The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times


6 Mar 2010
  Stirling Castle and Robert the Bruce

I also revisted the Bannockburn Heritage Centre in Stirling (built in the late 1960ies) and the Bruce Memorial in a park that may have been the original battlesite, though the subject is still discussed. The sky was a mix of sunshine and dramatic clouds which made for some interesting shots of the famous statue. The rest of the pics is from Stirling Castle.

Robert the Bruce, against the Scottish summer sky

The famous battle of Bannockburn took place on 24 June 1314. I'm not going into details in this post - I should leave that to Kathryn (aka Alianore), our knowledgeable Edward II blogger. The short version is: the Scots* won that one and sent King Edward II of England packing in a hurry, though that's about as correct as 'Arminius kicked the Romans out of Germany for good at the battle of Teutoburg Forest'. The Romans came back, and so did King Edward's son, another Edward, numbered III.

* Well, Bruce's allies, to be correct, there were some Scots hanging out at Edward's court because they could not resist Edward's sex appeal decided to keep their oaths.

Stirling Castle, seen from the west

Stirling Castle did not look like today during Robert's and King Edward's time - most of the buildings date from 1496 and 1583 - but it had been an important place in Scottish history since the time of King Alexander I who died at Stirling Castle in 1124. The rock, guarding the crossing of the river Forth, probably was fortified much earlier, though any attempt to date occupation back to Roman times and a stronghold of the Votadini tribe has not (yet) been supported by archaeological finds.

King Edward II would have found the place not very accomodating, since Robert the Bruce destroyed the defenses of the castle so the English could not use it against him. Had he but known that Edward galloped off to Dunbar instead.

Bruce Memorial; the other side

Robert the Bruce, born 1274 as son of Robert Bruce, 8th Lord of Annandale, and Marjorie, Countess of Carrick, became Robert I King of Scotland in March 1306 until his death in 1329.

I'm not going into a detailed biography of Robert the Bruce, but here is some basic information: King Edward I ruled Scotland as province of England since 1296 (after several claimants to the throne has asked him to arbitrate). During the rebellion of William Wallace and its aftermath, Robert seems to have been on and off the English side until neither Edward nor the Scots really trusted him any longer. Clearly a survivor in the game of alliances and allegiances, though. What Robert really wanted was the crown of Scotland to which his family held a claim. Unfortunately, so did several other powerful families like the Balliol and Comyn. Robert met with John III Comyn the Red in February 1306 to discuss matters. Whether planned murder or temper getting he better of Robert - he stabbed John to death, and in a church to boot. So Robert the Bruce became King of Scotland and had a civil war with the Comyn allies on his hand right there.

King Edward I took advantage of that messy situation, of course, and supported the Comyns by sending an army (I'm not sure how much they liked that sort of support), declared Bruce and his followers outlaws, and had the pope excommunicate Robert Bruce for murder. He defeated Bruce in battle and while Robert himself escaped, two of his brothers got captured and executed as traitors (the full hanging, drawing and quartering treatment), one of his sisters and his mistress, Isabella Countess of Buchan, were suspended from English castle walls in open cages. Robert himself fled into hiding and lived in caves. There's no shortage of those on the Scottish coasts.

Another take of the Bruce Memorial

But Robert got lucky: King Edward died in July 1307, and his son Edward II was too busy keeping the Earl of Lancaster and his merry band of disgruntled nobles from exiling Piers Gaveston, and updating his Facebook account, to wage war upon Scotland. Bruce started a successful guerilla war against every English and Comyn supporter he could flush out; and by the end of 1309 controlled all Scotland north of the river Tay.

Stirling Castle was one of the few places still held by the English. It was besieged by Robert's brother Edward (I'm going to call him Ned to avoid confusion with the English Edwards) who made a deal with the English constable that if an English relief army had not arrived by June 24, 1314, the garrison would surrender. So King Edward II gathered 20,000 men, the largest army yet to invade Scotland. Now, his father would have made haggis out of Robert and Ned with that force, but Edward II picked the wrong terrain (the bogs between the Forth and the Bannockburn) and the wrong tactics (mounted knights against pickets of lances), and lost to a much smaller Scottish army. Though he himself fought bravely and had to be dragged to safety by his retainers. Robert the Bruce took a bunch of English nobles prisoner and exchanged them for the members of his family still held captive in England.

In 1324, the pope acknowledged Robert the Bruce as King of Scotland. Robert died in 1329 and was succeeded by his son David.

King Edward II had been sent into early retirement where he died under questionable circumstances, but his son Edward III was not particularly fond about the peace treaty his mother and Roger Mortimer had concluded with Bruce. He used the internal strifes of underaged kings and ambitious nobles to push a claim to Scotland several times by sending armies, even took King David prisoner during one of these forays. But in the end, he did not succeed to establish a puppet king and concentrated on his war in France instead.

Stirling Castle

Stirling Castle has often been the focus of during the events surrounding Robert the Bruce and his successors, the Stewart kings. The castle was besieged at least 16 times, and three battles have been fought in its vicinity. A number of Scottish kings and queens have been to Stirling Castle for important events like coronations; or died there. To give you a little tidbit just for the time of Robert the Bruce, here's a - somewhat shortened - excerpt of the timeline given on the Undiscovered Scotland website:

1291 - Stirling Castle is placed under the control of Edward I of England.
July 1291 - The Scottish nobility swear fealty to the English Crown at Stirling Castle.
1296 - King Edward captures the castle.
Sept. 1297 - Battle of Stirling Bridge (William Wallace is victor over the English). Stirling Castle which is held by the English, surrenders to the Scots.
1298 - The Scots abandon the castle after the lost battle of Falkirk; Edward I again resumes control.
1299 - Robert the Bruce lays siege to the castle and regains it from the English.
1304 - The castle is besieged by the English and surrenders to Edward I.
1314 - The castle is besieged by Robert's brother; a deal is made that the castle will surrender if the English don't relieve it by June 24 (midsummer's day).
June 24, 1314- Battle of Bannockburn. The castle surrenders to the Scots and Robert destroys the defenses to prevent it from being used again by the English.
1333 - The English again take control fo Stirling Castle and rebuild its defenses.

Rinse and Repeat. :-)

View from the North Gate into the Nether Bailey

With the above timeline, you don't need to wonder that the castle has been altered a lot during the centuries. The north gate, dating from 1380, is the oldest remaining part of the castle, and the fortifications of the Nether Bailey probably date from the same time though they have been rebuilt later.

This was another case of reliving the past: when I passed through the gate the first time, there were kids rolling down the grass-covered wall, and they did the same this time. I sat on the grass and had a little picnic, just like ten years ago. It's a pretty spot nowadays, and the sun had come out both times as well. I didn't roll down the wall, though; didn't want to get grass stains on my jacket. But it looked like fun.

View from the battlements to the Highlands

Stirling is called the Gate to the Highlands, and on this photo, the sun was so kind to highlight the mountains in the north. Beautiful, isn't it?

Sources: The official Castle guidebook, the Undiscovered Scotland website, a booklet about the Battle of Bannockburn and a short biography of Robert the Bruce I got in the Bannockburn Heritage Centre.
 
Comments:
16 sieges? There must be plenty of blood soaked into the flagstones there.

Great photos. How big is the statue of Robert the Bruce?
 
Loved the post and the pix!
 
Thanks for this great, funny post and the links to my blog, Gabriele! I love your pics of Stirling Castle - sadly I've never been there, something I hope to rectify before I'm too much older. I'll definitely have to write a post (or probably several) about the battle of Bannockburn sometime.

there were some Scots hanging out at Edward's court because they could not resist Edward's sex appeal. So very, very true. :-)
 
Great stuff, Gabriele. I can see the castle (just) from my front window and the Wallace Monument too.
I was up at the Bannockburn Heritage Museum where Bruce's statue is about a month ago doing some research. The statue is amazing, the plinth alone is about twelve feet high, and the artist has really caught the Bruce's strength and power, though I suspect the actual likeness is wishful thinking.
The country around Stirling is soaked in history. There's a lovely iron age fort and a neolithic burial mound less than a mile from my house and the Battle of Sheriffmuir was at the top of the hill behind Bridge of Allan.
 
I like the castle! Apparently, so did everyone else. ;P
 
Brian, the Scottis rain washes the blood off. :)
I don't know the exact measures of the statue, but as Doug said the plinth alone is 12 feet high, the statue must be a good deal higher.

Thank you, Susan.

Katrhym, Stirling is definitely worth a visit. Not only for the castle; there's a lot to see around the place, and it's a nice little town, too.

Doug, you live in a great place. I can see some trees from my window, but not places soaked in history (the Romans at my backdoor, as I call them, still need a 20 minute drive) but Göttingen is quite pretty, I have to say. :)
I've been to the Wallace Monument as well.
Research about the Bruce? Are there plans for something not-Roman in the future?

Louis, looks like, doesn't it? :)
It's a tourist attraction as well, though it was less crowded than Edinburgh Castle.
 
Magnificant statue.
I have a biography of Bruce around somewhere - am going to have to re-read it.
 
Awesome post, Gabriele.

My favourite aspect about Edward's siege of Stirling was that he constructed the mightiest trebuchet in history: the Loup de Guerre (War Wolf). The Scots actually tried to surrender even before it was completed, so massive and imposing the beast was. Edward, who is easily my favourite English king for his magnificent bastardry, said "You'll surrender when I damn well please, knaves!" and tested out the thing. It took out a whole section of the curtain wall.

If I were Frank Miller doing a 300-style account of the Wars of Independence, I like to imagine the counterweight was shaped like a snarling wolf's head, with the supports resembling paws, and the arm shaped like the tail. And it would have torches in its eyes and mouth. And the traction as it launched would sound like a wolf's howl. :P
 
Bernita, he was an interesting man, for sure.

Al, that was Edward I in 1296, shortly before William Wallace showed him that trebuchets alone don't make you win a war, either. I found a photo in Wikimedia - it should be to Constance's liking albeit you can only see the counterweight, not the entire arm. A big bad boy indeed. :)
 
Any self-respecting tribe would surely have wanted a hillfort on top of Stirling Rock :-)

Stirling is in such a strategic place, controlling access to the whole of the north of Scotland, that it's a wonder it hasn't been besieged even more often than it has.

I think the hills you see from Stirling are the Ochils. Lovely photo.
 
I was at Stirling in August 2004. It's a wonderful town and a fantastic castle. I thought it was better than Edinburgh.

Just a quick note: Edward III HATED the 1328 treaty with Scotland! It included the marriage of his sister Joan with David Bruce, the heir of Scotland. It was all the doing of his mother and Roger Mortimer.

Great pictures, too!!
 
Edward III attacked Scotland in, um, without checking I think it was 1332 - his aim was to put Edward Balliol, son of John, on the throne in place of his (Ed III's) brother-in-law David. The earl of Mar, regent of Scotland and formerly one of Ed II's greatest supporters (so I love him, hehe...;) was killed at the battle of Dupplin Moor in 1332. Ed III inflicted a catastrophic defeat on the Scots at Halidon Hill in 1333, and in 1346 captured King David himself.

Ed III really, really didn't want to abide by his mother and Mortimer's peace treaty. :-)
 
Brad, Heh, if it was Roger's idea, no wonder Edward III hated it.

Kathryn, lol, looks like he didn't.

See, that's what you get when relying on guidebooks and websites - I have that point about Ed III not being interested in Scotland in my mind since Carlisle in 2007.

But I can't put up with another major research subject (the Romans and the Mediaeval German Emperors keep me busy enough). Just well I have online friends who know more about that bunch of Edwards. :)
 
Carla, I bet they had one, but that big whopping castle covers all traces of Iron Age settlements.
 
Exactly, Gabriele - I am here for all your Edward needs. :-) There is a tendency online when discussing Bannockburn to say things like 'the Scots won their freedom there', which is maybe another reason why it's easy to miss the fact that (unfortunately) the whole situation was by no means over in Ed II's reign - not for centuries. :(
 
Kathryn, that sounds much like the 'Arminius kicked the Romans out of Germany in the Teutoburg Forest' adage. The fact that Germanicus came back in 14 AD, and that even after the Romans indeed decided to have the Rhine as border and not turn Germania into a province, they still snatched the agri decumantes in the Rhine/Danube angle during the first century AD, tend to be glossed over.
 
Rinse and repeat, indeed- very appropriate given the amount of blood and Scottish rain involved :)

Wonderful pictures.

Barbara Erskine gives a chilling account of the experiences of Lady Mary Bruce and Isobel, Countess Buchan, in her novel, "Kingdom of Shadows". Hard to imagine how sane you would be after several years of hanging outdoors in a cage, subject all the while to constant abuse (as well as the Scottish/English rain).
 
Annis, I certainly wonder if the ladies didn't return home half mad, and full of very bloody and unpleasant revenge scenarios.
 
The Bruce statue at Bannockburn was based on the skull of Robert the Bruce which was discovered in Dunfermline Abbey.
 
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The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, the Baltic Countries, and central Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.


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I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History, interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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A Baltic Sea Cruise

The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
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Mediaeval History

General Essays

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Mediaeval Art and Craft

Mediaeval Art
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
The Hunting Frieze in Königslutter Cathedral
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

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The History of Feudalism
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Special Cases
The privilege of the deditio

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
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Goods and Trade
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The Order of the Teutonic Knights

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The Siege of Vilnius 1390

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The Nydam Ship


Essays by Country

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Geneaology

List of Mediaeval German Emperors
Anglo-German Marriage Connections

Kings and Emperors

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King Heinrich IV

Staufen against Welfen
Emperor Otto IV

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Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen

The Landgraves of Thuringia
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

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Duke Otto of Northeim
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus

Counts and Local Lords
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The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
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Feuds and Rebellions

Royal Troubles
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Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
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The Star Wars


England

Kings of England

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Richard Lionheart in Speyer
King Henry IV's Lithuanian Crusade

Normans, Britons, Angevins

Great Noble Houses
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Contested Borders

Northumbria
King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


Scotland

Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War, Part 1
King David and the Civil War, Part 2

Houses Bruce and Stewart
The Early Stewart Kings

Local Troubles

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding

Scotland and England

The Wars of Independence
Alexander of Argyll
The Fight for Stirling Castle


Wales

Welsh Princes

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

Wales and England

A History of Rebellion
Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Denmark

Kings of Denmark

House of Knýtlinga
Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

The Duchy of Estonia
Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


Norway

Kings of Norway

Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

Feuds and Rebellions

Rebels
Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Sweden

Troubles and Alliances

Scandinavian Unity
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union


Livonia
(Latvia and Estonia)

Contested Territories

Livonian Towns
The History of Mediaeval Riga
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Lithuania

Lithuanian Princes

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas

The Northern Crusades

The Wars in Lithuania
The Siege of Vilnius 1390


Poland

Royal Dynasties

The Jagiełłonian Kings
Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union

The Northern Crusades

The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
The Conquest of Danzig


Bohemia

Royal Dynasties

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
King Sigismund and the Hussite Wars


Luxembourg

House Luxembourg
King Sigismund


Flanders

More to come


Roman History

The Romans at War

Forts and Fortifications

The German Limes
The Cavalry Fort Aalen
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg

The Hadrian's Wall
Introduction
The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend

Border Life
Exercise Halls
Mile Castles and Watch Towers
Soldiers' Living Quarters
Cavalry Barracks

Campaigns and Battles

Maps
The Romans in Germania

The Pre-Varus Invasion in Germania
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn
Introduction

The Batavian Rebellion
A Short Introduction

Roman Militaria

Armour
Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapons
Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum
Daggers
Swords

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles


Famous Romans

The Late Empire

Alaric
The Legend of Alaric's Burial


Roman Life and Religion

Religion and Public Life

Religion
Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms
Isis Worship
Memorial Stones
The Mithras Cult

Public Life
Roman Transport: Barges
Roman Transport: Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Architecture
Roman Public Baths

Domestic Life

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots


Other Times

Neolithicum to Iron Age

Germany

Development of Civilisation
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
The Hutewald Project in the Solling
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Neolithic Remains
Stone Burials of the Funnelbeaker Culture
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age / Iron Age
The Nydam Ship

Scotland

Neolithic Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Bronze Age / Iron Age
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Their Function in Iron Age Society

Scandinavia

Bronze / Iron Age
The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd / Gotland


Post-Mediaeval History

Explorers and Discoveries

Explorers
Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

Discoveries
Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)


History and Literature

Germany

The Weimar Classicism
Introduction


Geology

Geological Landscapes: Germany

Baltic Sea Coast
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

Harz Mountains
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs
Sandstone Formations: Daneil's Cave
Sandstone Formations: Devil's Wall
Sandstone Formations: The Klus Rock

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations
Salt Springs at the Werra

Solling-Vogler
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

Geological Landscapes: Great Britain

The Shores of Scotland
Staffa

Geological Landscapes: Baltic Sea

Lithuania
Geology of the Curonian Spit

Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

Fossilized Ammonites
The Loket Meteorite (Czechia)



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