The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times


2 Mar 2020
  A Virtual Tour through Kraków’s Old Town

It was Palm Sunday when I visited Kraków, an important day for Catholics in Poland, and the weather was fine to boot, so the town was rather crowded, not only with - mostly Polish - tourists, but with pretty much all inhabitants of the city and surroundings. Many women and children were carrying bouquets made of evergreen and spring flowers. The festive atmosphere was a nice addition to my visit.

Kraków, Easter market on the Market Square, seen from the balcony of the Cloth Merchants' Hall (St.Mary's Basilica in the background)

Since there were services and prayers going on all day, I didn't have a chance to seen any of the churches from the inside, but I didn't mind ‒ I got plenty of church photos in my collection. There was much else to see, after all. So let me give you a virtual walk through Krakow’s Old Town, the Stare Miasto.

Kraków, outer walls of Wawel Castle in the evening sun

The two defining features of the old town are the Wawel Castle and the Rynek Głowny, the Great Market with the Cloth Merchants’ Hall. A main street (today Ulica Grodska and Ulica Flórianska) runs all the way from the castle at the Vistula across the market and to the Florian’s Gate. Royal progressions once took that way from the gate to the castle, like they did in Gdańsk.

The Ulica Grodzka

Kraków has been the centre of Poland from the time the Piast king Kazimierz I moved his seat from Gniezno to Kraków in 1038 until 1596, when King Sigismund (Zygmunt) III Vasa relocated the court to Warsaw. It is still the second largest city in Poland and the one most dear to the Polish people. The Old Town was declared an UNESCO World Heritage in 1978. Architectural styles represented in the old town include Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque.

View from the town wall to the Ulica Flórianska

The Wawel Castle had been the main seat of the Kings of Poland for centuries and thus has been altered and enlarged several times, now including buildings from the Gothic to the Baroque. The inner yards are open to the public, but access to the rooms is limited to 30 people per hour, so it is a bit tricky to get tickets for the tour. Since photographing is not allowed inside, I skipped the Flemish tapestries and pretty furniture.

The Wawel, outer bailey with foundations of older buildings in the foreground and the cathedral in the background

There had been a settlement on the limestone hill at the Vistula river since prehistoric times. A Romanesque stone hall was built in the 11th century; though there may have been wooden structures predating it. The first castle and the town were destroyed during the Mongol invasion 1241, but both were rebuilt immediately. Some foundations have been discovered under newer buildings and in the outer bailey.

Wawel Castle, the Thieves' Tower

The upper castle, consisting of the main hall, the Wawel Church and other buildings, was expanded during the times of our friend Władysław Jagiełło, and Casimir the Great (who also built Ogrodzieniec Castle) in the Gothic style. Władysław Jagiełło added a Gothic pavillion to the main castle that came to be known as Danish Tower.

The Danish Tower

Casimir wanted a castle befitting a king that also offered space for a retinue and administrational staff. He also added buildings to the lower castle on the western part of the hill, like the Thieves' Tower and the Sandomierska Tower as part of the curtain walls. The Sandomierska Tower was the first artillery tower of the castle.

Sandomierska Tower

An outstanding part of the castle complex, and of great historical significance, is the 'Royal Archcathedral Basilica of St. Stanislaus and St.Wenceslaus', short Wawel Cathedral. The present building is a Gothic church dating to the 14th century, with some later additions like some Baroque chapels. The cathedral served as coronation site of Polish monarchs and is still a national sanctuary.

The Wawel Cathedral

The Wawel did not undergo any further significant changes until the great fire in 1499. After part of the castle was destroyed, King Alexander I (1501-1506) and his brother Sigismund (1506-1548) who was married to the Italian heiress Bona Sforza, had the main hall and ajacent houses rebuilt in the Renaissance style as a complex around an inner yard. They called in architects from Germany and Italy. The entire complex was finished in the 1550ies and remains almost unaltered. The rooms were furbished with Flemish tapestries some of which survived until today.

Arcades in the inner yard of the Renaissance wing

The Wawel lost its political importance after the court was moved to Warsaw. The representative halls and chambers and the cathedral were still used for weddings and coronations, though. Fires and plundering armies caused significant damage in the 18th and 19th centuries (the worst were the Austrians who turned the castle in to barracks; they occupied the Wawel several times between 1846 and 1905). Afterwards, the Wawel has been repaired and restored, a work that is still going on.

St.Peter and Paul Cathedral

When you leave the Wawel to make your way to the old town and the market square, you'll pass this pretty Baroque church, the St. Peter and Paul Cathedral. It is probably the first Baroque building in Poland. King Sigismund (Zygmunt) III Vasa, despite moving the government from Kraków to Warsaw, still wanted the Kraków to be a representative sight, and Baroque architecture was the latest fashion you could get at the time. The church was consecrated in 1635.

St.Andrew's Church

Not far from St.Peter and Paul is another church, St.Andrew. That one is the oldest surviving church in Kraków and one of the best preserved Romanesque buildings in Poland, dating to the 1090ies. It escaped the destruction of the Mongol raids in 1241, likely due to the fact that it was a fortress church with thick walls and small archery slits in the ground floor. The Baroque interior and the domes on the towers of the westwork have been added in 1639.

Kraków, Cloth Hall and belfry (left)

The town of Kraków was first mentioned in a document in 965. It already must have been a place worth holding. The town belonged to the territory of the Bohemian state until King Mieszko I incorporated Kraków into the budding Polish realm by defeating the Bohemians prior to his marriage with the Bohemian princess Dobrawa in 965. Mieszko was the first Christian ruler of Poland and by his connections to Christian Bohemia brought Poland into the sphere of western Christianity.

Houses at the market square

Kraków became the seat of the Polish kings / grand dukes in 1038. The town had turned into a centre of trade by the end of the 10th century. The setback caused by the Mongol invasion did not last long; the town was rebuilt immediately. It received the Magdeburg Law in 1257 by the grand duke Bolesław V the Chaste.

Kraków looked different than today; the Vistula river was divided into several arms and there may have been some man-made canals as well. One of those was running between the Wawel and the Market Square, adding to the defenses of both.

Cloth Merchants' Hall

One of the symbols of Kraków's prosperity is the Cloth Merchants' Hall. The first hall was built by the instigation of King Casimir the Great. Among the wares traded there was fine cloth from Flanders and England which gave the hall its name. The hall basically was a row of connected stores separated by a small, roofed lane. The Gothic building was destroyed by a fire in 1555 and rebuilt in the Renaissance style, with a barrel vault and a circumferential attic with arcades. A passageway was added in the middle of the long building in 1601, to ease access. Unfortunately, it was impossible to get a photo of the entire hall due to the Easter Market in front of it.

Arcades in the courtyard of the Collegium Maius of the university

Kraków has the second oldest university in central Europe (after Prague). It was founded by King Casimir the Great in 1364. He realised that the country needed an educated elite outside the church and obtained the permission to establish a university from Pope Urban V. The project stalled after his death, but was taken up again by Władysław Jagiełło and his wife Jadwiga. The early 15th century collegium maius with its arcaded courtyard is the oldest surviving part of the Jagiełłonian University and a fine example of late Gothic architecture on the verge to the Renaissance.

The Market Square at the back of the Cloth Merchants' Hall ‒
the quieter side since there was no Easter Market

The town continued to prosper under the Polish-Lithuanian Jagiełłonian dynasty; the 15th and 16th were considered Kraków's Golden Age. The town became a member of the Hanseatic League which further promoted trade. Renaissance arts and architecture bloomed, and the university attracted scholars from all over Europe.

Stephan's Square

With the death of the last Jagiełłonian king, Sigismund II, a time of elected kings, mostly of foreign origins with but vague connections to Poland, began. Not all of them were good picks. Wealth and importance of Kraków declined, furthered by an outbreak of bubonic plague.

In 1596, King Sigismund III Vasa moved the capital to Warsaw, though his interest in Baroque architecture left its traces; especially in the interior decoration of the churches but also in some buildings like St.Peter and Paul (see above).

Florian's Gate

After the Mongol invasion in 1241, the city was surrounded by defensive walls, and the next raid in 1287 successfully defeated. Over the next two hundred years, the town walls were expanded to 3 km, with 46 towers and eight gates. The part around the Florian's Gate is the only surviving piece of those curtain walls.

On the remaining town wall

The Florian's Gate was built in the late 13th century, probably commissioned by the High Duke Leszek the Black in 1285. It is made of local limestone in the early Gothic style and the only gate and tower to have survived intact until today. In the Middle Ages, it was the main entrance to the town. The gate tower is 33 metres high; the Baroque helmet was added in 1660.

The Barbican

Not far from the Florian's Gate, outside the former town walls, is the Barbican (Barbakan) that once served as additional defense . The barbican is made of brick on a limestone foundation; built in the late Gothic style in 1498. Only three such outposts remain in Europe and the one in Kraków is the best preserved. The barbican was originally connected to the Florian's Gate by a covered bridge across the moat.

Interior of the Barbican

Not many people purchased a ticket for the tour of their interior of the barbican, so I had some quiet moments doing one of my favourite things: photographing Mediaeval military architechture. *grin*

Kraków, view from the Barbican to the Florian's Gate

The Barbican is a circular tower of four storyes, with an open interior which has a diametre of 25 metres. The walls are 3 metres thick at the base and about 0.5 metres in the upper part. The building was further protected by a moat of its own (some of it remains). The barbican has an rectangular exterior gate at the outside facing wall, the Kleparz Gate.

The Plánty, the former town wall and moat

They town walls had become useless as defense against modern weapons, so the Austrian Emperor Franz I – Kraków belonged to Austria after the third partition of Poland in 1795 – ordered most of the town walls to be dismantled in 1810, and the moats to be filled in. The space was turned into a park which now surrounds the Old Town of Kraków. A very pretty place on a sunny April Sunday.

Grunwald Memorial on the Matejko Square

If you walk out of the perimetre of the old town to the Matejko Square near the Barbican, you will come across a momument celebrating the victory of the allied armies of Władysław Jagiełło of Poland and his cousin Vytautas, grand duke of Lithuania, over the host of the Teutonic Knights at the Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg) in 1410. The memorial was unveiled in 1910. The monument was destroyed by the Germans in 1939, but recrafted after WW2.

Sunset at the Vistula river

Kraków became the headquarter of the German occupants in September 1939. The town was plundered, the Jewish population isolated in a ghetto, and the concentration camp Auschwitz set up nearby, but Kraków was not destroyed liked Gdańsk or Warsaw. Therefore it retained many of its historical buildings.

Kraków, the Wawel Dragon

I leave you with the legendary fire breathing Wawel dragon which harried the town until a brave shoemaker killed it by feeding it sulphur, so that it exploded. Other version of the legend attribute the killing of the dragon to the mythical founder king Krakus and his sons.

Here's a post about the quarters outside the old town, Kazimierz and Podgórze (site of the Jewish ghetto and Schindler's Factory).



 




The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, and central / eastern Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.


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Location: Goettingen, Germany

I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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Mediaeval Erfurt

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Mediaeval Goslar
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Lübeck
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Mediaeval Paderborn

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Speyer
The Cathedral: Architecture
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Roman and Mediaeval Xanten
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History

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A Virtual Tour

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Castles in Thuringia
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Castles at the Weser
Bramburg
Krukenburg: Castle and Chapel
Castle Polle: An Everstein Seat
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Abbeys and Churches

Early Mediaeval Churches
Göllingen Monastery
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Churches in the Harz Area
Pöhlde: Remains of the Monastery
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Walkenried Monastery
Wiebrechtshausen

Churches in Hessia
Wilhelmshausen / Fulda Valley

Weser Abbeys: Bursfelde
Early History

Weser Abbeys: Helmarshausen
Remains of the Monastery
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion

Weser Abbeys: Lippoldsberg
Early History
The Interior of the Church

Other Churches in the Weser Area
Fredelsloh Chapter Church
Gehrden / Brakel
Vernawahlshausen: Mediaeval Murals

Museums and Reconstructed Sites

Open Air Museums
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Palatine Seat Tilleda
The Defenses

Viking Settlement Haithabu
Haithabu and the Archaeological Museum Schleswig
The Nydam Ship

Post-Mediaeval Exhibits
Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg

Romans Remains

Traces of a Failed Invasion
Roman Exhibitions, Haltern am See
Varus Statue, Haltern am See
The Roman Camp at Hedemünden

Limes Fort Aalen
The Barracks

Limes Fort Osterburken
The Discovery
The Cohort castellum
The Annex Fort
The Garrisons

Limes Fort Saalburg
A Reconstructed Limes Fort
Shrine of the Standards

Roman villae at the Moselle
The Villa Urbana in Longuich

Roman villae at the Rhine
The Villa at Wachenheim: Introduction
Wachenheim: Baths and Toilets
Wachenheim: The Cellar

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Neolithic Burials
Neolithic Burials in the Everstorf Forest and Rugia
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age
Bronze and Iron Age Remains at the Werra


England

Towns

Chester
Roman and Medieaval Chester

Hexham
The Abbey - Introduction
The Old Gaol

York
Clifford Tower
The Guild Hall
Monk Bar Gate and Richard III Museum
Museum Gardens and Mulitangular Tower
The Old Town
Roman Bath in the Fortress
York Minster: Architecture

Castles

Carlisle
History: King David
History: Henry II and William of Scotland
History: Edward I to Edward III

Richmond
History: Conquest to King John
History: Henry III to the Tudors
Architecture

Scarborough
History: Romans to the Tudors
History: Civil War to the Present
Architecture

Roman Remains

Wall Fort Birdoswald
The Dark Age Timber Halls

Wall Fort Segedunum
Museum and Viewing Tower
The Baths

Other Roman Sites
The Mithraeum at Brocolita
The Signal Station at Scarborough


Scotland

Towns

Edinburgh
Views from the Castle

Stirling
The Wallace Monument

Castles

Doune
A Virtual Tour
History: The Early Stewart Kings
History: Royal Dower House

Dunstaffnage
History: An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
History: The Wars of Independence
History: The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

Stirling
History: Robert the Bruce

Castles at the Scottish West Coast
Duart Castle
Dunollie and Kilchurn

Abbeys and Churches

Inchcolm Abbey
Arriving at Inchcolm

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Neolithic Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae

Brochs and Cairns
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Introduction

Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort
Staffa


Wales

Towns

Aberystwyth
Castle and Coast

Caerleon
The Ffwrwm
The Roman Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort

Conwy
The Smallest House in Great Britain

Castles

Beaumaris
History
Architecture

Caernarfon
Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

Chepstow
History: Beginnings unto Bigod
History: Edward II to the Tudors
History: Civil War

Conwy
History
Architecture

Criccieth
Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings

Pembroke
Photo Impressions
The Caves Under the Castle

Castles in Southern Wales
Cardiff
Manorbier


Denmark

Museums and Reconstructed Sites

Viking Museum Roskilde
To come


Norway

Castles and Fortresses

Akershus Fortress in Oslo
History: The Time of King Håkon V
Architecture

Vardøhus Fortress
History

Museums / Reconstructed Sites

The Fram Museum in Oslo


Sweden

Museums and Reconstructed Sites

The Vasa Museum in Stockholm

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Gotland
Gnisvärd Ship Setting


Finland

Towns

Porvoo
Mediaeval Porvoo


Estonia

Towns

Tallinn
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Latvia

Towns

Riga
The History of Mediaeval Riga


Lithuania

Historical Landscapes

The Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit


Poland

Towns

Gdańsk / Danzig
History of Mediaeval Gdańsk
Mediaeval and Renaissance Gdańsk

Kraków
The Old Town
Jewish Kraków - Kazimierz and the Ghetto

Wrocław / Breslau
The Botanical Garden
The Wrocław Dwarfs

Castles

Ogrodzieniec Castle
A Virtual Tour
History: First Castle to the Boner Family


Czechia

Towns

Cheb / Eger
The Old Town

Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
Brief History of the Town

Kutná Hora
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Antwerp
The Old Town

Bruges
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Ghent
Mediaeval Ghent

Tongeren
Roman and Mediaeval Remains


Luxembourg

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Luxembourg City
A Tour of the Town


City Trips

St.Petersburg (Russia)
Impressions from the Neva River

Strasbourg (France)
A Tour of the Town


Hiking Tours and Cruises

Germany

The Baltic Sea Coast
Flensburg Firth
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Rugia; The Pier of Sellin
Rugia: More Photo Impressions
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

The Lüneburg Heath
Hiking Tours in the Lüneburg Heath

Harz National Park
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Devil's Wall
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Rappbode Reservoir
Views from Harz mountains

Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Around Bad Sooden-Allendorf
Hessian Switzerland

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
The Forest Pasture Project
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Nature Park Reinhardswald
Old Forest at the Sababurg

Thuringian Forests
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

Rivers and Lakes
Bruchteiche / Bad Sooden Allendorf
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
The Moselle
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Weser Skywalk

Wildlife
Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life
Red squirrels

Seasons
Spring in the Botanical Garden Göttingen
Spring in the Hardenberg Castle Gardens
Spring at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Spring in the Meissner
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake


United Kingdom

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains: Inverness to John o'Groats
Some Photos from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull: Craignure to Fionnphort
Pentland Firth
Staffa
Summer Days in Oban
Summer Nights in Oban

Scotland by Train
West Highland Railway

Wild Wales - With Castles
Views of Snowdownia
Views from Castle Battlements

Wildlife
Sea Gulls


Scandinavia

The Hurtigruten-Tour / Norway
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Wildlife
Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord


The Baltic Sea

A Baltic Sea Cruise

The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
Beaches at the Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit



Mediaeval History
- General Essays
- Specific Topics

History by Country
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Livonia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Bohemia

Roman History
- The Romans at War
- Roman Life and Religion

Other Times
- Neolithicum to Iron Age
- Post-Mediaeval History
-
Miscellanea
- Geology


Mediaeval History

General Essays

Mediaeval Art and Craft

Mediaeval Art
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Upside-Down World
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Medieaval Craftmanship
Goldsmithery
Medical Instruments

Mediaeval Warfare

Mediaeval Weapons
Swords
Trebuchets

Castles and Fortifications
Dungeons and Oubliettes


Specific Topics

Feudalism

The History of Feudalism
The Beginnings
Feudalism in the 10th Century

Privileges and Special Relationships
The Privilege of the deditio
A Note on handgenginn maðr

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings

Hanseatic Architecture
Examples of Brick Architecture
Hall Houses (Dielenhäuser)

Goods and Trade
Stockfish Trade

Towns of the Hanseatic League
Riga
Stralsund
Tallinn / Reval

The Order of the Teutonic Knights

Wars and Battles
The Conquest of Danzig
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

The Vikings

Viking Ships
The Nydam Ship


Some historical events are linked under more than one country / subtitle due to the overarching nature of history.


History by Country

Germany

Geneaology

List of Mediaeval German Emperors

Geneaologies
Anglo-German Marriage Connections
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors

Kings and Emperors

The Salian Dynasty
King Heinrich IV

House Welf and House Staufen
Emperor Otto IV, Introduction

Princes and Lords

Princes
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Duke Otto of Northeim
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Feuds and Rebellions

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War
The Star Wars


England

Kings of England

King Henry IV
King Henry's Lithuanian Crusade

Normans, Britons, Angevins

Great Noble Houses
The Dukes of Brittany
The Earls of Richmond

Contested Borders

Northumbria
King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


Scotland

Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War, Part 1
King David and the Civil War, Part 2

Houses Bruce and Stewart
The Early Stewart Kings

Local Troubles

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding

Scotland and England

The Wars of Independence
Alexander of Argyll
The Fight for Stirling Castle


Wales

Welsh Princes

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

Wales and England

A History of Rebellion
Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Denmark

Kings of Denmark

House of Knýtlinga
Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

The Duchy of Estonia
Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


Norway

Kings of Norway

Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

Feuds and Rebellions

Rebels
Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Sweden

Troubles and Alliances

Scandinavian Unity
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union


Livonia
(Latvia and Estonia)

Livonian Towns

Riga
The History of Mediaeval Riga

Tallinn
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Lithuania

Lithuanian Princes

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas

The Northern Crusades

The Wars in Lithuania
The Siege of Vilnius 1390


Poland

Royal Dynasties

The Jagiełłonian Kings
Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union

The Northern Crusades

The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
The Conquest of Danzig


Bohemia

Royal Dynasties

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
King Sigismund and the Hussite Wars


Roman History

The Romans at War

Forts and Fortifications

The German Limes
The Cavalry Fort Aalen
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg

The Hadrian's Wall
Introduction
The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend

Border Life
Exercise Halls
Mile Castles and Watch Towers
Soldiers' Living Quarters
Cavalry Barracks

Campaigns and Battles

Maps
The Romans in Germania

The Pre-Varus Invasion in Germania
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn
Introduction

The Batavian Rebellion
A Short Introduction

Miscellaneous Events

The Legend of Alaric's Burial

Roman Militaria

Armour
Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapons
Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum
Daggers
Swords

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles


Roman Life and Religion

Religion and Public Life

Religion
Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms
Isis Worship
Memorial Stones
The Mithras Cult

Public Life
Roman Transport: Barges
Roman Transport: Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Architecture
Roman Public Baths

Domestic Life

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots


Other Times

Neolithicum to Iron Age

Germany

Development of Civilisation
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
The Hutewald Project in the Solling
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Neolithic Remains
Stone Burials of the Funnelbeaker Culture
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age / Iron Age
The Nydam Ship

Scotland

Neolithic Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Bronze Age / Iron Age
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Their Function in Iron Age Society

Scandinavia

Bronze / Iron Age
The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd / Gotland


Post-Mediaeval History

Explorers and Discoveries

Explorers
Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

Discoveries
Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)


Miscellanea

History in Literature and Music

History and Literature

The Weimar Classicism
The Weimar Classicism - Introduction

Theodor Fontane
Short Biography of Theodor Fontane
Fontane Ballads, translated by me
Archibald Douglas
Gorm Grymme
Sir Walter Scott in Abbotsford
The Tragedy of Afghanistan

History in Opera

Belcanto and Historicism
Maria Padilla - Mistress Royal
The Siege of Calais in Donizetti's Opera

Not so Serious History

Romans
Building Hadrian's Wall
Playmobil Romans

Mediaeval Times
Kings Having a Bad Hair Day
The Case of the Vanished Wine Cask

Other
Rules for Writing Scottish Romances


Geology

Geological Landscapes

The Baltic Sea
Geology of the Curonian Spit
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

The Harz
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in the Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs
Sandstone Formations: Daneil's Cave
Sandstone Formations: Devil's Wall
Sandstone Formations: The Klus Rock

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations
Salt Springs at the Werra

Solling-Vogler
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

The Shores of Scotland
Staffa

Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

Fossilized Ammonites
The Loket Meteorite


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