The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times

30 Dec 2020
  A Piece of Norway in the Harz – the Stave Church in Hahnenklee

It's not exactly a sight you'll expect when driving or hiking in the Harz area, but there it is.
The Stave Church in Hahnenklee

This Scandinavian looking stave church is located in the outskirts of Hahnenklee, a borough of Goslar. Hahnenklee became popular as spa town in the 19th century, so that a larger church was needed for the visitors to be able to attend service; the parish church had become too small.
The church seen from the south-east

The church was designed by Karl Mohrmann (1857-1927), an architect and university teacher, later headmaster of the University of Applied Sciences and Arts in Hannover, and architect of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Hannover. Prior to these occupations he had been a teacher for architecture in Riga and did a lot of traveling in Scandinavia and the UK; but also Africa and the US.
The belfry

Mohrmann was a representative of the historicist school which started in the 1850ies and imitated old styles of architecture, painting and such. The Neo-Romanesque and Neo-Gothic with its extra turrets and oriels are typical for that style (like the Neo-Romanesque palace in Schwerin which mixes some Classicist elements into the overdecorated fun).
The church seen from the north

In that context, it comes as no surprise that Mohrman would take his inspiration from Mediaeval stave churches in Norway, in particular the one in Borgund which he had seen in person. It dates to the 12th century though it had been enlarged during the Middle Ages. Mohrmann considerably expanded his model; the average stave church would allow room for some 50 parishioners, the one in Hahnenklee can seat 240 and accomodate 350 people.
And from the south

The German empeor Wilhelm II was fond of Norway and spent several holidays there, mostly traveling the fjords with his yacht. He also donated to the rebuilding of the town of Ålesund which was destroyed by a fire in January 1904. His interest in Norway and in history overall created a bit of a fashion which may have played into the idea to use a stave church as model.
One of the doors

The church is officially called Gustav Adolf Stave Church. I suppose it's named for King Gustav II Adolf of Sweden, of Thirty Years fame (who led a Protestant amry into Germany and fell at the Battle of Lützen in 1632). Construction of the church began in 1907; the consecration was held on June 28, 1908.
Details of ornaments

The short period of only ten months was mostly due to the material used. At first, the plans had been for a brick construction in the Neo-Gothic style, but when the plans were changed into the imitation of a stave church, locally harvested spruce trunks were used which sped up the process and were cheaper as well.
The interior of the stave church, view to the altar

Mohrmann thought that stave churches had once been common in Germany as well, and thus the one in Hahnenklee a genuine revival of the ancient architecture of the country. He was wrong, of course, stave churches stand in a different cultural context than the churches built in Germany after the Christianisation. There are no archaeological finds that point at the specific stave style ever to have been used here.
Interior, the other side

The windows are larger than in the traditional stave churches, thus allowing more light to stream into the interior – which, as said above, is larger than most stave churches in the first place. The Gustav Adolf church is more like a grand hall when you enter it.
The gallery

The style takes up elements of the Scandinavian stave churches like the carved dragon and snake ornaments and other elements inspired by viking ships (like the shape of the roofs that look like Viking ships turned upside down), and a number of 'Norse' ornaments and carvings in the interior of the church.
Detail of the gallery

The great chandelier at the ceiling is inspired by a ship's steering wheel – which was not in use on Viking ships that had a rudder. But it's quite impressive.
The great chandelier

Another nautic feature that is definitely not Mediaeval Scandinavian are the bullseye windows on the gallery.
View to the bullseye windows above the gallery

In other decorative elements – carvings and paintings – the style gets mixed up with Art Nouveau designs and inspirations from the Byzantine mosaic art (see also the altar below with the 'Byzantine' figures), according to the fashion of the early 20th century when the Art Nouvau became popular.
The chancel

And below we get a bird of prey inspired by the Norse carvings at the foot of the chancel.
Detail of the chancel ornaments

The church has been constructed in the traditional way without nails and screws. All main elements like planks, boards, poles have been set up vertically. That too, is the traditonal way that gives those churches their name: stave churches (from Old Norse stafr).
Closeup of the altar

The church in Hahnenklee has an organ and a carillon, a set of tuned bells that are played with a keyboard and pedals that set int motion levers and wires attached to the bells. The first smaller carillon (1975) was situated in the roof turret, but moved to the belfry in 2002 and expanded to a total of 49 bells encompassing a range of four octaves.
Another view of the interior

The church has been renovated several times; the last one took place in 2000 - 2006. The church is still used for services and weddings and remains a popular tourist destination. I was lucky that there were not many people around when I visited in early March some years ago.
Harz landscape near Hahnenklee in late winter

And now I wish everyone a Happy New Year!

20 Dec 2020
  A Holy Rock – The Klusfelsen in Goslar

The Klusfelsen rock formation is a little known landmark in Goslar, usually relegated to the footnotes in travel guide books. After some initial signposts, I had to ask the locals for directions to get there. And then, passing a small path between some suburban houses, a meadow opened and on its farther edge I found this.
The Klus Rock in the evening sun

The Klusfelsen (Klus Rock) is a sandstone rock of about 20 metres height and 50 metres length, dating to the Lower Cretaceous 110 million years ago. The area had been a shallow sea at that time, the result of an inflow of sea water into the Norddeutsche Tiefebene . When the Harz mountains rose during the following Saxon Orogeny, those sandstone layers were pushed into a vertical position (about the geology of the northern Harz see also this post).
The rock seen from the north

The coastline of that shallow sea was only a few miles south of the present day rock formations which include not only the Klus Rock but several other formations in the northern Harz foothills all the way to the Teufelsmauer (Devil's Wall) near Quedlinburg in the east. Along the fault line of the Saxon orogeny in the northern Harz, the lithologic sequence of rocks have been brought to the surface in a mostly vertical or semi-vertical position: the older Triassic buntsandstein, musselkalk and keuper as well as the younger Cretaceous sandstone.
View to the upper part of the rock

The sandstone is a rather coarse and porous variant, originally of a yellow shade, but now more brownish due to weathering - though it still looks more a soft orange in the evening sun. The rock formation also contains several caves of various size washed out of the material. The sandstone is kown as Hils sandstone after a former quarry. That sandstone layer can be as thick as a hundred metres in some places. The stone has been used in construction, esp. for elements that included decorative carvings, during the Middle Ages.
The way up and the bridge

Rocks in such an elevated position and including caves, like the Klus Rock, may indeed have been used as places of worship, for ritual purposes, tribal gatherings and such, but I could not find sufficient proof for a Megalithic cult centre at the Klus Rock that is mentioned online. There is a man made niche in the base of the wall, but if it indeed contained images of pagan deities that were destroyed by Christian missionaries cannot be proven, either.
Halfway to the chapel grotto and the terrace

What we do know is that the rock has been used as hermitage that included a chapel dedicated to St.Mary since at least 1167 (for the dating see also below; though I stick with this date). That hermitage gave its name to the rock: Dialectal Klus, high German Klause means a hermit's abode.
View to the rock with the niche at its base

The hermit – who also took care of the chapel – lived in the cave at the rock base close to the above mentioned niche. The use of that cave predates the establishment of the chapel in the smaller cave in the upper part of the rock, though how far back its use dates is difficult to tell, since both caves have been altered by man in the Middle Ages.
Entrance of the chapel

The chapel in the upper grotto is protected by a locked grille (to prevent people from using the site for parties and leaving the trash behind), but I was lucky to meet a gentleman who had a key to the door and openend the little cave for me, so I could photograph the altar dedicated to St.Mary.
Altar of St.Mary in the chapel grotto

Not far from the rock once stood the chapter church St.Peter, dating to ~1050; a foundation of Agnes of Poitou (1025-1077, daughter of Guillaume V of Aquitaine), second wife of the emperor Heinrich III and mother of Heinrich IV, acting as her son's regent from 1056 to 1062. The church was completely destroyed in 1527.
The chapel windows with signs of masonry

It is unclear whether Agnes used the chapel prior to the building of the church. It would predate the other first official mention of the existence of the chapel in a charte from 1167 which I could find. Agnes was known for her piety, but she had a chapel in the palatine seat, so there was not good motive why she should climb a rock (it had no stairs then) to pray – though she may have done so for exactly for that reason.
Entrance to the chapel from a different angle

The chapel was in use until the Reformation, though the hermitage had been abandoned earlier. Afterwards the chapel served as dwelling place. In the early 19th century it was restored as chapel with an alter dedicated to St.Mary in the wake of the Romanticistic revival, but fell in disuse again in the 1960ies. The chapel was renovated in 1983.
The terrace in front of the chapel

The cave in the rock base served as the hermit's abode, as mentioned above, and was later used as stable and as storage cellar. There had been an inn named 'Zur Clus' on the meadow in front of the cave since the 19th century, which was demolished in 1968. The innkeeper stored his provisions in the cave – the beer would keep cool there.
The peak ridge

Besides the hermit's cave and the chapel grotto there are several more caves in the rock, some of them connected. They have beeen walled shut during the restoration work done by the Rotay Club in the 1980ies to prevent vandalism.
View to the rock from the south

There are legends and fairy tales connected with the Klus Rock. Unfortunately, I could not find any of those online; I'd have liked to share a story or two with my readers like I did for other such places.
Another view of the Klus Rock

Instead, I'll leave you with another final view of the rock.

The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, the Baltic Countries, and central Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.

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Location: Goettingen, Germany

I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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Historical Places

City Trips

Hiking Tours and Cruises

United Kingdom
Baltic Sea

Historical Places



Medieaval Braunschweig
Lion Benches in the Castle Square
The Quadriga

Mediaeval Erfurt

Mediaeval Goslar
The Chapel in the Klus Rock

St. Mary's Church

Magdeburg Cathedral
Liebfrauen Church: An Austere Archbishop
Liebfrauen Church: Reformation to Reunification

The Temple of Isis and Mater Magna

Mediaeval Paderborn

Mediaeval Quedlinburg
The Chapter Church

The Cathedral: Architecture
Jewish Ritual Bath
Richard Lionheart in Speyer

The Harbour
Mediaeval Stralsund: The Old Town

The Roman Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths
The Porta Nigra

Sites of the Weimar Classicism
The Park at the Ilm

The Old Harbour

Roman and Mediaeval Xanten
The Gothic House

More Towns

Seaside Ressort Binz

Towns at the Rhine
Boppard - The Roman Baudobriga



Brandenburg (Thuringia)
History: The Double Castle
History: Albrecht II of Thuringia

Coburg Fortress (Bavaria)

Ebersburg (Harz)
History: The Marshals of Ebersburg

Hanstein (Thuringia)

Hardenberg (Lower Saxony)

Hohnstein (Harz)
History: The Counts of Hohnstein
History: Between Welfen and Staufen
History: 14th-15th Century

Kugelsburg (Hessia)
History: The Counts of Everstein
History: Later Times

Plesse (Lower Saxony)
History: The Counts of Winzenburg
History: The Lords of Plesse

Scharzfels (Harz)

Wartburg (Thuringia)
A Virtual Tour

Weidelsburg (Hessia)
Revisiting the Weidelsburg

More Castles

Harz Mountains


Lower Saxony
Hardeg Castle

Altenstein at the Werra

Castles at the Weser
Krukenburg: Castle and Chapel
Castle Polle: An Everstein Seat
Sababurg and Trendelburg

Abbeys and Churches

Early Mediaeval Churches
Göllingen Monastery
Lorsch Abbey: The Carolingian Gate Hall

Churches in the Harz Area
Pöhlde: Remains of the Monastery
Hahnenklee: The Stave Church
Scharzfeld: The Cave Church
Walkenried Monastery

Churches in Hessia
Wilhelmshausen / Fulda Valley

Weser Abbeys: Bursfelde
Early History

Weser Abbeys: Helmarshausen
Remains of the Monastery
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion

Weser Abbeys: Lippoldsberg
Early History
The Interior of the Church

Other Churches in the Weser Area
Fredelsloh Chapter Church
Gehrden / Brakel
Vernawahlshausen: Mediaeval Murals

Romans Remains

Augusta Treverorum / Trier
The Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths
The Porta Nigra
The Roman Bridge

Colonia Ulpia Traiana / Xanten
Roman Xanten
The Amphitheatre in Birten

Traces of a Failed Invasion (9 AD)
Roman Exhibitions, Haltern am See
Playmobil Romans, LWL Museum Haltern
Varus Statue, Haltern am See
The Roman Camp at Hedemünden

Limes Fort Aalen
The Barracks

Limes Fort Osterburken
The Discovery
The Cohort castellum
The Annex Fort
The Garrisons

Limes Fort Saalburg
A Reconstructed Limes Fort
Shrine of the Standards

Roman villae at the Moselle
The Villa Urbana in Longuich

Roman villae at the Rhine
The Villa at Wachenheim: Introduction
Wachenheim: Baths and Toilets
Wachenheim: The Cellar

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Neolithic Burials
Neolithic Burials in the Everstorf Forest and Rugia
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age
Bronze and Iron Age Remains at the Werra

Museums and Reconstructed Sites

Open Air Museums
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Palatine Seat Tilleda
The Defenses

Viking Settlement Haithabu
Haithabu and the Archaeological Museum Schleswig
The Nydam Ship

Post-Mediaeval Exhibits
Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg



Roman and Medieaval Chester

The Abbey - Introduction
The Old Gaol

Clifford Tower
The Guild Hall
Monk Bar Gate with Richard III Museum
Museum Gardens and Multiangular Tower
Houses in the Old Town
Roman Bath in the Fortress
York Minster: Architecture



History: Conquest to King John
History: Henry III to the Tudors

History: Romans to the Tudors
History: Civil War to the Present

Roman Remains

Eboracum / York
Roman Bath in the Fortress

Wall Fort Birdoswald
The Dark Age Timber Halls

Wall Fort Segedunum
Museum and Viewing Tower
The Baths

Other Roman Sites
The Mithraeum at Brocolita
The Signal Station at Scarborough



Views from the Castle

The Wallace Monument


A Virtual Tour
History: The Early Stewart Kings
History: Royal Dower House

History: An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
History: The Wars of Independence
History: The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

History: Robert the Bruce

Castles at the Scottish West Coast
Duart Castle
Dunollie and Kilchurn

Abbeys and Churches

Inchcolm Abbey
Arriving at Inchcolm

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Neolithic Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae

Brochs and Cairns
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Introduction

Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort



Castle and Coast

The Ffwrwm
The Roman Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort

The Smallest House in Great Britain



Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

History: Beginnings unto Bigod
History: Edward II to the Tudors
History: Civil War


Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings

Photo Impressions
The Caves Under the Castle

Castles in Southern Wales

Roman Remains

Isca Silurum / Caerleon
The Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort


Museums and Reconstructed Sites

Viking Museum Roskilde
To come


Castles and Fortresses

Akershus Fortress in Oslo
History: The Time of King Håkon V

Vardøhus Fortress

Museums / Reconstructed Sites

The Fram Museum in Oslo


Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Gnisvärd Ship Setting

Museums and Reconstructed Sites

The Vasa Museum in Stockholm



Mediaeval Porvoo



The History of Mediaeval Tallinn



The History of Mediaeval Riga



To come



Gdańsk / Danzig
History of Mediaeval Gdańsk
Mediaeval and Renaissance Gdańsk

The Old Town
Jewish Kraków - Kazimierz and the Ghetto

Wrocław / Breslau
The Botanical Garden
The Wrocław Dwarfs


Ogrodzieniec Castle
A Virtual Tour
History: First Castle to the Boner Family



Cheb / Eger
The Old Town

Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
Brief History of the Town

Kutná Hora
The Sedlec Ossuary
The Medieaval Town and St.Barbara's Church



The Old Town

Mediaeval Bruges

Mediaeval Ghent

Mediaeval Buildings

Roman Remains

Atuatuca Tungrorum / Tongeren
Roman Remains in the Town



Luxembourg City
A Tour of the Town

City Trips

St.Petersburg (Russia)
Impressions from the Neva River

Strasbourg (France)
A Tour of the Town

Hiking Tours and Cruises


The Baltic Sea Coast
Flensburg Firth
Rugia: Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
Rugia; The Pier of Sellin
Rugia: More Photo Impressions
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

The Lüneburg Heath
Hiking Tours in the Lüneburg Heath

Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Devil's Wall
Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
Oderteich Reservoir
Rappbode Reservoir
Views from Harz mountains

Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Bruchteiche / Bad Sooden Allendorf
Hessian Switzerland

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
The Forest Pasture Project
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Nature Park Reinhardswald
Old Forest at the Sababurg

Thuringian Forests
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

Rivers and Lakes
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut
Weser River Ferry
Weser Skywalk

Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life
Red squirrels

Spring Impressions from Göttingen
Spring in the Hardenberg Castle Gardens
Spring in the Meissner
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake

United Kingdom

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains: Inverness to John o'Groats
Some Photos from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull: Craignure to Fionnphort
Pentland Firth
Summer in Oban

Scotland by Train
West Highland Railway

Wild Wales - With Castles
Views of Snowdownia

Sea Gulls


The Hurtigruten-Tour / Norway
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord

The Baltic Sea

A Baltic Sea Cruise

The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
Beaches at the Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit

Mediaeval History

General Essays
by Country
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Livonia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Bohemia

Roman History

The Romans at War
Roman Life and Religion

Other Times

Neolithicum to Iron Age
Post-Mediaeval History
History and Literature

Mediaeval History

General Essays

Mediaeval Art and Craft

Mediaeval Art
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
The Hunting Frieze in Königslutter Cathedral
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Medieaval Craftmanship
Medical Instruments

Mediaeval Warfare

Mediaeval Weapons

Castles and Fortifications
Dungeons and Oubliettes


The History of Feudalism
The Beginnings
Feudalism in the 10th Century

Privileges and Special Relationships
The Privilege of the deditio
A Note on handgenginn maðr

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings

Hanseatic Architecture
Examples of Brick Architecture
Hall Houses (Dielenhäuser)

Goods and Trade
Stockfish Trade

Towns of the Hanseatic League
Tallinn / Reval

The Order of the Teutonic Knights

Wars and Battles
The Conquest of Danzig
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

The Vikings

Viking Ships
The Nydam Ship

Essays by Country



List of Mediaeval German Emperors
Anglo-German Marriage Connections

Kings and Emperors

The Salian Dynasty
King Heinrich IV

The Staufen Dynasty
A Welfen Intermezzo: Emperor Otto IV

Princes and Lords

House Welfen
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen

The Landgraves of Thuringia
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

Dukes and Princes of other Families
Duke Otto of Northeim
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Feuds and Rebellions

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War
The Star Wars


Kings of England

King Henry IV
King Henry's Lithuanian Crusade

Normans, Britons, Angevins

Great Noble Houses
The Dukes of Brittany
The Earls of Richmond

Contested Borders

King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War, Part 1
King David and the Civil War, Part 2

Houses Bruce and Stewart
The Early Stewart Kings

Local Troubles

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding

Scotland and England

The Wars of Independence
Alexander of Argyll
The Fight for Stirling Castle


Welsh Princes

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

Wales and England

A History of Rebellion
Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Kings of Denmark

House of Knýtlinga
Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

The Duchy of Estonia
Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


Kings of Norway

Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

Feuds and Rebellions

Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Troubles and Alliances

Scandinavian Unity
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

(Latvia and Estonia)

Livonian Towns

The History of Mediaeval Riga

The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Lithuanian Princes

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas

The Northern Crusades

The Wars in Lithuania
The Siege of Vilnius 1390


Royal Dynasties

The Jagiełłonian Kings
Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union

The Northern Crusades

The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
The Conquest of Danzig


Royal Dynasties

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
King Sigismund and the Hussite Wars

Roman History

The Romans at War

Forts and Fortifications

The German Limes
The Cavalry Fort Aalen
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg

The Hadrian's Wall
The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend

Border Life
Exercise Halls
Mile Castles and Watch Towers
Soldiers' Living Quarters
Cavalry Barracks

Campaigns and Battles

The Romans in Germania

The Pre-Varus Invasion in Germania
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn

The Batavian Rebellion
A Short Introduction

Miscellaneous Events

The Legend of Alaric's Burial

Roman Militaria

Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles

Roman Life and Religion

Religion and Public Life

Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms
Isis Worship
Memorial Stones
The Mithras Cult

Public Life
Roman Transport: Barges
Roman Transport: Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Roman Public Baths

Domestic Life

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots

Other Times


Geological Landscapes - Germany

Baltic Sea Coast
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

Harz Mountains
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in the Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs
Sandstone Formations: Daneil's Cave
Sandstone Formations: Devil's Wall
Sandstone Formations: The Klus Rock

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations
Salt Springs at the Werra

Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

Geological Landscapes - Great Britain

The Shores of Scotland

Geological Landscapes - The Baltic Sea

Geology of the Curonian Spit

Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

Fossilized Ammonites
The Loket Meteorite

Neolithicum to Iron Age


Development of Civilisation
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
The Hutewald Project in the Solling
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Neolithic Remains
Stone Burials of the Funnelbeaker Culture
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age / Iron Age
The Nydam Ship


Neolithic Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Bronze Age / Iron Age
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Their Function in Iron Age Society


Bronze / Iron Age
The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd / Gotland

Post-Mediaeval History

Explorers and Discoveries

Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

History and Literature


The Weimar Classicism

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