to a balcony where Duke Conan and his successors could have made public appearances.

The keep seen from outside the castle (with the three windows)

The keep has been altered several times during the period when the castle was in use, but the main Norman features remain intact.

The first entrance to the castle was an arched gateway from the 11th century. Duke Conan built the keep over of it in the mid-12th century, and incorporated the gateway into the basement of the keep. You can see the different stones - Conan's masons used well-squared stones, while the older parts of the walls are made of mortared ashlar.

Basement of the keep

The next king to alter the keep was Edward I who liked a bit more luxury. He inserted a vault in the basement and a spiral staircase to connect the floors.

Today, the roof and floors have been restored and the keep stands to its originally 30 metres (100 feet).

The keep, interior of the first floor

The 11th century great hall, known as Scolland's Hall after a constable of the castle, is one of the most important examples of Norman domestic architecture in England. It is a two storey building with a great hall and solar on the first floor, and an undercroft that may have served as storage rooms. You can still see the sockets that supported the beams for the timber floor.

Scolland's Hall

The hall could be reached from the outside by a set of stairs (which has collaped long since). The solar had a fireplace and a balcony overlooking the Cockpit Garden, as well as a small staircase leading down to it. One of the windows of the great hall was later changed into a door leading to the adjacent buildings.

The hall must have suffered from a fire at some time. Alterations, especially in the windows and the dais in the great hall, in front of the solar, have been made in the 13h century. The Gold Hole Tower was probably built at the same time as additional protection of Scolland's Hall.

Remains of the domestic buildings, interior

A great hall and a solar did not offer enough living space for the lord and his family and guests, of course. A set of domestic buildings with a chapel and several chambers have been set up against the eastern and southern curtain walls in the 12th and 13th centuries. Together with Scolland's Hall, the domestic range forms the shape of an L.

Again, the more comfortable and the representative rooms are situated in the first floor, including a great chamber and a chapel which was likely used by the lord and his family, or the king when he visited. The lower storey was taken up by the kitchen, buttery and pantry.

Curtain walls with Robin Hood Tower

Three square towers once lined the eastern curtain wall. The southern one of those, Gold Hole Tower, still remains to its original height. The middle tower has collapsed, but of the northern Robin Hood Tower, considerable ruins are left, including a chapel dedicated to St.Nicholas in the lower floor (which had been closed when I visited). Its lower part dates to the 11th century, but two additional storeys were added later, likely during King Edward I's improvements of the castle.
 




The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, the Baltic Countries, and central Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.


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I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History, interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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Historical Places

Germany

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Historical Town and Graduation Tower
Bruchteiche Reservoir

Binz
A Seaside Resort

Braunschweig
Lion Benches in the Castle Square
The Quadriga

Erfurt
Mediaeval Erfurt

Goslar
Mediaeval Goslar
Chapel in the Klus Rock

Heiligenstadt
Churches St.Martin and St.Mary

Lübeck
St. Mary's Church

Magdeburg
Church of Our Lady: History

Mainz
The Temple of Isis and Mater Magna

Paderborn
Mediaeval Paderborn

Quedlinburg
Mediaeval Quedlinburg
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Speyer
The Cathedral: Architecture
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Stralsund
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Treffurt
Mediaeval Lanes and Old Houses

Trier
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Weimar
Sites of the Weimar Classicism
The Park at the Ilm

Wismar
The Old Harbour

Xanten
Roman and Mediaeval Xanten
The Gothic House

Castles

Adelebsen
The Keep

Altenstein (Werra)
A Border Castle

Bramburg
Weser River Reivers

Brandenburg (Thuringia)
The Beginnings
Albrecht II of Thuringia

Coburg Fortress
History
Architecture

Ebersburg
The Marshals of Ebersburg
Architecture

Grebenstein
History

Grubenhagen
History of the Keep

Hanstein
Introduction

Hardeg Castle
The Great Hall

Hardenberg
History

Heldenburg (Salzderhelden)
A Welfen Seat

Hohnstein (Harz)
The Counts of Hohnstein
Between Welfen and Staufen
14th-15th Century

Krukenburg
Built to Protect a Chapel

Kugelsburg
The Counts of Everstein
Later Times

Plesse
The Counts of Winzenburg
The Lords of Plesse
Architecture

Polle Castle
An Everstein Stronghold

Regenstein
History

Reichenbach (Hessia)
History

Sababurg
Photo Impressions

Scharfenstein
From Castle to Convention Centre

Scharzfels
History
Architecture

Sichelnstein
History

Stauffenburg (Harz)
A Secret Mistress

Stapelburg
A Little Known Ruin in the Harz

Trendelburg
Photo Impressions

Wartburg
A Virtual Tour

Weidelsburg
History
Architecture
Revisiting the Weidelsburg

Abbeys and Churches

Bursfelde
Early History of the Abbey

Fredelsloh
A Romanesque Basilica

Gehrden
A Romanesque Church

Göllingen
The Byzantine Crypt

Hahnenklee
The Stave Church

Helmarshausen
Remains of the Monastery

Lippoldsberg
Early History of the Abbey
Interior of the Church

Lorsch
The Carolingian Gate Hall

Pöhlde
Remains of the Monastery

Scharzfeld (Harz)
The Cave Church

Vernawahlshausen
Mediaeval Murals

Walkenried
The Monastery - Introduction

Wiebrechtshausen
Romanesque Church and a Ducal Burial

Wilhelmshausen (Kassel)
The Romanesque Church

Roman Remains

Augusta Treverorum / Trier
The Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths
The Porta Nigra
The Roman Bridge

Colonia Ulpia Traiana / Xanten
Roman Xanten
The Amphitheatre in Birten

Limes Fort Aalen
The Barracks

Limes Fort Osterburken
The Discovery
The Cohort castellum
The Annex Fort
The Garrisons

Limes Fort Saalburg
A Reconstructed Limes Fort
Shrine of the Standards

Romans in North Rhine-Westphalia
Playmobil Romans, LWL Museum Haltern
Varus Statue, Haltern am See

Romans at the Moselle
The Villa Urbana in Longuich

Romans at the Rhine
Boppard - The Roman Baudobriga
The Villa at Wachenheim

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Neolithic Burials
Neolithic Burials in the Everstorf Forest and Rugia
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age
Bronze and Iron Age Remains at the Werra

Museums / Reconstructed Sites

Palatine Seat Tilleda
The Defenses

Viking Settlement Haithabu
The Nydam Ship

Open Air Museums
European Bread Museum Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Post-Mediaeval Exhibits
Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg


England

Towns

Chester
Roman and Medieaval Chester

Hexham
The Abbey - Introduction
The Old Gaol

York
Clifford Tower
The Guild Hall
Monk Bar Gate with Richard III Museum
Museum Gardens
Houses in the Old Town
York Minster: Architecture

Castles

Carlisle
History

Richmond
Conquest to King John
Henry III to the Tudors
Architecture

Scarborough
Romans to the Tudors
Civil War to the Present
Architecture

Roman Remains

Eboracum / York
Roman Bath in the Fortress

Wall Fort Birdoswald
The Dark Age Timber Halls

Wall Fort Segedunum
Museum and Viewing Tower
The Baths

Other Roman Sites
The Mithraeum at Brocolita
The Signal Station at Scarborough


Scotland

Towns

Edinburgh
Views from the Castle

Stirling
The Wallace Monument

Castles

Doune
A Virtual Tour
History: The Early Stewart Kings
History: Royal Dower House

Duart Castle
Guarding the Sound of Mull

Dunstaffnage
An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
The Wars of Independence
The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

Stirling
Robert the Bruce

Abbeys and Churches

Inchcolm
Arriving at Inchcolm Abbey

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Neolithic Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae

Brochs and Cairns
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Introduction

Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort
Staffa


Wales

Towns

Aberystwyth
Castle and Coast

Caerleon
The Ffwrwm
The Roman Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort

Conwy
The Smallest House in Great Britain

Castles

Beaumaris
History
Architecture

Caernarfon
Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

Cardiff
From Romans to Victorians

Chepstow
Beginnings unto Bigod
Edward II to the Tudors
Civil War

Conwy
History
Architecture

Criccieth
Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings

Manorbier
The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

Pembroke
Photo Impressions
The Caves Under the Castle

Roman Remains

Isca Silurum / Caerleon
The Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort


Norway

Castles and Fortresses

Akershus Fortress in Oslo
Kings and Pirates
The Time of King Håkon V
Architecture

Vardøhus Fortress
History

Museums

The Fram Museum in Oslo


Denmark

Museums

Viking Museum Roskilde
To come


Sweden

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Gotland
Gnisvärd Ship Setting

Museums

The Vasa Museum in Stockholm


Finland

Towns

Porvoo
Mediaeval Porvoo


Estonia

Towns

Tallinn
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Latvia

Towns

Riga
The History of Mediaeval Riga


Lithuania

Towns

To come


Poland

Towns

Gdańsk / Danzig
History of Mediaeval Gdańsk
Mediaeval and Renaissance Gdańsk

Kraków
The Old Town
Jewish Kraków - Kazimierz and the Ghetto

Wrocław / Breslau
The Botanical Garden
The Wrocław Dwarfs

Castles

Ogrodzieniec Castle
A Virtual Tour
First Castle to the Boner Family


Czechia

Towns

Cheb / Eger
The Old Town

Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
Brief History of the Town

Kutná Hora
The Sedlec Ossuary
The Medieaval Town and St.Barbara's Church


Belgium

Towns

Antwerp
The Old Town

Bruges
Mediaeval Bruges

Ghent
Mediaeval Ghent

Tongeren
Mediaeval Buildings

Roman Remains

Atuatuca Tungrorum / Tongeren
Roman Remains in the Town


Luxembourg

Towns

Luxembourg City
A Tour of the Town


City Trips

St.Petersburg (Russia)
Impressions from the Neva River

Strasbourg (France)
A Tour of the Town


Hiking Tours and Cruises

Germany

Baltic Sea Coast
Flensburg Firth
Rugia: Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
Rugia: Photo Impressions
Rugia: The Pier of Sellin
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

Lüneburg Heath
Hiking Tours in the Lüneburg Heath

Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Devil's Wall
Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
Oderteich Reservoir
Rappbode Reservoir
Views from Harz mountains

Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Bruchteiche / Bad Sooden Allendorf
Hessian Switzerland

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
The Forest Pasture Project
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Nature Park Reinhardswald
Old Forest at the Sababurg

Thuringian Forests
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

Rivers and Lakes
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut
Weser River Ferry
Weser Skywalk

Wildlife
Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life
Red squirrels

Seasons
Spring Impressions from Göttingen
Spring in the Hardenberg Castle Gardens
Spring in the Meissner
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake


United Kingdom

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains: Inverness to John o'Groats
Impressions from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull: Craignure to Fionnphort
Dunollie and Kilchurn: Photo Impressions
Pentland Firth
Staffa
Summer in Oban

Scotland by Train
West Highland Railway

Wales
Views of Snowdownia

Wildlife
Sea Gulls


Scandinavia

Coast of Norway: Hurtigruten-Tour
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Wildlife
Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord


The Baltic Sea

A Baltic Sea Cruise

The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
Beaches at the Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit



Mediaeval History

General Essays

by Country
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Livonia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Bohemia
- Luxembourg
- Flanders

Roman History

The Romans at War
Famous Romans
Roman Life and Religion

Other Times

Neolithicum to Iron Age
Post-Mediaeval History
History and Literature
Geology


Mediaeval History

General Essays

Mediaeval Warfare

Sieges
Trebuchets

Weapons
Late Mediaeval Swords

Mediaeval Art and Craft

Mediaeval Art
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
The Hunting Frieze in Königslutter Cathedral
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Craftmanship
Goldsmithery
Medical Instruments

Feudalism

The History of Feudalism
The Beginnings
Feudalism in the 10th Century

Special Cases
The privilege of the deditio

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings

Hanseatic Architecture
Examples of Brick Architecture
Hall Houses (Dielenhäuser)

Goods and Trade
Stockfish Trade

Towns of the Hanseatic League
Riga
Stralsund
Tallinn / Reval

The Order of the Teutonic Knights

Wars and Battles
The Conquest of Danzig
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

The Vikings

Viking Material Culture
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Viking Ships
The Nydam Ship


Essays by Country

Germany

Geneaology

List of Mediaeval German Emperors
Anglo-German Marriage Connections

Kings and Emperors

The Salian Dynasty
King Heinrich IV

Staufen against Welfen
Emperor Otto IV

Princes and Lords

House Welfen
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen

The Landgraves of Thuringia
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

Dukes and Princes of other Families
Duke Otto of Northeim
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Feuds and Rebellions

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War
The Star Wars


England

Kings of England

House Plantagenet
Richard Lionheart in Speyer
King Henry IV's Lithuanian Crusade

Normans, Britons, Angevins

Great Noble Houses
The Dukes of Brittany
The Earls of Richmond

Contested Borders

Northumbria
King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


Scotland

Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War, Part 1
King David and the Civil War, Part 2

Houses Bruce and Stewart
The Early Stewart Kings

Local Troubles

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding

Scotland and England

The Wars of Independence
Alexander of Argyll
The Fight for Stirling Castle


Wales

Welsh Princes

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

Wales and England

A History of Rebellion
Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Denmark

Kings of Denmark

House of Knýtlinga
Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

The Duchy of Estonia
Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


Norway

Kings of Norway

Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

Feuds and Rebellions

Rebels
Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Sweden

Troubles and Alliances

Scandinavian Unity
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union


Livonia
(Latvia and Estonia)

Contested Territories

Livonian Towns
The History of Mediaeval Riga
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Lithuania

Lithuanian Princes

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas

The Northern Crusades

The Wars in Lithuania
The Siege of Vilnius 1390


Poland

Royal Dynasties

The Jagiełłonian Kings
Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union

The Northern Crusades

The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
The Conquest of Danzig


Bohemia

Royal Dynasties

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
King Sigismund and the Hussite Wars


Luxembourg

House Luxembourg
King Sigismund


Flanders

More to come


Roman History

The Romans at War

Forts and Fortifications

The German Limes
The Cavalry Fort Aalen
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg

The Hadrian's Wall
Introduction
The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend

Border Life
Exercise Halls
Mile Castles and Watch Towers
Soldiers' Living Quarters
Cavalry Barracks

Campaigns and Battles

Maps
The Romans in Germania

The Pre-Varus Invasion in Germania
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn
Introduction

The Batavian Rebellion
A Short Introduction

Roman Militaria

Armour
Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapons
Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum
Daggers
Swords

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles


Famous Romans

The Late Empire

Alaric
The Legend of Alaric's Burial


Roman Life and Religion

Religion and Public Life

Religion
Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms
Isis Worship
Memorial Stones
The Mithras Cult

Public Life
Roman Transport: Barges
Roman Transport: Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Architecture
Roman Public Baths

Domestic Life

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots


Other Times

Neolithicum to Iron Age

Germany

Development of Civilisation
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
The Hutewald Project in the Solling
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Neolithic Remains
Stone Burials of the Funnelbeaker Culture
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age / Iron Age
The Nydam Ship

Scotland

Neolithic Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Bronze Age / Iron Age
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Their Function in Iron Age Society

Scandinavia

Bronze / Iron Age
The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd / Gotland


Post-Mediaeval History

Explorers and Discoveries

Explorers
Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

Discoveries
Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)


History and Literature

Germany

The Weimar Classicism
Introduction


Geology

Geological Landscapes: Germany

Baltic Sea Coast
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

Harz Mountains
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs
Sandstone Formations: Daneil's Cave
Sandstone Formations: Devil's Wall
Sandstone Formations: The Klus Rock

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations
Salt Springs at the Werra

Solling-Vogler
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

Geological Landscapes: Great Britain

The Shores of Scotland
Staffa

Geological Landscapes: Baltic Sea

Lithuania
Geology of the Curonian Spit

Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

Fossilized Ammonites
The Loket Meteorite (Czechia)



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