The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times

26 Oct 2020
  Stapelburg Castle – A Little Known Ruin in the Harz

I came across that one a few years ago during one of the Harz tours I did with my father. The ruins of the Stapelburg – only the ringwall, bits of the curtain wall and part of the palas, the great hall, remain – are situated on a hill between Bad Harzburg and Ilsenburg on the northern foothills of the Harz. The land there is already rather flat, so the 60 metres hight hill stands out and offers a good view to Wernigerode and Halberstadt, and even the Brocken mountain on clear days.
Stapelburg - remains of the palas building

A good place for a castle. Yet it was not easy to find much information about the Stapelburg; I could not even figure out if the preserved remains date to the first period (13th - 14th century) or the second phase of its use in the 16th century (which is more likely). The well house and a cellar have been recently restored.
Palace with well house

Its early history is not known – like the early history of many castles that are first mentioned in chartes in the 12th or 13th century but must have existed before. The Stapelburg may well be one of the foundations of the Salian emperors and thus dating to the 11th century. It could have been part of the chain of castles Heinrich IV erected in the Harz and enfeoffed to nobles like the Wernigerode family who originated in Swabia and moved north with Heinrich IV.
Remains of the curtain wall with foundations of other buildings

The name Adalbert of Wernigerode is indeed connected with the castle. The problem is that a whole bunch of counts of Wernigerode were named Adalbert between 1121 and 1319, so it is difficult to establish a timeline. The first traceable mention of the castle beyond local tales is a charte from 1306 (at that time the count of Wernigerode was indeed another Adalbert), in which it is called a 'fortified castle' (vestes slot).
Palace wall seen from the outside

The name 'Stapel' means 'border' but also 'pillar of jurisdiction' (Gerichtssäule), a border marking that included a toll station. The castle may have protected one of those toll stations which had been set up to control travelers and merchants entering the lands of the counts of Wernigerode. The castle may have been named after such a place.
View through the palas gate to yard

The first castle had an unusual design. Judging by archaeological traces it was a rotund construction, not the usual square or rectangular pattern. An influence from the crusades is possible; there are some castles in Germany following an octogonal or round design, like the chapel in the Krukenburg. The double ringwall with its dykes and earthern walls is still well visible in the landscape.
Remains of the ringwall moat

Some counts of Wernigerode seemed to have been of a belligerent disposition and got into feuds with the counts of Regenstein (another old post in need of a rewrite *sigh*) and of Hohnstein, and thus incurred the wrath of the bishop of Magdeburg and the dukes of Braunschweig. Count Conrad of Wernigerode was captured during a skirmish, and his brother Dietrich had to acknowledge the bishop of Magdeburg as feudal overlord (1381) and agree to a Landfrieden - peace of the land (1384).
The palace in Wernigerode, seat of the Counts of Wernigerode

But Dietrich of Wernigerode attacked the castle of Regenstein again two years later and thus broke his oath. What happened then is not entirely clear: Some sources say he accepted a call to a thing process near the Stapelburg where Count Boso of Regenstein, the bishop of Magedburg and some other nobles condemned him to death an executed him on the spot. That would be somewhat unusual for the late 14th century. Another version has it that Dietrich of Wernigerode was waylaid near the Stapelburg and assassinated by men of the counts of Regenstein and Hohnstein. I think this the more likely variant. His brother Heinrich later donated an altar in memory of Dietrich of Wernigerode.
Stapelburg, palace walls from the outside

The counts of Wernigerode got into financial troubles and had to pawn out the Stapelburg several times. In 1394, they sold the castle to the Chapter of Halberstadt. The Wernigerode family died out in the male line but due to an inheritance treaty, they were succeeded by the related Stolberg family and became known as counts of Stolberg-Wernigerode. Count Botho of Stolberg received the Stapelburg as pawn from the Chapter of Halberstadt in 1432.
The cathedral in Halberstadt, seat of the Chapter of Halberstadt which held the Stapelburg several times during its history

But the Chapter of Halberstadt redeemed the pawn which shifted possession a few times in the years to come. None of the owners cared to repair the castle. Finally, it came back to the Stolberg family in 1509 – it was again in the hands of the Chapter of Halberstadt which was under the administration of archbishop of Magdeburg at the time – who pledged themselves to repair the castle. But Botho of Stolberg and his father did not have the means to achieve the necessary repairs and modernisations.
Stapelburg, the well

In 1559, the pawn was forfeit and returned the archbishop of Magdeburg who installed Heinrich von Bila, of an old noble family with possessions in Thuringia and Saxony, and member of the Imperial Chamber Court (Reichskammergericht). The counts of Stolberg refused his installment, but hat to give in after a big quarrel.
View to the village Stapelburg

Heinrich von Bila gave the castle a House Makeover, built a new palace and housing for a garrison of 14 soldiers and a captain with their families, and repaired the curtain walls. He also founded the village at the foot of the hills, first called Bilashausen but today known as Stapelburg.
Closeup of the palace wall

Heinrich von Bila's son either had no interest in the castle, or his father had spent too much in the house makeover, so he sold the castle to Statius of Münchhausen in 1596. Münchhausen was a nobleman turned mercantilist and industrialist who collected castles, invested in iron mining and smelting, and built palaces in the style of the so-called Weser-Renaissance. In the end, he ruined himself by speculation and had to sell the Stapelburg to the Chapter of Halberstadt in 1625 (yes, Halberstadt again; I don't make that up).
View through the gate out of the castle

The Chapter gave the castle to one of its members, Eberhard von Münchhausen, of a different branch of the family. He lived in the castle during the Thirty Years War – that is, when it was not occupied by either Wallenstein's army (which plundered the village) or the Swedes. After the war, he sold the rundown place to a family von Stedern, obviously with agreement of the Chapter of Halberstadt. The family lived in the castle for a few decennies; their members were buried in the church of the village.
Curtain wall with view to the Harz mountains

In 1722, King Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia annuled the feudal position of the Chapter of Halberstadt. The counts of Stolberg used the chance to get the Stapelburg back, more for its symbolical value, I suppose. A few lawyers got rich, the castle declined further, but in the end, it came into the hands of the counts of Stolberg in 1727, as part of the county of Stolberg-Wernigerode.
Closeup of the palace windows

The castle was no longer habitable and was used as quarry by the villagers. What the counts got were some picturesque ruins. Well, they had better palaces in Stolberg and Wernigerode. Today, only an outer wall on the southern side which must have been part of the fomer palas or great hall, and a few minor bits of the curtain walls remain, as well as distinct traces of the double moat in the landscape.
Way through the double moats

The Stapelburg was close to the border and part of the restricted zone during the time of the GDR and thus forbidden to visit. Of course, the castle declined further during that time. After the reunion, the ruins were repaired to prevent further decline, a well house and a cellar were reconstructed. There is a regular Mediaeval festival in the summer to garner some interest in the ruins.
The palas with the stage in the foreground

There is a society who cares for the ruins, the Interessengemeinschaft Burgberg e.V. (which has a website with some historical information; another source can be found here).

18 Oct 2020
  Impressions from Rugia – The Pier of Sellin

Just some pretty photos today. One of the iconic motives on Rugia – besides the Königsstuhl and Kap Arkona – is the Pier of Sellin.
The pier of Sellin

I went there on a late afternoon and thus got some nice photos with a play of light and shadow. It was October, and the sun was pretty low already; a lovely end to a nice day out (once the morning rains had been blown away).
Closeup of the buildings on the pier

When bathing vacations at the sea became popular, a pier was built in Sellin in 1906. It was 508 metres long and included a restaurant. The original plans were for a bridge of 60 metres length, but it was deemed insufficient considering the increasing number of visitors.
View from the pier to the town

The pier was exposed to the forces of nature, though. It was damaged by pack ice in 1918 and again in 1924. In between, a fire broke out at the bridge head. Therefore a new pier was built in 1925; it included a platform and a concert hall.
View to the outer part of the pier

The winter of 1941/42 was the coldest in Europe in the 20th century; the Baltic Sea completely frozen. Again, the bridge was almost destroyed by ice (nor was it the only one along the coast to suffer that fate), only the house at the bridge head survived. But those were not the times to bother about repairing a collapsed pier.
On the pier

The bridge house was a popular dance hall from the 1950ies to the 1970ies, but repairs were neglected (that was the GDR, after all), so the house and the remains of the pier had to be demolished in 1978. Sellin was without its landmark.
View to the hills at Sellin

It would take until the German Reunification for the pier to be rebuilt – the president Richard von Weizsäcker took an interest in the endeavour. The new bridge would follow a modernised version of the one from 1905; though it is 'only' 394 metres long today (compared to its original 508 metres); still the longest pier on the Rugia island. The official opening of the pier and the restaurant took place in April 1998.
View to the sea

A diving gondola has been installed at the outer end of the pier. It goes down 4 metres into the sea and offers a view of the submarine life.
Another view to the pier of Sellin

The pretty white-coloured buildings on the bridge – the Imperial Pavilion (Kaiserpavillon) and the Palm Tree Garden – are a landmark of Sellin and Rugia today. They look really pretty in the evening sun.

The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, the Baltic Countries, and central Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.

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Location: Goettingen, Germany

I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History, interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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Historical Places

- Towns
- Castles
- Abbeys and Churches
- Roman Remains
- Neolithicum and Bronze Age
- Museums
City Trips

Hiking Tours and Cruises

United Kingdom
Baltic Sea

Historical Places



Bad Sooden-Allendorf
Historical Town and Graduation Tower
Bruchteiche Reservoir

A Seaside Resort

Lion Benches in the Castle Square
The Quadriga

Mediaeval Erfurt

Mediaeval Goslar
Chapel in the Klus Rock

Churches St.Martin and St.Mary

St. Mary's Church

Church of Our Lady: History

The Temple of Isis and Mater Magna

Mediaeval Paderborn

Mediaeval Quedlinburg
The Chapter Church

The Cathedral: Architecture
Jewish Ritual Bath

The Harbour
The Old Town

Mediaeval Lanes and Old Houses

The Roman Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths
The Porta Nigra

Sites of the Weimar Classicism
The Park at the Ilm

The Old Harbour

Roman and Mediaeval Xanten
The Gothic House


The Keep

Altenstein (Werra)
A Border Castle

Weser River Reivers

Brandenburg (Thuringia)
The Beginnings
Albrecht II of Thuringia

Coburg Fortress

The Marshals of Ebersburg


History of the Keep


Hardeg Castle
The Great Hall


Heldenburg (Salzderhelden)
A Welfen Seat

Hohnstein (Harz)
The Counts of Hohnstein
Between Welfen and Staufen
14th-15th Century

Built to Protect a Chapel

The Counts of Everstein
Later Times

The Counts of Winzenburg
The Lords of Plesse

Polle Castle
An Everstein Stronghold


Reichenbach (Hessia)

Photo Impressions

From Castle to Convention Centre



Stauffenburg (Harz)
A Secret Mistress

A Little Known Ruin in the Harz

Photo Impressions

A Virtual Tour

Revisiting the Weidelsburg

Abbeys and Churches

Early History of the Abbey

A Romanesque Basilica

A Romanesque Church

The Byzantine Crypt

The Stave Church

Remains of the Monastery

Early History of the Abbey
Interior of the Church

The Carolingian Gate Hall

Remains of the Monastery

Scharzfeld (Harz)
The Cave Church

Mediaeval Murals

The Monastery - Introduction

Romanesque Church and a Ducal Burial

Wilhelmshausen (Kassel)
The Romanesque Church

Roman Remains

Augusta Treverorum / Trier
The Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths
The Porta Nigra
The Roman Bridge

Colonia Ulpia Traiana / Xanten
Roman Xanten
The Amphitheatre in Birten

Limes Fort Aalen
The Barracks

Limes Fort Osterburken
The Discovery
The Cohort castellum
The Annex Fort
The Garrisons

Limes Fort Saalburg
A Reconstructed Limes Fort
Shrine of the Standards

Romans in North Rhine-Westphalia
Playmobil Romans, LWL Museum Haltern
Varus Statue, Haltern am See

Romans at the Moselle
The Villa Urbana in Longuich

Romans at the Rhine
Boppard - The Roman Baudobriga
The Villa at Wachenheim

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Neolithic Burials
Neolithic Burials in the Everstorf Forest and Rugia
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age
Bronze and Iron Age Remains at the Werra

Museums / Reconstructed Sites

Palatine Seat Tilleda
The Defenses

Viking Settlement Haithabu
The Nydam Ship

Open Air Museums
European Bread Museum Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Post-Mediaeval Exhibits
Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg



Roman and Medieaval Chester

The Abbey - Introduction
The Old Gaol

Clifford Tower
The Guild Hall
Monk Bar Gate with Richard III Museum
Museum Gardens
Houses in the Old Town
York Minster: Architecture



Conquest to King John
Henry III to the Tudors

Romans to the Tudors
Civil War to the Present

Roman Remains

Eboracum / York
Roman Bath in the Fortress

Wall Fort Birdoswald
The Dark Age Timber Halls

Wall Fort Segedunum
Museum and Viewing Tower
The Baths

Other Roman Sites
The Mithraeum at Brocolita
The Signal Station at Scarborough



Views from the Castle

The Wallace Monument


A Virtual Tour
History: The Early Stewart Kings
History: Royal Dower House

Duart Castle
Guarding the Sound of Mull

An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
The Wars of Independence
The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

Robert the Bruce

Abbeys and Churches

Arriving at Inchcolm Abbey

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Neolithic Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae

Brochs and Cairns
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Introduction

Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort



Castle and Coast

The Ffwrwm
The Roman Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort

The Smallest House in Great Britain



Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

From Romans to Victorians

Beginnings unto Bigod
Edward II to the Tudors
Civil War


Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings

The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

Photo Impressions
The Caves Under the Castle

Roman Remains

Isca Silurum / Caerleon
The Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort



Viking Museum Roskilde
To come


Castles and Fortresses

Akershus Fortress in Oslo
Kings and Pirates
The Time of King Håkon V

Vardøhus Fortress


The Fram Museum in Oslo


Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Gnisvärd Ship Setting


The Vasa Museum in Stockholm



Mediaeval Porvoo



The History of Mediaeval Tallinn



The History of Mediaeval Riga



To come



Gdańsk / Danzig
History of Mediaeval Gdańsk
Mediaeval and Renaissance Gdańsk

The Old Town
Jewish Kraków - Kazimierz and the Ghetto

Wrocław / Breslau
The Botanical Garden
The Wrocław Dwarfs


Ogrodzieniec Castle
A Virtual Tour
First Castle to the Boner Family



Cheb / Eger
The Old Town

Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
Brief History of the Town

Kutná Hora
The Sedlec Ossuary
The Medieaval Town and St.Barbara's Church



The Old Town

Mediaeval Bruges

Mediaeval Ghent

Mediaeval Buildings

Roman Remains

Atuatuca Tungrorum / Tongeren
Roman Remains in the Town



Luxembourg City
A Tour of the Town

City Trips

St.Petersburg (Russia)
Impressions from the Neva River

Strasbourg (France)
A Tour of the Town

Hiking Tours and Cruises


Baltic Sea Coast
Flensburg Firth
Rugia: Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
Rugia: Photo Impressions
Rugia: The Pier of Sellin
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

Lüneburg Heath
Hiking Tours in the Lüneburg Heath

Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Devil's Wall
Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
Oderteich Reservoir
Rappbode Reservoir
Views from Harz mountains

Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Bruchteiche / Bad Sooden Allendorf
Hessian Switzerland

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
The Forest Pasture Project
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Nature Park Reinhardswald
Old Forest at the Sababurg

Thuringian Forests
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

Rivers and Lakes
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut
Weser River Ferry
Weser Skywalk

Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life
Red squirrels

Spring Impressions from Göttingen
Spring in the Hardenberg Castle Gardens
Spring in the Meissner
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake

United Kingdom

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains: Inverness to John o'Groats
Some Photos from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull: Craignure to Fionnphort
Dunollie and Kilchurn: Photo Impressions
Pentland Firth
Summer in Oban

Scotland by Train
West Highland Railway

Views of Snowdownia

Sea Gulls


Coast of Norway: Hurtigruten-Tour
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord

The Baltic Sea

A Baltic Sea Cruise

The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
Beaches at the Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit

Mediaeval History

General Essays

by Country
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Livonia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Bohemia
- Luxembourg
- Flanders

Roman History

The Romans at War
Famous Romans
Roman Life and Religion

Other Times

Neolithicum to Iron Age
Post-Mediaeval History
History and Literature

Mediaeval History

General Essays

Mediaeval Warfare


Late Mediaeval Swords

Mediaeval Art and Craft

Mediaeval Art
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
The Hunting Frieze in Königslutter Cathedral
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Medical Instruments


The History of Feudalism
The Beginnings
Feudalism in the 10th Century

Special Cases
The privilege of the deditio

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings

Hanseatic Architecture
Examples of Brick Architecture
Hall Houses (Dielenhäuser)

Goods and Trade
Stockfish Trade

Towns of the Hanseatic League
Tallinn / Reval

The Order of the Teutonic Knights

Wars and Battles
The Conquest of Danzig
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

The Vikings

Viking Material Culture
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Viking Ships
The Nydam Ship

Essays by Country



List of Mediaeval German Emperors
Anglo-German Marriage Connections

Kings and Emperors

The Salian Dynasty
King Heinrich IV

Staufen against Welfen
Emperor Otto IV

Princes and Lords

House Welfen
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen

The Landgraves of Thuringia
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

Dukes and Princes of other Families
Duke Otto of Northeim
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Feuds and Rebellions

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War
The Star Wars


Kings of England

House Plantagenet
Richard Lionheart in Speyer
King Henry IV's Lithuanian Crusade

Normans, Britons, Angevins

Great Noble Houses
The Dukes of Brittany
The Earls of Richmond

Contested Borders

King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War, Part 1
King David and the Civil War, Part 2

Houses Bruce and Stewart
The Early Stewart Kings

Local Troubles

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding

Scotland and England

The Wars of Independence
Alexander of Argyll
The Fight for Stirling Castle


Welsh Princes

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

Wales and England

A History of Rebellion
Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Kings of Denmark

House of Knýtlinga
Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

The Duchy of Estonia
Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


Kings of Norway

Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

Feuds and Rebellions

Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Troubles and Alliances

Scandinavian Unity
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

(Latvia and Estonia)

Contested Territories

Livonian Towns
The History of Mediaeval Riga
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Lithuanian Princes

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas

The Northern Crusades

The Wars in Lithuania
The Siege of Vilnius 1390


Royal Dynasties

The Jagiełłonian Kings
Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union

The Northern Crusades

The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
The Conquest of Danzig


Royal Dynasties

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
King Sigismund and the Hussite Wars


House Luxembourg
King Sigismund


More to come

Roman History

The Romans at War

Forts and Fortifications

The German Limes
The Cavalry Fort Aalen
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg

The Hadrian's Wall
The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend

Border Life
Exercise Halls
Mile Castles and Watch Towers
Soldiers' Living Quarters
Cavalry Barracks

Campaigns and Battles

The Romans in Germania

The Pre-Varus Invasion in Germania
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn

The Batavian Rebellion
A Short Introduction

Roman Militaria

Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles

Famous Romans

The Late Empire

The Legend of Alaric's Burial

Roman Life and Religion

Religion and Public Life

Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms
Isis Worship
Memorial Stones
The Mithras Cult

Public Life
Roman Transport: Barges
Roman Transport: Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Roman Public Baths

Domestic Life

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots

Other Times

Neolithicum to Iron Age


Development of Civilisation
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
The Hutewald Project in the Solling
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Neolithic Remains
Stone Burials of the Funnelbeaker Culture
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age / Iron Age
The Nydam Ship


Neolithic Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Bronze Age / Iron Age
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Their Function in Iron Age Society


Bronze / Iron Age
The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd / Gotland

Post-Mediaeval History

Explorers and Discoveries

Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

History and Literature


The Weimar Classicism


Geological Landscapes: Germany

Baltic Sea Coast
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

Harz Mountains
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs
Sandstone Formations: Daneil's Cave
Sandstone Formations: Devil's Wall
Sandstone Formations: The Klus Rock

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations
Salt Springs at the Werra

Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

Geological Landscapes: Great Britain

The Shores of Scotland

Geological Landscapes: Baltic Sea

Geology of the Curonian Spit

Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

Fossilized Ammonites
The Loket Meteorite (Czechia)

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