The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times


25 Sept 2009
  The Defeated Varus

Der gescheiterte Varus is the title of a 2.30 m bronze statue in Haltern am See. It was created by Wilfried Koch in 2003 and shows Varus at the moment of his defeat; the legions lost and maybe the province Germania as well, Arminius whom he trusted turned traitor.

Wilfried Koch (born 1929) is a German artist and art historian, and member of the European Academy of Science and Arts. His book about 'European Architecture from Antiquity to Present Time' (1982) has become one of the standard books about the subject and was translated into 20 languages. He added a great number of his own pencil drawings as illustrations.

Koch has painted more than a thousand portraits and since 1982 works mostly in sculpture. His bronze statues, created in wax melting technique, have become famous for their strong facial expressions and their over-large hands. Body and limbs are shaped of open shells. Most of his statues portray figures from mythology and Christian iconography (Lilith, Eva, Franciscus, Prophet, among others)

I admit I'm not much into modern sculpture, but the face of Varus' statue did impress me. You have to see it live to fully appreciate it; there is so much hopelessness and emotional pain - you can almost hear him say, "why, Arminius, why?"

Closeup of the head

Wilfried Koch says that he creates sculptures of humans in emotional and existential borderline situations, and that he wants to stir the beholder into responding with his own emotions and thoughts. The strange thing is that once you get used to his style and the 'rough' look, it works.

Closeup of the face from a different angle

When I walked towards the statue, situated in a little park outside the town centre, my first reaction was, oh dear, another of those odd looking modern thingies. But then I stood a while and looked into Varus' face. Spellbound almost.
 


18 Sept 2009
  Much Fun Was Had

I'm back from my visit to the Romans in Haltern am See. The exhibitions are great, and I was glad to have stayed long enough to do both of them justice and not rush through in two hours. I took a lot of photos, but the conditions were more than tricky and I suppose I'll have to count for at least 10% blurred pics this time. But some turned out fine; here are a few samples:

-- Shiny things

Cup from a set of silver ware

This one - showing a chariot race - and several other pretty cups were part of the Roman Lifestyle section in the special exhibition 'Imperium' in the Seestadthalle (Lakeside Town Hall). The level of craftmanship of those luxury items is amazing.

-- A dysfunctional family

Statues of some members of the Imperial Family

From left to right: Germanicus, Tiberius, Livia, Augustus, Agrippa Postumus (a grandson of Augustus who died early). Augustus wears his toga with a fold of cloth over the head, signifying his role as priest. Poor Claudius has been left out of the family portrait again.

-- Models

Closeup of the model of the fort at Haltern

One of the interesting features of the permanent exhibition in the LWL Römermuseum (Lippe-Westphalian Roman Museum) are several models ranking from the complete fort in Haltern to a single barrack. In the background of the photo you can see a display showing a column of mounted playmobil Romans. There were three legions worth of the little figures all over the place.

-- Army life

Parts of a horse harness

Central part of the museum is the Roman army. This exhibition, showing all the finds of Roman origins along the Lippe river where the Romans had a number of forts and marching camps, is statuary in Haltern, though it has been expanded with some additional displays during the duration of the Varus Battle Anniversary events.

-- Pointy things

Roman dagger

Army life of course, includes all sorts of weapons, and you know I can never resist a pretty pugio (even from an odd angle). With all the photos I took in various Roman-themed museums, I now have an impressive collection of virtual weapons, armour and horse equipment.

-- A Roman ship

The Victoria, a reconstructed Roman ship

This one was really fun. Not only was I lucky to see the reconstructed Roman ship Victoria (modeled after a find from the Danube) close up, I also managed to join in rowing her around on the lake for an hour. Not an easy job, but it can't get much more Roman for a geek like me.
 


13 Sept 2009
  Gone Fishing

I'll be off for a few days hunting Romans in Germania again. With the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest celebrating its 2000 year anniversary this year, there are exhibitions not only in Kalkriese, the assumed battlefield location, but also in Haltern am See, the location of a Roman fort that was abandoned after the defeat. Besides a long standing display in a museum on the site of the fort, there's an anniversary exhibition as well that is said to be very good.
 


7 Sept 2009
  Wallace Views

There's one man you can't escape in Stirling: William Wallace, the 13th century Scottish hero who probably would love the idea of time travel into the future, so he could have a few words with Mel Gibson about that Braveheart movie.

The main reason for his popularity as tourist attraction is because of this. OK, you'll have to take a close look, but that spiky thing on the hill in the middle of the pic is the Wallace Monument.

Wallace Monument, seen from Stirling Castle

The hill is called Abbey Craig, and it's said to have been the place from where Wallace watched the gathering of Edward I's army before the battle of Stirling Bridge in September 1297. Wallace won that battle, which is one of the reasons for his popularity - defeating Edward I counts as something. After the battle Wallace was proclaimed Guardian of Scotland, though I don't think there's an exact job description anywhere.

Wallace Monument, near Stirling

This picture of the monument looks pretty dramatic; an effect you'll get when photographing objects against the sky. And the Scottish sky is prone to be dramatic all in itself.

The monument was constructed in the wake of a resurgence of Scottish nationalism in the 19th century (1), based on a fundraising campaign that yielded £18,000. The 220 feet high sandstone tower was completed in 1869 to the Victorian Gothic designs of architect John Thomas Rochead. There's a museum inside.

View from the monument towards Stirling

There was still some time left after I visited Stirling Castle, and I decided to see the Wallace Monument. The official guidebook said it's open until 6 am but when I arrived at the foot of the hill, it turned out opening time was only until 5 am. Well, I climbed the hill anway because the terrace in front of the tower offers a great view over the surroundings, but I miissed the exhibition (and climbing 280something stairs, lol).

View towards the Highlands

The view was worth the climb, though it was the first time I regretted not having brought my trusty walking stick (I would regret it several more times in the days to follow).

I got a Historical Scotland booklet about William Wallace I bought ten years ago, and Nigel Tranter's novel is on my TBR pile, so I may come up with some information about the man that are a bit more historical correct than Wallace having sex with Queen Isabella three years after his death. ;)

Zoomed in view to Stirling Castle, seen from the Wallace Monument

In the evening light only the renovated hall can be distinguished by its yellowish stone, the grey walls beneath almost merge with the landscape.

(1) Nationalist revival spread all through Europe at that time. The German Hermann Statue celebrating Arminius' victory over Varus dates from the same era. Let's hope Gibson never finds out about that piece of history.
 


2 Sept 2009
  Weather Patterns

This summer could be classified as crazy, but following a pattern - at least in Germany. It goes like this:

  • Day 1: patchy clouds, mostly dry and warm
  • Day 2: sunny and warm, getting humid
  • Day 3: sunny, HOT and HUMID
  • Day 4: hot, humid, big fat thunderstorms
  • Day 5: rain and wind, cooler
  • Day 6: showers, still windy, cold
  • Day 7: overcast, few showers, getting warmer.

  • Rinse and repeat.

    Thunderstorm clouds

    At least it makes for an interesting sky sometimes. Here's one of those big fat thunderstorms coming in from the south-west (their favourite direction).

    Rainbow

    Sometimes there are rainbows when the storm moves east and the sun comes out again; a constellation that happens mostly in the afternoon.

    After the storm

    And an hour later the sky looks as if it never did anything bad.

    But since this fun is going on more or less since I returned from Scotland, I could do with some different weather. What about a few not too hot but sunny days in a row?
     




    The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, and central / eastern Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.


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    Location: Goettingen, Germany

    I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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    Historical Places

    Germany

    Towns

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    Medieaval Braunschweig
    Lion Benches in the Castle Square
    The Quadriga

    Erfurt
    Mediaeval Erfurt

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    Mediaeval Goslar
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    Lübeck
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    Magdeburg Cathedral
    Liebfrauen Church: An Austere Archbishop
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    Mainz
    The Temple of Isis and Mater Magna

    Paderborn
    Mediaeval Paderborn

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    Mediaeval Quedlinburg
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    Speyer
    The Cathedral: Architecture
    Jewish Ritual Bath
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    Stralsund
    The Harbour
    Mediaeval Stralsund: The Old Town

    Trier
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    The Imperial Baths
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    The Roman Bridge

    Weimar
    Sites of the Weimar Classicism
    The Park at the Ilm

    Wismar
    The Old Harbour

    Xanten
    Roman and Mediaeval Xanten
    The Gothic House
    The Amphitheatre in Birten

    Other Towns
    Seaside Ressort Binz
    Boppard - The Roman Baudobriga
    Heiligenstadt
    Treffurt

    Castles

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    History: The Double Castle
    History: Albrecht II of Thuringia

    Coburg Fortress
    History
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    History: The Marshals of Ebersburg
    Architecture

    Hanstein
    History

    Hardenberg
    History

    Hohnstein
    History: The Counts of Hohnstein
    History: Between Welfen and Staufen
    History: 14th-15th Century

    Kugelsburg
    History: The Counts of Everstein
    History: Later Times

    Plesse
    History: The Counts of Winzenburg
    History: The Lords of Plesse
    Architecture

    Scharzfels
    History
    Architecture

    Wartburg
    A Virtual Tour

    Weidelsburg
    History
    Architecture
    Revisiting the Weidelsburg

    Castles in the Harz Mountains
    Regenstein
    Stapelburg
    Stauffenburg

    Castles in Hessia
    Grebenstein
    Reichenbach
    Sichelnstein

    Castles in Lower Saxony
    Adelebsen
    Grubenhagen
    Hardeg Castle
    Salzderhelden

    Castles in Thuringia
    Altenstein at the Werra
    Scharfenstein

    Castles at the Weser
    Bramburg
    Krukenburg: Castle and Chapel
    Castle Polle: An Everstein Seat
    Sababurg and Trendelburg

    Abbeys and Churches

    Early Mediaeval Churches
    Göllingen Monastery
    Lorsch Abbey: The Carolingian Gate Hall

    Churches in the Harz Area
    Pöhlde: Remains of the Monastery
    Hahnenklee: The Stave Church
    Scharzfeld: The Cave Church
    Walkenried Monastery
    Wiebrechtshausen

    Churches in Hessia
    Wilhelmshausen / Fulda Valley

    Weser Abbeys: Bursfelde
    Early History

    Weser Abbeys: Helmarshausen
    Remains of the Monastery
    The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion

    Weser Abbeys: Lippoldsberg
    Early History
    The Interior of the Church

    Other Churches in the Weser Area
    Fredelsloh Chapter Church
    Gehrden / Brakel
    Vernawahlshausen: Mediaeval Murals

    Museums and Reconstructed Sites

    Open Air Museums
    European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
    Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

    Palatine Seat Tilleda
    The Defenses

    Viking Settlement Haithabu
    Haithabu and the Archaeological Museum Schleswig
    The Nydam Ship

    Post-Mediaeval Exhibits
    Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
    Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg

    Romans Remains

    Traces of a Failed Invasion
    Roman Exhibitions, Haltern am See
    Varus Statue, Haltern am See
    The Roman Camp at Hedemünden

    Limes Fort Aalen
    The Barracks

    Limes Fort Osterburken
    The Discovery
    The Cohort castellum
    The Annex Fort
    The Garrisons

    Limes Fort Saalburg
    A Reconstructed Limes Fort
    Shrine of the Standards

    Roman villae at the Moselle
    The Villa Urbana in Longuich

    Roman villae at the Rhine
    The Villa at Wachenheim: Introduction
    Wachenheim: Baths and Toilets
    Wachenheim: The Cellar

    Neolithicum and Bronze Age

    Neolithic Burials
    Neolithic Burials in the Everstorf Forest and Rugia
    The Necropolis of Oldendorf

    Bronze Age
    Bronze and Iron Age Remains at the Werra


    England

    Towns

    Chester
    Roman and Medieaval Chester

    Hexham
    The Abbey - Introduction
    The Old Gaol

    York
    Clifford Tower
    The Guild Hall
    Monk Bar Gate and Richard III Museum
    Museum Gardens and Mulitangular Tower
    The Old Town
    Roman Bath in the Fortress
    York Minster: Architecture

    Castles

    Carlisle
    History: King David
    History: Henry II and William of Scotland
    History: Edward I to Edward III

    Richmond
    History: Conquest to King John
    History: Henry III to the Tudors
    Architecture

    Scarborough
    History: Romans to the Tudors
    History: Civil War to the Present
    Architecture

    Roman Remains

    Wall Fort Birdoswald
    The Dark Age Timber Halls

    Wall Fort Segedunum
    Museum and Viewing Tower
    The Baths

    Other Roman Sites
    The Mithraeum at Brocolita
    The Signal Station at Scarborough


    Scotland

    Towns

    Edinburgh
    Views from the Castle

    Stirling
    The Wallace Monument

    Castles

    Doune
    A Virtual Tour
    History: The Early Stewart Kings
    History: Royal Dower House

    Dunstaffnage
    History: An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
    History: The Wars of Independence
    History: The Campbells Are Coming
    Dunstaffnage Chapel

    Stirling
    History: Robert the Bruce

    Castles at the Scottish West Coast
    Duart Castle
    Dunollie and Kilchurn

    Abbeys and Churches

    Inchcolm Abbey
    Arriving at Inchcolm

    Neolithicum and Bronze Age

    Neolithic Orkney
    Ring of Brodgar
    Skara Brae

    Brochs and Cairns
    Clava Cairns
    The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Introduction

    Picts and Dalriatans
    Dunadd Hill Fort
    Staffa


    Wales

    Towns

    Aberystwyth
    Castle and Coast

    Caerleon
    The Ffwrwm
    The Roman Amphitheatre
    The Baths in the Legionary Fort

    Conwy
    The Smallest House in Great Britain

    Castles

    Beaumaris
    History
    Architecture

    Caernarfon
    Master James of St.George
    The Castle Kitchens

    Chepstow
    History: Beginnings unto Bigod
    History: Edward II to the Tudors
    History: Civil War

    Conwy
    History
    Architecture

    Criccieth
    Llywelyn's Buildings
    King Edward's Buildings

    Pembroke
    Photo Impressions
    The Caves Under the Castle

    Castles in Southern Wales
    Cardiff
    Manorbier


    Denmark

    Museums and Reconstructed Sites

    Viking Museum Roskilde
    To come


    Norway

    Castles and Fortresses

    Akershus Fortress in Oslo
    History: The Time of King Håkon V
    Architecture

    Vardøhus Fortress
    History

    Museums / Reconstructed Sites

    The Fram Museum in Oslo


    Sweden

    Museums and Reconstructed Sites

    The Vasa Museum in Stockholm

    Neolithicum and Bronze Age

    Gotland
    Gnisvärd Ship Setting


    Finland

    Towns

    Porvoo
    Mediaeval Porvoo


    Estonia

    Towns

    Tallinn
    The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


    Latvia

    Towns

    Riga
    The History of Mediaeval Riga


    Lithuania

    Historical Landscapes

    The Curonian Spit
    Geology of the Curonian Spit


    Poland

    Towns

    Gdańsk / Danzig
    History of Mediaeval Gdańsk
    Mediaeval and Renaissance Gdańsk

    Kraków
    The Old Town
    Jewish Kraków - Kazimierz and the Ghetto

    Wrocław / Breslau
    The Botanical Garden
    The Wrocław Dwarfs

    Castles

    Ogrodzieniec Castle
    A Virtual Tour
    History: First Castle to the Boner Family


    Czechia

    Towns

    Cheb / Eger
    The Old Town

    Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
    Brief History of the Town

    Kutná Hora
    The Sedlec Ossuary
    The Medieaval Town and St.Barbara's Church


    Belgium

    Towns

    Antwerp
    The Old Town

    Bruges
    Mediaeval Bruges

    Ghent
    Mediaeval Ghent

    Tongeren
    Roman and Mediaeval Remains


    Luxembourg

    Towns

    Luxembourg City
    A Tour of the Town


    City Trips

    St.Petersburg (Russia)
    Impressions from the Neva River

    Strasbourg (France)
    A Tour of the Town


    Hiking Tours and Cruises

    Germany

    The Baltic Sea Coast
    Flensburg Firth
    Rugia: Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
    Rugia; The Pier of Sellin
    Rugia: More Photo Impressions
    A Tour on the Wakenitz River

    The Lüneburg Heath
    Hiking Tours in the Lüneburg Heath

    Harz National Park
    Arboretum (Bad Grund)
    Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
    Devil's Wall
    Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
    Oderteich Reservoir
    Rappbode Reservoir
    Views from Harz mountains

    Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
    Around Bad Sooden-Allendorf
    Hessian Switzerland

    Nature Park Solling-Vogler
    The Forest Pasture Project
    Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

    Nature Park Reinhardswald
    Old Forest at the Sababurg

    Thuringian Forests
    Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

    Rivers and Lakes
    Bruchteiche / Bad Sooden Allendorf
    The Danube in Spring
    Edersee Reservoir
    A Rainy Rhine Cruise
    The Moselle
    Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut
    Weser River Ferry
    Weser Skywalk

    Wildlife
    Harz Falcon Park
    Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
    Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life
    Red squirrels

    Seasons
    Spring in the Botanical Garden Göttingen
    Spring in the Hardenberg Castle Gardens
    Spring at the 'Kiessee' Lake
    Spring in the Meissner
    Memories of Summer
    Summer Hiking Tours 2016
    Autumn in the Meissner
    Autumn at Werra and Weser
    Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake


    United Kingdom

    The East Coast
    By Ferry to Newcastle
    Highland Mountains: Inverness to John o'Groats
    Some Photos from the East Coast

    Scottish Sea Shores
    Crossing to Mull
    Mull: Craignure to Fionnphort
    Pentland Firth
    Staffa
    Summer Days in Oban
    Summer Nights in Oban
    Scotland by Train
    West Highland Railway


    Wild Wales - With Castles
    Views of Snowdownia
    Views from Castle Battlements

    Wildlife
    Sea Gulls


    Scandinavia

    The Hurtigruten-Tour / Norway
    A Voyage into Winter
    Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
    Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

    Norway by Train
    From Oslo to Bergen
    From Trondheim to Oslo

    Wildlife
    Bearded Seals
    Dog Sledding With Huskies
    Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord


    The Baltic Sea

    A Baltic Sea Cruise

    The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
    Beaches at the Curonian Spit
    Geology of the Curonian Spit



    Mediaeval History
    - General Essays
    - Specific Topics

    History by Country
    - Germany
    - England
    - Scotland
    - Wales
    - Denmark
    - Norway
    - Sweden
    - Livonia
    - Lithuania
    - Poland
    - Bohemia

    Roman History
    - The Romans at War
    - Roman Life and Religion

    Other Times
    - Neolithicum to Iron Age
    - Post-Mediaeval History
    -
    Miscellanea
    - Geology


    Mediaeval History

    General Essays

    Mediaeval Art and Craft

    Mediaeval Art
    The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
    The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
    Mediaeval Monster Carvings
    The Upside-Down World
    The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

    Medieaval Craftmanship
    Goldsmithery
    Medical Instruments

    Mediaeval Warfare

    Mediaeval Weapons
    Swords
    Trebuchets

    Castles and Fortifications
    Dungeons and Oubliettes


    Specific Topics

    Feudalism

    The History of Feudalism
    The Beginnings
    Feudalism in the 10th Century

    Privileges and Special Relationships
    The Privilege of the deditio
    A Note on handgenginn maðr

    The Hanseatic League

    The History of the Hanseatic League
    Introduction and Beginnings

    Hanseatic Architecture
    Examples of Brick Architecture
    Hall Houses (Dielenhäuser)

    Goods and Trade
    Stockfish Trade

    Towns of the Hanseatic League
    Riga
    Stralsund
    Tallinn / Reval

    The Order of the Teutonic Knights

    Wars and Battles
    The Conquest of Danzig
    The Siege of Vilnius 1390

    The Vikings

    Viking Ships
    The Nydam Ship


    Some historical events are linked under more than one country / subtitle due to the overarching nature of history.


    History by Country

    Germany

    Geneaology

    List of Mediaeval German Emperors

    Geneaologies
    Anglo-German Marriage Connections
    Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors

    Kings and Emperors

    The Salian Dynasty
    King Heinrich IV

    House Welf and House Staufen
    Emperor Otto IV, Introduction

    Princes and Lords

    Princes
    Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen
    The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
    Duke Otto of Northeim
    The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
    Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia
    Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus

    Counts and Local Lords
    The Marshals of Ebersburg
    The Counts of Everstein
    The Counts of Hohnstein
    The Lords of Plesse
    The Counts of Reichenbach
    The Counts of Winzenburg

    Feuds and Rebellions

    Royal Troubles
    Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

    Local Feuds
    The Lüneburg Succession War
    The Thuringian Succession War
    The Star Wars


    England

    Kings of England

    King Henry IV
    King Henry's Lithuanian Crusade

    Normans, Britons, Angevins

    Great Noble Houses
    The Dukes of Brittany
    The Earls of Richmond

    Contested Borders

    Northumbria
    King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


    Scotland

    Kings of Scots

    House Dunkeld
    Malcolm III and Northumbria
    Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
    King David and the Civil War, Part 1
    King David and the Civil War, Part 2

    Houses Bruce and Stewart
    The Early Stewart Kings

    Local Troubles

    Clan Feuds
    MacLeans and MacDonalds
    A Scottish Wedding

    Scotland and England

    The Wars of Independence
    Alexander of Argyll
    The Fight for Stirling Castle


    Wales

    Welsh Princes

    The Princes of Gwynedd
    The Rise of House Aberffraw

    Wales and England

    A History of Rebellion
    Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


    Denmark

    Kings of Denmark

    House of Knýtlinga
    Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

    Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

    The Duchy of Estonia
    Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


    Norway

    Kings of Norway

    Foreign Relations
    King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
    King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
    Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

    Feuds and Rebellions

    Rebels
    Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


    Sweden

    Troubles and Alliances

    Scandinavian Unity
    Beginnings of the Kalmar Union


    Livonia
    (Latvia and Estonia)

    Livonian Towns

    Riga
    The History of Mediaeval Riga

    Tallinn
    The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


    Lithuania

    Lithuanian Princes

    The Geminid Dynasty
    Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas

    The Northern Crusades

    The Wars in Lithuania
    The Siege of Vilnius 1390


    Poland

    Royal Dynasties

    The Jagiełłonian Kings
    Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union

    The Northern Crusades

    The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
    The Conquest of Danzig


    Bohemia

    Royal Dynasties

    The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
    King Sigismund and the Hussite Wars


    Roman History

    The Romans at War

    Forts and Fortifications

    The German Limes
    The Cavalry Fort Aalen
    Limes Fort Osterburken
    Limes Fort Saalburg

    The Hadrian's Wall
    Introduction
    The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend

    Border Life
    Exercise Halls
    Mile Castles and Watch Towers
    Soldiers' Living Quarters
    Cavalry Barracks

    Campaigns and Battles

    Maps
    The Romans in Germania

    The Pre-Varus Invasion in Germania
    Roman Camp Hedemünden
    New Finds in 2008

    The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
    Museum Park at Kalkriese

    The Battle at the Harzhorn
    Introduction

    The Batavian Rebellion
    A Short Introduction

    Miscellaneous Events

    The Legend of Alaric's Burial

    Roman Militaria

    Armour
    Early Imperial Helmets
    Late Roman Helmets
    The Negau B Helmet

    Weapons
    Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
    The pilum
    Daggers
    Swords

    Other Equipment
    Roman Saddles


    Roman Life and Religion

    Religion and Public Life

    Religion
    Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms
    Isis Worship
    Memorial Stones
    The Mithras Cult

    Public Life
    Roman Transport: Barges
    Roman Transport: Amphorae and Barrels
    Roman Water Supply

    Architecture
    Roman Public Baths

    Domestic Life

    Roman villae
    Villa Urbana Longuich
    Villa Rustica Wachenheim

    Everyday Life
    Bathing Habits
    Children's Toys
    Face Pots


    Other Times

    Neolithicum to Iron Age

    Germany

    Development of Civilisation
    European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
    The Hutewald Project in the Solling
    Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

    Neolithic Remains
    Stone Burials of the Funnelbeaker Culture
    The Necropolis of Oldendorf

    Bronze Age / Iron Age
    The Nydam Ship

    Scotland

    Neolithic Orkney
    The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
    Ring of Brodgar
    Skara Brae
    Life in Skara Brae

    Bronze Age / Iron Age
    Clava Cairns
    The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Their Function in Iron Age Society

    Scandinavia

    Bronze / Iron Age
    The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd / Gotland


    Post-Mediaeval History

    Explorers and Discoveries

    Explorers
    Fram Expedition to the North Pole
    Fram Expedition to the South Pole

    Discoveries
    Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
    Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)


    Miscellanea

    History in Literature and Music

    History and Literature

    The Weimar Classicism
    The Weimar Classicism - Introduction

    Theodor Fontane
    Short Biography of Theodor Fontane
    Fontane Ballads, translated by me
    Archibald Douglas
    Gorm Grymme
    Sir Walter Scott in Abbotsford
    The Tragedy of Afghanistan

    History in Opera

    Belcanto and Historicism
    Maria Padilla - Mistress Royal
    The Siege of Calais in Donizetti's Opera

    Not so Serious History

    Romans
    Building Hadrian's Wall
    Playmobil Romans

    Mediaeval Times
    Kings Having a Bad Hair Day
    The Case of the Vanished Wine Cask

    Other
    Rules for Writing Scottish Romances


    Geology

    Geological Landscapes

    The Baltic Sea
    Geology of the Curonian Spit
    Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
    Flint Fields on Rugia

    The Harz
    Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
    The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
    Karst Formations in the Southern Harz
    The Lonau Falls
    The Rhume Springs
    Sandstone Formations: Daneil's Cave
    Sandstone Formations: Devil's Wall
    Sandstone Formations: The Klus Rock

    Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
    Blue Dome near Eschwege
    Diabase and Basalt Formations
    Karst Formations
    Salt Springs at the Werra

    Solling-Vogler
    Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
    Hannover Cliffs

    The Shores of Scotland
    Staffa

    Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

    Fossilized Ammonites
    The Loket Meteorite


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