The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times


31 Oct 2012
  Happy Halloween

I wish everyone a happy Halloween. Don't overeat on the sweets you trick-and-treated. :)

Halloween is still not so common here though last year we got a few kids doing the rounds. This year there have not been any so I'll get to keep the treats. Hehe.

'Paradise' staircase rail in Naumburg Cathedral

The rails with the way to paradise (if you could get out of the way of the devil and that snake, lol) and Frances of Assisi on the other side were made by Heinrich Apel in 1972.
 


28 Oct 2012
  Border Castles and Conflicts - Castle Reichenbach

OK, I admit the title sounds more Scottish than it is, but some castles along the borders of Thuringia / Hessia / Lower Saxony have seen a fair bit of action thanks to sitting at the borders of former feudal or allodial possessions. And since I live right in the corner where the three counties meet, I've been visiting some of those places.

Today we'll have a look at the Castle of Reichenbach. I already mentioned the church in this post, remains of a former - albeit shortlived - nunnery. What's left of the castle is mostly just the keep and that one has been partly rebuilt, too. But it sits at the top of a mountain above the village, like so many castles in Germany, so it made for a nice walk despite the paucity of motives.

Reichenbach Castle, the keep

The village of Reichenbach is first mentioned in 1098, but there is archaeological evidence for an earlier Frankish settlement. The first lord in the area who left a trace in the documents is Gozmar of Reichenbach, High Reeve of the Abbey Fulda, in 1062. Wikipedia mentions a Frankish comes (Gaugraf) Gozmar of Reichenbach in Carolingian times, but they can't even get the date right in two separate articles and I could not find any proof (1). The same goes for the castle which can be proven to date at the same time as the village, about 1050 - 1100. A Carolingian timber castle predating the stone fortress and the 5th century 'Chattian walled fort' are pure speculation at this point since no traces have been found (though archaeological research wasn't very thorough due to costs).

The position of high reeve of Fulda Abbey was hereditarily held by the counts of Reichenbach; several members of the family are mentioned in documents as such. During the next generations, the family expanded their territorial possessions in northern Hessia, and in 1144, Gottfried, the son of Gozmar II, moved his seat to Ziegenhain, leaving the Reichenbach possessions to his uncle Poppo I. The Reichenbach line died out with the death of Gottfried III in 1279.

The troubles started when Liutgard (Lukardis) of Ziegenhain, daughter of Gozmar III, the son of Gottfried I, married Friedrich of Thuringia, third son of Landgrave Ludwig I and Jutta of Swabia (a sister of Friedrich Barbarossa), in 1185. The Thuringian landgraves had already snatched nice bits of land in Hessia when Landgrave Ludwig I married Hedwig of Gudenstein, heiress of the Gison family, in 1110. Friedrich wanted to continue along that line. Since Liutgard's father Gozmar had died the year prior to their marriage during the Latrine Accident of Erfurt (2), Friedrich laid claim to the title Count of Ziegenhain and Gozmar's lands, including Reichenbach (though I wonder what his argument was since Reichenbach belonged to the junior line, 3); he also became High Reeve of Fulda in 1229.

Gozmar's brother and successor Rudolf tried to fight Friedrich's claims, but he died already in 1188. His successor, another Gottfried, disappears from the sources (usually signed documents) in 1200 and his succession is a bit unclear since his only son was too young and his nephews Gottfried (number 5) and Berthold inherited only in 1229 - the same year Friedrich died.

But in all those fun messes between heritage claims and the ongoing troubles between the Ludowing landgraves of Thuringia on one side, and the archbishop of Mainz - who held a lot of land and feudal rights and/or claims (including the ones to Reichenbach) in Hessia - on the other, Reichenbach Castle saw a good deal of action.

Landgrave Ludwig IV conquered the castle after a prolongued siege in 1220, and in 1225, his brother Konrad Count of Gudensberg laid siege to the castle again, and again as result of a feud with the archbishop of Mainz (now Siegfried III). But in the end, Konrad decided for a diplomatic solution with the Ziegenhain heirs and formed an alliance with Gottfried and Berthold; they would keep their Ziegenhain possessions as allod from him but resign Reichenbach as fief, and they would all stay together against any enemy except the emperor (1233). The archbishop of Mainz probably wasn't happy about this since he considered Reichenbach as fief held from him, nor was Gottfried of the Reichenbach line who at the time was a prisoner of the archbishop (4).

With Heinrich Raspe's death in 1247, the Thuringian Succession War between the margrave of Meissen, Sophie of Brabant, and the archbishop of Mainz began, which lasted until 1264. Sophie - or more exactly, her troops - managed to conquer Castle Reichenbach in the name of her still under-aged son Heinrich in 1249. In the end, the margrave of Meissen got the landgraviate of Thuringia and the Thuringian / Saxon possessions while Heinrich got the newly created landgraviate of Hessia (the lands were still as fief from the archbishop of Mainz until 1292 when they became imperial allods).

The castle again played a role during the so-called War of the Star League (Sternerkrieg, 1370-73), a war of a group of nobles against the landgrave of Hessia which involved our dear friend Otto I of Braunschweig-Göttingen, aka Otto the Quarrelsome (as leader of the Star League), who deserves a post of his own. Other members of the alliance were Gottfried VII and VIII of Ziegenhain, and other local nobles.

The castle was inhabited until 1490, afterwards it fell into decline and was used as quarry by the locals. The east tower crumbled in 1820, so today there's only the keep left.

Another view of the keep

Footnotes
1) The Saxon nobles turned refugees, Asic and Billing, mentioned in two chartes at the time of Charlemagne, who settled in the area, cannot be connected to the Reichenbach family with surety.
2) The Erfurt Latrine Accident of 1184: King Heinrich VI used a diet in Erfurt to mediate between Landgrave Ludwig III of Thuringia and Archbishop Konrad of Mainz when the wooden floor of the hall in the seat of the provost of St. Mary in which the nobles were sitting, broke under the stress and a number of people crashed through the first floor which gave way as well, into the latrine in the cellar. About 60 people, among them several nobles of high standing, died of the fall or drowned in the shit. Ugh. King Heinrich survived because he sat in a projected window alcove with a stone floor and was saved by use of a ladder.
3) This is just an assumption, but when Heinrich III of Reichenbach joined the Order of the Teutonic Knights (and obviously gave them a pretty share of his lands) in 1219, he left what remained to his younger sons Wigbert and Gottfried who still was a child. In the years to follow Gottfried fought with his brother, his maternal relatives, and the archbishop of Mainz for what he considered to be his heritage, and that sort of troubles may have left the door open for Friedrich's claim. Especially since the Thuringian landgraves always had open bills with the archbishops of Mainz.
4) Konrad would later become High Master of the Teutonic Knights (1239), while Berthold would change his pro-Staufen alliance to side with the Pope and proclaim Heinrich Raspe (another brother of Ludwig IV) anti-king to Konrad IV of Staufen.

Sources:
Wilfried Warsitzka, Die Thüringer Landgrafen. 2nd revised edition, Erfurt 2009

 


20 Oct 2012
  Trees and a Squirrel

We got some glorious autumn days right now, and since the way to my job place goes through part of the Forest Botanical Garden, I decided to bring my camera yesterday.

My way to work (well, after I got off a 35 min bus ride)

There's a little pond, too, which looks lovely right now.

A pond in the Forest Botanical Garden

I turned to take another shot.

The pond from a different angle

When something threw something at me. And I could hear a crunching sound.

What's hiding there?

I looked up into the tree. It was camouflaged well, brownish against brown branches and yellow leaves, and against the low autumn sun.

A red squirrel, eating some nut or seed. Audibly so.

Red squirrels are pretty common in Germany (we don't get the grey variant), and in the park they are not shy; they sometimes squirrel across the way right in front of you.

Spot the Squirrel

Another shot of the wee bugger in all its bushy-tailed glory.

More pretty trees

I took some more photos of trees before I had to catch the bus home. If the weather holds, I should walk the other ways in the park with my camera, too.
 




The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, the Baltic Countries, and central Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.


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Location: Goettingen, Germany

I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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Historical Places

Germany
England
Scotland
Wales
Denmark
Norway
Sweden
Finland
Estonia
Latvia
Lithuania
Poland
Czechia
Belgium
Luxembourg
City Trips



Hiking Tours and Cruises

Germany
United Kingdom
Scandinavia
Baltic Sea


Historical Places

Germany

Towns

Braunschweig
Lion Benches in the Castle Square
The Quadriga

Erfurt
Mediaeval Erfurt

Goslar
Mediaeval Goslar
The Chapel in the Klus Rock

Lübeck
St. Mary's Church

Magdeburg
Church of Our Lady: History

Mainz
The Temple of Isis and Mater Magna

Paderborn
Mediaeval Paderborn

Quedlinburg
Mediaeval Quedlinburg
The Chapter Church

Speyer
The Cathedral: Architecture
Jewish Ritual Bath

Stralsund
The Harbour
Mediaeval Stralsund: The Old Town

Trier
The Roman Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths
The Porta Nigra

Weimar
Sites of the Weimar Classicism
The Park at the Ilm

Wismar
The Old Harbour

Xanten
Roman and Mediaeval Xanten
The Gothic House

Other Towns
Seaside Resort Binz
Treffurt

Castles

Brandenburg (Thuringia)
The Beginnings
Albrecht II of Thuringia

Coburg Fortress
History
Architecture

Ebersburg
The Landgraves of Thuringia
The Marshals of Ebersburg
Architecture

Hanstein
Introduction

Hardenberg
History

Heldenburg (Salzderhelden)
A Welfen Seat

Hohnstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
Between Welfen and Staufen
14th-15th Century

Kugelsburg
The Counts of Everstein
Later Times

Plesse
The Counts of Winzenburg
The Lords of Plesse
Architecture

Regenstein
History

Scharzfels
History
Architecture

Wartburg
A Virtual Tour

Weidelsburg
History
Architecture
Revisiting the Weidelsburg

Other Castles

Northern Hessia
Grebenstein
Krukenburg
Castle Reichenbach
Sababurg and Trendelburg
Sichelnstein

Lower Saxony
Adelebsen Tower
Bramburg (Weser)
Castle Grubenhagen
Castle Hardeg
Castle Polle (Weser)
Stauffenburg (Harz)

Saxony-Anhalt
Stapelburg (Harz)

Thuringia
Altenstein at the Werra
Scharfenstein

Abbeys and Churches

Bursfelde Abbey
Early History

Lippoldsberg Abbey
Early History
Interior of the Church

Walkenried Monastery
Introduction

Other Churches

Hessia
Helmarshausen: Remains of the Monastery
Lorsch Abbey: The Carolingian Gate Hall
Wilhelmshausen: Romanesque Church

Lower Saxony
Fredelsloh Chapter Church
Gehrden: Romanesque Church
Hahnenklee: The Stave Church
Pöhlde: Remains of the Monastery
Scharzfeld: The Cave Church
Vernawahlshausen: Mediaeval Murals
Wiebrechtshausen: Romanesque Chapel

Thuringia
Churches in Heiligenstadt
Göllingen: Byzantine Crypt

Romans Remains

Augusta Treverorum / Trier
The Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths
The Porta Nigra
The Roman Bridge

Colonia Ulpia Traiana / Xanten
Roman Xanten
The Amphitheatre in Birten

Limes Fort Aalen
The Barracks

Limes Fort Osterburken
The Discovery
The Cohort castellum
The Annex Fort
The Garrisons

Limes Fort Saalburg
A Reconstructed Limes Fort
Shrine of the Standards

Romans in North Rhine-Westphalia
Playmobil Romans, LWL Museum Haltern
Varus Statue, Haltern am See

Romans at the Moselle
The Villa Urbana in Longuich

Romans at the Rhine
Boppard - The Roman Baudobriga
The Villa at Wachenheim

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Neolithic Burials
Neolithic Burials in the Everstorf Forest and Rugia
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age
Bronze and Iron Age Remains at the Werra

Museums and Reconstructed Sites

Palatine Seat Tilleda
The Defenses

Viking Settlement Haithabu
The Nydam Ship

Open Air Museums
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Post-Mediaeval Exhibits
Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg


England

Towns

Chester
Roman and Medieaval Chester

Hexham
The Abbey - Introduction
The Old Gaol

York
Clifford Tower
The Guild Hall
Monk Bar Gate with Richard III Museum
Museum Gardens
Houses in the Old Town
York Minster: Architecture

Castles

Carlisle
History

Richmond
Conquest to King John
Henry III to the Tudors
Architecture

Scarborough
Romans to the Tudors
Civil War to the Present
Architecture

Roman Remains

Eboracum / York
Roman Bath in the Fortress

Wall Fort Birdoswald
The Dark Age Timber Halls

Wall Fort Segedunum
Museum and Viewing Tower
The Baths

Other Roman Sites
The Mithraeum at Brocolita
The Signal Station at Scarborough


Scotland

Towns

Edinburgh
Views from the Castle

Stirling
The Wallace Monument

Castles

Doune
A Virtual Tour
History: The Early Stewart Kings
History: Royal Dower House

Dunstaffnage
An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
The Wars of Independence
The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

Stirling
Robert the Bruce

Castles at the Scottish West Coast
Duart Castle
Dunollie and Kilchurn

Abbeys and Churches

Inchcolm Abbey
Arriving at Inchcolm

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Neolithic Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae

Brochs and Cairns
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Introduction

Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort
Staffa


Wales

Towns

Aberystwyth
Castle and Coast

Caerleon
The Ffwrwm
The Roman Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort

Conwy
The Smallest House in Great Britain

Castles

Beaumaris
History
Architecture

Caernarfon
Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

Cardiff
From Romans to Victorians

Chepstow
Beginnings unto Bigod
Edward II to the Tudors
Civil War

Conwy
History
Architecture

Criccieth
Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings

Manorbier
The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

Pembroke
Photo Impressions
The Caves Under the Castle

Roman Remains

Isca Silurum / Caerleon
The Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort


Denmark

Museums and Reconstructed Sites

Viking Museum Roskilde
To come


Norway

Castles and Fortresses

Akershus Fortress in Oslo
Kings and Pirates
The Time of King Håkon V
Architecture

Vardøhus Fortress
History

Museums / Reconstructed Sites

The Fram Museum in Oslo


Sweden

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Gotland
Gnisvärd Ship Setting

Museums and Reconstructed Sites

The Vasa Museum in Stockholm


Finland

Towns

Porvoo
Mediaeval Porvoo


Estonia

Towns

Tallinn
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Latvia

Towns

Riga
The History of Mediaeval Riga


Lithuania

Towns

Nida
To come


Poland

Towns

Gdańsk / Danzig
History of Mediaeval Gdańsk
Mediaeval and Renaissance Gdańsk

Kraków
The Old Town
Jewish Kraków - Kazimierz and the Ghetto

Wrocław / Breslau
The Botanical Garden
The Wrocław Dwarfs

Castles

Ogrodzieniec Castle
A Virtual Tour
First Castle to the Boner Family


Czechia

Towns

Cheb / Eger
The Old Town

Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
Brief History of the Town

Kutná Hora
The Sedlec Ossuary
The Medieaval Town and St.Barbara's Church


Belgium

Towns

Antwerp
The Old Town

Bruges
Mediaeval Bruges

Ghent
Mediaeval Ghent

Tongeren
Mediaeval Buildings

Roman Remains

Atuatuca Tungrorum / Tongeren
Roman Remains in the Town


Luxembourg

Towns

Luxembourg City
A Tour of the Town


City Trips

St.Petersburg (Russia)
Impressions from the Neva River

Strasbourg (France)
A Tour of the Town


Hiking Tours and Cruises

Germany

The Baltic Sea Coast
Flensburg Firth
Rugia: Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
Rugia: Photo Impressions / The Pier of Sellin
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

The Lüneburg Heath
Hiking Tours in the Lüneburg Heath

Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Devil's Wall
Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
Oderteich Reservoir
Rappbode Reservoir
Views from Harz mountains

Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Bruchteiche / Bad Sooden Allendorf
Hessian Switzerland

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
The Forest Pasture Project
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Nature Park Reinhardswald
Old Forest at the Sababurg

Thuringian Forests
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

Rivers and Lakes
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut
Weser River Ferry
Weser Skywalk

Wildlife
Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life
Red squirrels

Seasons
Spring Impressions from Göttingen
Spring in the Hardenberg Castle Gardens
Spring in the Meissner
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake


United Kingdom

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains: Inverness to John o'Groats
Some Photos from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull: Craignure to Fionnphort
Pentland Firth
Staffa
Summer in Oban

Scotland by Train
West Highland Railway

Wild Wales - With Castles
Views of Snowdownia

Wildlife
Sea Gulls


Scandinavia

The Hurtigruten-Tour / Norway
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Wildlife
Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord


The Baltic Sea

A Baltic Sea Cruise

The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
Beaches at the Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit



Mediaeval History

General Essays
by Country
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Livonia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Bohemia

Roman History

The Romans at War
Roman Life and Religion

Other Times

Geology
Neolithicum to Iron Age
Post-Mediaeval History
History and Literature


Mediaeval History

General Essays

Mediaeval Art and Craft

Mediaeval Art
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
The Hunting Frieze in Königslutter Cathedral
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Medieaval Craftmanship
Goldsmithery
Medical Instruments

Mediaeval Warfare

Mediaeval Weapons
Swords
Trebuchets

Castles and Fortifications
Dungeons and Oubliettes

Feudalism

The History of Feudalism
The Beginnings
Feudalism in the 10th Century

Privileges and Special Relationships
The Privilege of the deditio
A Note on handgenginn maðr

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings

Hanseatic Architecture
Examples of Brick Architecture
Hall Houses (Dielenhäuser)

Goods and Trade
Stockfish Trade

Towns of the Hanseatic League
Riga
Stralsund
Tallinn / Reval

The Order of the Teutonic Knights

Wars and Battles
The Conquest of Danzig
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

The Vikings

Viking Ships
The Nydam Ship


Essays by Country

Germany

Geneaology

List of Mediaeval German Emperors
Anglo-German Marriage Connections

Kings and Emperors

The Salian Dynasty
King Heinrich IV

The Staufen Dynasty
A Welfen Intermezzo: Emperor Otto IV

Princes and Lords

House Welfen
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen

The Landgraves of Thuringia
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

Dukes and Princes of other Families
Duke Otto of Northeim
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Feuds and Rebellions

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War
The Star Wars


England

Kings of England

House Plantagenet
Richard Lionheart in Speyer
King Henry IV's Lithuanian Crusade

Normans, Britons, Angevins

Great Noble Houses
The Dukes of Brittany
The Earls of Richmond

Contested Borders

Northumbria
King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


Scotland

Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War, Part 1
King David and the Civil War, Part 2

Houses Bruce and Stewart
The Early Stewart Kings

Local Troubles

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding

Scotland and England

The Wars of Independence
Alexander of Argyll
The Fight for Stirling Castle


Wales

Welsh Princes

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

Wales and England

A History of Rebellion
Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Denmark

Kings of Denmark

House of Knýtlinga
Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

The Duchy of Estonia
Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


Norway

Kings of Norway

Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

Feuds and Rebellions

Rebels
Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Sweden

Troubles and Alliances

Scandinavian Unity
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union


Livonia
(Latvia and Estonia)

Contested Territories

Livonian Towns
The History of Mediaeval Riga
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Lithuania

Lithuanian Princes

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas

The Northern Crusades

The Wars in Lithuania
The Siege of Vilnius 1390


Poland

Royal Dynasties

The Jagiełłonian Kings
Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union

The Northern Crusades

The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
The Conquest of Danzig


Bohemia

Royal Dynasties

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
King Sigismund and the Hussite Wars


Roman History

The Romans at War

Forts and Fortifications

The German Limes
The Cavalry Fort Aalen
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg

The Hadrian's Wall
Introduction
The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend

Border Life
Exercise Halls
Mile Castles and Watch Towers
Soldiers' Living Quarters
Cavalry Barracks

Campaigns and Battles

Maps
The Romans in Germania

The Pre-Varus Invasion in Germania
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn
Introduction

The Batavian Rebellion
A Short Introduction

Miscellaneous Events

The Legend of Alaric's Burial

Roman Militaria

Armour
Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapons
Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum
Daggers
Swords

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles


Roman Life and Religion

Religion and Public Life

Religion
Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms
Isis Worship
Memorial Stones
The Mithras Cult

Public Life
Roman Transport: Barges
Roman Transport: Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Architecture
Roman Public Baths

Domestic Life

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots


Other Times

Geology

Geological Landscapes - Germany

Baltic Sea Coast
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

Harz Mountains
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in the Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs
Sandstone Formations: Daneil's Cave
Sandstone Formations: Devil's Wall
Sandstone Formations: The Klus Rock

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations
Salt Springs at the Werra

Solling-Vogler
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

Geological Landscapes - Great Britain

The Shores of Scotland
Staffa

Geological Landscapes - The Baltic Sea

Lithuania
Geology of the Curonian Spit

Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

Fossilized Ammonites
The Loket Meteorite


Neolithicum to Iron Age

Germany

Development of Civilisation
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
The Hutewald Project in the Solling
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Neolithic Remains
Stone Burials of the Funnelbeaker Culture
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age / Iron Age
The Nydam Ship

Scotland

Neolithic Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Bronze Age / Iron Age
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Their Function in Iron Age Society

Scandinavia

Bronze / Iron Age
The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd / Gotland


Post-Mediaeval History

Explorers and Discoveries

Explorers
Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

Discoveries
Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)


History and Literature

Germany

The Weimar Classicism
Introduction


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