The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times

28 Oct 2019
  I Won Nano Again

It is November, which means I'm participating in the National Novel Writing Month.

UPDATE: I wrote 50,000 words, with some days left to add a few more. It is the 6th time in a row. *grin* Blog updates will resume in December.

6 Oct 2019
  A Hansa Town between the Archbishop of Riga and the Teutonic Knights - The History of Mediaeval Riga

Archbishopric, seat of the Teutonic Knighs, and member of the Hanseatic League - Riga's Old Town has plenty of churches, a castle, and lanes and squares with pretty old houses. I spent a day there and managed to snatch a nice collection of photos to go with a post about Riga's Mediaeval history.

House of the Blackheads - one of Riga's iconic buildings

Settlement at a natural harbour 15 kilometres upriver from the mouth of the Daugava river (also known as Dvina; in Old Norse as Dúna ) dates back to the 2nd century AD. The settlers were Livs, a Finnic tribe, and the Baltic Curonians. Archaeological digs have shown traces of bone and amber craftsmanship, animal husbandry and fishing. The settlement likely was a minor trade centre at that time.

During the 5th and 6th centuries, the place, named Duna urbs in written sources, became part of the Viking trade route to Byzantium which followed the Daugava and Dnjepr river systems. Goods stored in the warehouses at the Daugava harbour were mostly corn, flax and hides. Amber and furs were traded as well, but not stored in larger quantities.

I already mentioned in the post about Tallinn that German interest in the Baltic increased in the 12th century. The first traders came to Livonia and the settlement at the Daugava via Visby, seat of the Gotland Corperation. They established a settlement of their own nearby, at the confluence of the Daugava with a minor river called Riga Brook, which would eventually lend his name to the town, in 1158.

Lane in the Old Town

The Curonians at the coast had developed a habit of piracy as side occupation; and a fat cog from Gotland or Lübeck made for a welcome booty. It was one of the reasons the Germans wanted to bring those people under Christian rule.

Some attempts at Christianising the Livs and Curonians had been made prior to the arrival of the Germans. Danish merchants had built a church in 1045, and Orthodox missionaries came in from Rutheinian Polotsk. A number of Livs and Curonians were baptised, but it was never a grand scale operation. That changed with the arrival of Meinhard of Segeberg, a German missionary from Gotland. Meinhard attempted to convince the Livonian tribes at the Daugava to convert - he taught them to build in stone in order to impress them, but it didn't really work.

Nevertheless, his superior, Archbishop Hartwig of Bremen - eager to expand the power of his diocese - consecrated Meinhard as bishop of Livonia with the see in Ikšķile (Üxküll in German - sorry, I didn't make that name up *grin*) at the Daugava, in 1186. But his attempts at converting the Livs and Couronians remained unsuccessful. Meinhard was a priest, not a warrior; moreover, the coastal tribes prevented him from getting reinforcements from Gotland. He died in 1196.

Mediaeval houses 'Three Brothers'

His successor, Berthold of Loccum (a monastery near Hannover), barely escaped death when the tribes didn't take well to his less gentle ways of conversion and he had to flee to Gotland. Berthold was more of a warrior than Meinhard and came back with a crusader army in 1198. But he managed to get himself killed in a battle the crusaders won - it is said that he rode ahead his army, was surrounded and hacked to pieces by the Livonians. Now the nothern crusades had their first martyr.

Berthold's successor Albert of Buxthoeven, a nephew of Archbishop Hartwig of Bremen, realised that it would need some sort of standing army to make the Livonians stay baptised, and created the Livonian Order of the Brothers of the Sword (for details see the post about Tallinn). According to official Church History of the time, the Livonians had been converted in 1206 after the battle of Turaida which was fought between the Sword Brothers and their allies (among them the Livonian prince Caupo who had been baptised already under Meinhard and even visted Rome) and the pagan tribes.

Town wall of Riga; remains

In 1201, Bishop Albert trasfered the espiscopal see from Ikšķile to Riga which was accessible by cogs. The date is considered the official foundation of the town. Albert introduced first the Visby, later the Hamburg law. His see was still under the jurisdiction of the archbishop of Bremen, though.

Philipp of Swabia, king of Germany (though the position was contested by Otto of the Welfen family, the future emperor Otto IV) granted Bishop Albert Livonia with its capital Riga as fief and principality of the Holy Roman Empire. The land was divided between the Church and the Order of the Sword Brothers - they got a third of the land. That arrangement would lead to troubles in the future.

The Powder Tower from 1330 (originally called Sand Tower)

Albert also furthered the trade in Riga. He obtained papal bulls that obliged all German merchants to conduct their trade to the other Baltic and the Ruthenian towns, including Russian Novgorod , through Riga. He also managed to force the Prinicpality of Polotsk to grant German merchants free passage of the Daugava to reach the markets of Smolensk and Vitebsk as well as the overland route to Novgorod. This agreement also put an end to Livonian tribes - particularly the Latgalians living upriver - having to pay tribute to Polotsk.

Riga minted its own coin by that time. Due to the growing importance and wealth of the town, bishop Albert claimed independence from Bremen's jurisdiction; Livonia became an autonmous episcopal see in 1213.

The Swedish Gate, added 1698

But not everything went smoothly for Albert. Parts of the town were destroyed by a fire in 1215. Moreover, the citizens of Riga wanted greater autonomy from the bishop and ecclesiatic jurisdiction. They finally were granted exemption from paying taxes to the bishop, as well as the right to elect their own magistrates and adopt a city constitution in 1225. It seems that even the pope sided with the town against Albert.

Outside the town walls of Riga, troubles arose as well. The Livonian tribes were far from pacified; old inter-tribal feuds flared up, as did rebellions against the Christian occupants. Riga was protected by its walls, but all over the country, the Sword Brothers were kept quite busy.

In the end, bishop Albert was obliged to call King Valdemar of Denmark, who had shown an interest in the area, for help. Valdemar conquered the Estonian town Tallinn (Reval) at the battle of Lyndanisse in 1219, and the island of Saaremaa (Ösel) soon thereafter, but the Danes didn't want to work for others, so Albert had to acknowledge their rule of those lands.

It followed a time of rebellions and shifting alliances in Livonia and Estonia. King Valdemar was caught in between and unable to defend his conquests against the Sword Brothers. The reason those rebellions were not successful in the long run was the lack of centralised leadership of the Livonian tribes; they various people never united under one leader like the Lithuanians eventually would under their grand dukes (and they caused the Teutonic Knight a lot of trouble).

Bishops Albert reached an agreement in 1222 in which all Livonian lands were returned to his control (about the onging problems with the Sword Brothers who refused to return the lands enfeoffed to them see the post about Tallinn).

Riga Cathedral, the cloister (the cathedral itself was scaffolded in)

Bishop Albert fortified the town of Riga; some remains of the old town walls can still be seen. He laid the first stone to the cathedral in Riga 1211; the cathedral was consecrated in 1226 - those brick makers and masons had been pretty busy. The building has been alterend and expanded over the centuries, but retains its Romanesque nucleus. Albert also built St.James' Church for use of the Livonians outside the city walls. It was later expanded with Gothic elements.

Albert of Buxthoeven died in January 1229. One can say that he introduced the German hegemony over the Baltic states that would last for seven centuries.

St.James' Church, interior

In 1236, the remaining Sword Brothers merged with the Teutonic Knights who established a Livonian branch of their order. In 1346, they bought the Estonian lands from the King of Denmark and thus increased their power base.

Riga became archbishopric in 1253. The first archbishop, Albert Suerbeer, had been Primate of Ireland prior to his new position, which he took up against the will of the chapter. He got into conflict with the Livonian Order and was imprisoned until he acknowledged their authority.

We get to a problem typical for Riga: The conflicts between the town, the archbishop who also was a landed prince with vassals of his own, and the Teutonic Knights who also had land and vassals - and ambitions. Those three way problems didn't occur in Gdańsk which was no episcopal see, or in Tallinn where the bishop belonged to the Danish diocese of Lund (now in Sweden), held no lands and was thus less powerful.

Riga was a cornerstone in those conflicts. Despite their problems with the bishop, the citizens of Riga mostly sided with him against the Teutonic Knights since the episcopal tithes and regulations were less severe. Both the archbishop and the order also tried to gain support of the pope.

Riga Castle

The citizens invited a Lithuanian garrison against the Teutonic Knights in 1298, after they had ousted the order and destroyed its castle in the town. The grand duke Vytenis of Lithuania, who wanted to keep up the trade via Riga, his country's main access to the Baltic Sea, gladly obliged. The garrison remained until 1313.

It would take until 1330 for Riga and its allies to capitulate. The Teutonic Knights built a castle outside the town walls of Riga - on the site of a former hospice - as seat of the Livonian Master, but they had learned to treat the town more carefully.

As result of the peace, the Teutonic Knights had a say in the election of the archbishop of Riga. Relations remained peaceful for a time, but eventually the order would meet with a man of strong character, like Archbishop Sylvester Stodewescher, originally a member of the order who worked with them against the threat of an alliance between towns and nobility - like the Prussian Confederation (see post about the history of Gdańsk) - against the Teutonic Knights. But after 1452, the relationship soured and Sylvester fought against the hegemony of the order in Riga. He failed to gain sufficient support of the chapter and citizens though, and ended up prisoner of the order (he died in 1479).

Another full scale war between the Teutonic Knights and Riga lasted from 1481-91. The castle of the order was destroyed during the fights, but after Riga lost the war, the citizens had to rebuild the castle. While the order was in slow decline after the battle of Grunwald (1410) in Prussia where it lost western Prussia to the Polish crown in 1466 and was ousted in 1521, it remained more powerful in Livonia where it lasted until 1561.

The Town Hall

Those wars and sieges may have interrupted trade for a while, but Riga remained an important trading town since it joined the Hanseatic League in 1282. Its situation at the Daugava was a central one with a river connection to Polotsk (which was an associated member of the Hansa for some time) and further on to Smolensk. Land routes led to Vilnius and Kaliningrad (Königsberg), and via Tartu (Dorpat) and Narva or Pskov to Novgorod, the easternmost Hansa kontor.

Goods that came from Russia and the Baltic lands were produces of the vast forests, like timber, furs, honey, and wax. Amber, hemp and tar were also on the list, and an important one: smoke-dried rye from the fertile areas of Livonia. The import trade consisted of cloth from Flanders and England, stockfish from Bergen, salt from Lüneburg, beer and wine, spices and other luxury goods.

Riga proved so powerful that it could forbid any foreign merchants - including those from Lübeck, the leading town of the Hanseatic League - any direct trade with its hinterland in 1459.

At the beginning, Riga also was the Lithuanian sea port, but its role was taken over by Gdańsk after the Polish-Lithuanian Union in 1392. Another temporary setback was the closure of the kontor in Novgorod during the war between that principality and the grand duke of Moscow (who would eventually conquer Novgorod) for several years in the late 15th century. But Riga continued to prosper.

The 14th century Great Guild Hall, meeting place of the German merchants

The Reformation made its way to Riga in 1522 with the sermons of the Luther follower Andreas Knöpken. After riots during which Catholic Churches were ransacked, the town council opted for freedom of religion in 1525. Parishes were established and the service held in Latvian. By the midde of the 16th century, the majority of the population of Livonia had converted to Lutheranism.

Riga came under Polish rule in 1582 (see below) and attempts were made to reintroduce Catholicism, though the Augsburg Confession was tolerated. In 1621, Riga was taken overn by Sweden and became again a Protestant town.

14th century House of the Blackheads, interior.
The Blackheads were an organisation of unmarried merchants.

Tsar Ivan IV ('the Terrible') started a war against Livonia in 1558, conquering Narva and Tartu. That war would last until 1583 and involve not only Russia and Livonia, but Denmark which still had interests in Estonia, Sweden, and the Polish-Lithuanian Union (later Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), all with different interests and shifting alliances.

The Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights was dissembled after the order and the soldiers of the archbishop of Riga lost the battle of Ērģeme against Ivan's army in August 1560.

The city of Riga - which had been a Free Imperial City for twenty years during that war - concluded the Treaty of Drohiczyn with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in January 1581. It became part of the commonwealth, but retained most of its privileges.

Blackhead House, the cellar

The next war to afflict Riga (and all of Livonia) was the Polish-Swedish war. That war was basically caused by the fact that King Sigismund of Poland also claimed the Swedish throne through his mother Katarzyna Jagiełłonska. The Lutherian Swedes were not keen on a Catholic king who resided in Krakow most of the time, and ousted him in 1599, replacing him with Karl IX, though Sigismund made several attempts to regain his position. Karl was succeeded by Gustav II Adolf in 1611.

The war between Poland and Sweden - and some Russian intervention - about the possession of Livonia flamed up several times between 1600 and the Armistice of Altmark in 1629 where Sweden gained part of Livonia, including Riga, though the town retained most of its autonomy.

Riga Castle, different angle

Like Tallinn, Riga became part of the Russian Empire during the Great Northern War (1700-1721), that involved the Scandinavian countries, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Livonia, Prussia, the Russian Empire, Great Britain, and even the Ottoman Empire. Tzar Peter the Great besieged Riga in 1710; its capitualation led to the Peacy of Nystad. Riga became the capital of the Governorate of Livonia.

The Hanseatic League no longer existed at that time, but trade still played an important role. Riga kept a modicum of independence and flourished in the years to come.

Modern bridge across the Daugava river

Norbert Angermann, Karsten Brüggemann. Geschichte der baltischen Länder; Stuttgart 2018
Eric Christiansen. The Northern Crusades; 2nd editon. First published at Penguin Publ. 1997
Jörgen Brackler, Volker Henn, Rainer Postel (ed.). Die Hanse - Lebenswirklichkeit und Mythos; Lübeck 2006
William Urban. The Teutonic Knights. A Military History, 2003; reprint by Frontline Publ. 2018

The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, and central / eastern Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.

This blog is non-commercial.

All texts and photos (if no other copyright is noted) are copyright of Gabriele Campbell.

GDPR Privacy Policy

My Photo
Location: Goettingen, Germany

I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
(See here for Archives for mobile devices)

Anchor links lead to the respective sub-category in the sidebar

Roman Remains
- Germany
- Belgium and France
- Great Britain

Mediaeval and Other Places
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Finland
- Russia
- Estonia
- Latvia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Czechia
- Belgium
- Luxembourg
- France

Hiking Tours and Cruises
- Germany
- United Kingdom
- Scandinavia
- Baltic Sea

Roman Remains


Traces of a Failed Conquest

Romans at Lippe and Ems
Roman Exhibitions, Haltern am See
Varus Statue, Haltern am See

Romans at the Weser
The Roman Camp at Hedemünden

The Limes and its Forts

The Cavalry Fort - Barracks

The Discovery
The Cohort castellum
The Annex Fort
The Garrisons

Shrine of the Standards

Temples and Memorials
Mithras Altars in Germania

Romans at Rhine and Moselle

The Villa Rustica in Wachenheim
Baths and Toilets
The Cellar

Roman villae at the Moselle
The Villa Urbana in Longuich

Roman Towns

Augusta Treverorum (Trier)
The Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths
The Porta Nigra
The Roman Bridge

Baudobriga (Boppard)
From Settlement to Fortress

Colonia Ulpia Traiana (Xanten)
History of the Town
The Amphitheatre in Birten

Moguntiacum (Mainz)
The Temple of Isis and Mater Magna

Belgium and France

Roman Towns

Atuatuca Tungrorum (Tongeren)
Roman Remains in Tongeren

Great Britain

Frontiers and Fortifications

The Hadrian's Wall
Building the Wall

Wall Forts - Banna (Birdoswald)
The Dark Age Timber Halls

Wall Forts - Segedunum (Wallsend)
Museum, Viewing Tower and Foundations
The Baths

Signal Stations
The Signal Station at Scarborough

Temples and Memorials
The Mithraeum of Brocolita
A Roman Memorial Stone

Roman Towns

Eboracum (York)
Bath in the Fortress
Multiangular Tower

The Romans in Wales

Roman Forts - Isca (Caerleon)
The Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort

Mediaeval and Other Places


- Towns
- Castles
- Abbeys and Churches
- Reconstructed Sites / Museums


Medieaval Braunschweig
Lion Benches in the Castle Square
The Quadriga

Mediaeval Erfurt

Mediaeval Goslar
The Chapel in the Klus Rock

St. Mary's Church, Introduction

Magdeburg Cathedral
St.Mary's Abbey - An Austere Archbishop
St.Mary's Abbey - Reformation to Reunion

Mediaeval Paderborn

Mediaeval Quedlinburg
The Chapter Church

The Cathedral: Architecture
Cathedral: Richard Lionheart in Speyer
Jewish Ritual Bath

The Harbour

Sites of the Weimar Classicism
The Park at the Ilm

The Old Harbour

Mediaeval Xanten
The Gothic House

Collected Posts about Towns

Towns in Thuringia


Brandenburg (Thuringia)
The Double Castle
Role of the Castle in Thuringian History

Coburg Fortress (Bavaria)
The History of the Fortress
The Architecture

Ebersburg (Harz Mountains)
Power Base of the Thuringian Landgraves
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Architecture

Hanstein (Thuringia)

Hardenberg (Lower Saxony)
Hardenberg Castle Gardens

Harzburg (Harz Mountains)
The Harzburg and Otto IV

Hohnstein (Harz Mountains)
Origins of the Counts of Hohnstein
The Family Between Welfen and Staufen
A Time of Feuds (14th-15th century)

Kugelsburg (Hessia)
The Counts of Everstein
Troubled Times
War and Decline

Plesse (Lower Saxony)
Rise and Fall of the Counts of Winzenburg
The Lords of Plesse
Architecture / Decline and Rediscovery

Regenstein (Harz Mountains)
The Time of Henry the Lion

Scharzfels (Harz Mountains)

Wartburg (Thuringia)
A Virtual Tour

Weidelsburg (Hessia)
The History of the Castle
The Architecture
The Castle After the Restoration

Collected Posts about Castles

Castles in the Harz Mountains

Castles in Northern Hessia
Sababurg and Trendelburg

Castles in Lower Saxony
Adelebsen Castle: The Keep
Grubenhagen: A Border Castle
Hardeg Castle: The Great Hall
Salzderhelden: A Welfen Seat

Castles at the Weser
Bramburg: River Reivers
Krukenburg: Castle and Chapel
Castle Polle: An Everstein Seat

Castles in Thuringia
Altenstein at the Werra
Castle Scharfenstein

Abbeys and Churches

Bursfelde Abbey
The Early History

Helmarshausen Monastery
Remains of the Monastery
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion

Königslutter Cathedral
The Exterior Decorations

Lippoldsberg Abbey
The Early History
The Interior of the Church

Walkenried Monastery
From Monastery to Museum

Collected Posts about Churches

Early Mediaeval Churches
Göllingen Monastery: Traces of Byzantine Architecture
Lorsch Abbey: The Carolingian Gate Hall

Churches in the Harz Mountains
Pöhlde: Remains of the Monastery
Hahnenklee: The Stave Church
Scharzfeld: The Cave Church

Churches in Lower Saxony
Wiebrechtshausen: Nunnery and Ducal Burial

Churches in Hessia
Wilhelmshausen / Fulda Valley

Churches in the Weser Area
Fredelsloh Chapter Church
Gehrden / Brakel
Vernawahlshausen: Mediaeval Murals

Reconstructed Sites / Museums

Stone Settings and Tombs
Neolithic Burials in the Everstorf Forest and on Rugia

Open Air Museums
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Palatine Seat Tilleda
The Defenses

Viking Settlement Haithabu
Haithabu and the Archaeological Museum Schleswig
The Nydam Ship

Post-Mediaeval Sites
Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg



Roman and Medieaval Chester

The Abbey - Introduction
The Old Gaol

Clifford Tower
The Guild Hall
The Minster - Architecture
Monk Bar Gate and Richard III Museum
Museum Gardens
The Old Town
Along the Ouse River


Malcolm III and the First Battle of Alnwick

Henry II and William of Scotland
Edward I to Edward III

From the Conquest to King John
From Henry III to the Tudors
The Architecture

From the Romans to the Tudors
From the Civil War to the Present
The Architecture



Views from the Castle

The Wallace Monument


A Virtual Tour of the Castle
The Early Stewart Kings
Royal Dower House, and Decline

Guarding the Sound of Mull

An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
The Wars of Independence
The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle

Abbeys and Churches

Inchcolm Abbey
Arriving at Inchcolm

Other Historical Sites

Neolithic Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae

Brochs and Cairns
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Introduction

Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort



Castle and Coast

The Ffwrwm

The Smallest House in Great Britain


The Historical Context
The Architecture

Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

From the Romans to the Victorians

Beginnings unto Bigod
From Edward II to the Tudors
Civil War, Restoration, and Aftermath

The History of the Castle
The Architecture

Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings

The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

Pembroke Pictures
The Caves Under the Castle



To come



The Fram Museum in Oslo

Castles and Fortresses

Arkershus Fortress in Oslo
Akershus at the Time of King Håkon V
Architectural Development

Vardøhus Fortress
Defending the North for Centuries



The Vasa Museum

Historical Landscapes

Gnisvärd Ship Setting



Mediaeval Porvoo



St. Petersburg
Isaac's Cathedral
Smolny Cathedral
Impressions from the The Neva River



The History of Mediaeval Tallinn



The History of Mediaeval Riga


Historical Landscapes

The Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit



Gdańsk / Danzig
The History of Mediaeval Gdańsk
Mediaeval and Renaissance Gdańsk

The Old Town
Jewish Kraków - Kazimierz and the Ghetto

Wrocław / Breslau
The Botanical Garden
The Wrocław Dwarfs


Ogrodzieniec Castle
A Virtual Tour
From the First Castle to the Boner Family



Cheb / Eger
Pretty Houses in the Old Town

Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
Brief History of the Town

Kutná Hora
The Sedlec Ossuary
Walk through the Town, with St.Barbara's Church



The Old Town

Mediaeval Bruges

Mediaeval Ghent

Roman and Mediaeval Remains



Luxembourg City
A Tour of the Town



A Tour of the Town

Hiking Tours and Cruises


The Baltic Sea Coast
The Flensburg Firth
Rugia - Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
Rugia - Seaside Ressort Binz
Rugia - The Pier of Sellin
Rugia - More Photo Impressions
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Devil's Wall
Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
Oderteich Reservoir
Rappbode Reservoir
Views from Harz mountains

Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Around Bad Sooden-Allendorf
Hessian Switzerland

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
Forest Pasture - Hutewald Project
The Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Nature Park Reinhardswald
The Old Forest at the Sababurg

Thuringian Forests
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

Rivers and Lakes
Bruchteiche / Bad Sooden Allendorf
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
The Moselle
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut
Weser River Ferry
Weser Skywalk

Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life
Red squirrels

Spring in the Botanical Garden Göttingen
Spring at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Spring in the Rossbach Heath (Meissner)
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake

United Kingdom

Mountains and Valleys
West Highland Railway

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains - Inverness to John o'Groats
Some Photos from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull - Craignure to Fionnphort
Pentland Firth
Castles Seen from Afar (Dunollie and Kilchurn)
Summer Days in Oban
Summer Nights in Oban

Wild Wales - With Castles
Views of Snowdownia
Views from Castle Battlements

Sea Gulls


The Hurtigruten-Tour / Norway
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord

The Baltic Sea

A Baltic Sea Cruise

The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
Beaches at the Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit

Roman History
General Essays

- Germania
- Gallia Belgica
- Britannia

Mediaeval History
General Essays

By Country
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Livonia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Bohemia

Other Times
- Prehistoric Times
- Post-Mediaeval History
- Geology

Roman History

General Essays

The Romans at War

Forts and Fortifications
Exercise Halls
Mile Castles and Watch Towers
Soldiers' Living Quarters
Cavalry Barracks

Roman Militaria

Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles

Life and Religion

The Mithras Cult
Isis Worship
Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms

Public Life
Roman Transport - Barges
Roman Transport - Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots

Miscellaneous Essays

The Legend of Alaric's Burial


Wars and Frontiers

Romans in Germania

Traces of the Pre-Varus Conquest
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn

Along the Limes
The Cavalry Fort Aalen
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg

Gallia Belgica

The Batavians

The Batavian Rebellion
A Short Introduction


Roman Frontiers in Britain

The Hadrian's Wall
The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend

Mediaeval History

General Essays

Mediaeval Art and Craft

Mediaeval Art
Carved Monsters
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Medieaval Craftmanship
Medical Instruments

Mediaeval Warfare

Mediaeval Weapons

Castles and Fortifications
Dungeons and Oubliettes

Essays about Specific Topics


The History of Feudalism
The Beginnings
Feudalism in the 10th Century

Privileges and Special Relationships
The Privilege of the deditio
A Note on handgenginn maðr

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings

Hanesatic Architecture
Examples of Brick Architecture

Goods and Trade
Stockfish Trade

Towns of the Hanseatic League
Tallinn / Reval

The Order of the Teutonic Knights

Wars and Battles
The Conquest of Danzig
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

The Vikings

Viking Ships
The Nydam Ship



List of Mediaeval German Emperors

Anglo-German Marriage Connections
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors

Kings and Emperors

The Salian Dynasty
King Heinrich IV

House Welf and House Staufen
Emperor Otto IV, Introduction

Princes and Lords

Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto of Northeim
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Famous Feuds

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War - Introduction
The Star Wars


Kings of England

King Henry IV
King Henry's Lithuanian Crusade

Normans, Britons, Angevins

Great Fiefs - The Honour of Richmond
The Dukes of Brittany and the Honour of Richmond
The Earldom of Richmond and the Duchy of Brittany

Contested Borders

King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War, Part 1
King David and the Civil War, Part 2

Houses Bruce and Stewart
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle
The Early Stewart Kings

Scottish Nobles and their Quarrels

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding


Welsh Princes

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw


A History of Rebellion
From Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Kings of Denmark

House of Knýtlinga
Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

The Duchy of Estonia
Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


Kings of Norway

Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

A Time of Feuds

Famous Nobles and their Feuds
Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Troubles and Alliances

Scandinavian Unity
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

(Latvia and Estonia)

The Role of the Towns in Livonia

The History of Mediaeval Riga

The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


The Northern Crusades

The Wars in Lithuania
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

Lithuanian Princes

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas


The Northern Crusades

The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
The Conquest of Danzig

Royal Dynasties

The Jagiełłonian Kings
Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union


Royal Dynasties

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
King Sigismund and the Hussite Wars

Other Times

Prehistoric Times


Neolithic Remains
Stone Burials of the Funnelbeaker Culture

Development of Civilisation
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Hutewald Project in the Solling
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen


Neolithic Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Bronze Age / Iron Age
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Their Function in Iron Age Society


The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd

Post-Mediaeval History

Explorers and Discoveries

Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)


European Nobility
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus


History in Literature and Music

History and Literature

The Weimar Classicism
The Weimar Classicism - Introduction

Historical Ballads by Theodor Fontane
Short Biography of Theodor Fontane
(Some of Fontane's Ballads, translated by me)
Archibald Douglas
Gorm Grymme
Sir Walter Scott in Abbotsford
The Tragedy of Afghanistan

History in Opera

Belcanto and Historicism
Maria Padilla - Mistress Royal
The Siege of Calais in Donizetti's Opera

Not so Serious History

Building Hadrian's Wall
Playmobil Romans

Mediaeval Times
Kings Having a Bad Hair Day
The Case of the Vanished Wine Cask

Rules for Writing Scottish Romances
Tourist Kitsch in St.Petersburg


Geological Landscapes

The Baltic Sea
Geology of the Curonian Spit
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

The Harz
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in the Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs
Sandstone Formations: Daneil's Cave
Sandstone Formations: Devil's Wall
Sandstone Formations: The Klus Rock

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations
Salt Springs at the Werra

Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

The Shores of Scotland

Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

Fossilized Ammonites
The Loket Meteorite

05/05 / 08/05 / 09/05 / 11/05 / 12/05 / 02/06 / 03/06 / 04/06 / 05/06 / 08/06 / 09/06 / 10/06 / 12/06 / 01/07 / 02/07 / 03/07 / 04/07 / 05/07 / 06/07 / 07/07 / 08/07 / 09/07 / 10/07 / 11/07 / 12/07 / 01/08 / 02/08 / 03/08 / 04/08 / 05/08 / 06/08 / 07/08 / 08/08 / 09/08 / 10/08 / 11/08 / 12/08 / 01/09 / 02/09 / 03/09 / 04/09 / 05/09 / 06/09 / 07/09 / 08/09 / 09/09 / 10/09 / 11/09 / 12/09 / 01/10 / 02/10 / 03/10 / 04/10 / 05/10 / 06/10 / 07/10 / 08/10 / 09/10 / 10/10 / 11/10 / 12/10 / 01/11 / 02/11 / 03/11 / 04/11 / 05/11 / 06/11 / 07/11 / 08/11 / 09/11 / 10/11 / 11/11 / 12/11 / 01/12 / 02/12 / 03/12 / 04/12 / 05/12 / 06/12 / 07/12 / 08/12 / 09/12 / 10/12 / 11/12 / 12/12 / 01/13 / 02/13 / 03/13 / 04/13 / 05/13 / 06/13 / 07/13 / 08/13 / 09/13 / 10/13 / 11/13 / 12/13 / 01/14 / 02/14 / 03/14 / 04/14 / 05/14 / 06/14 / 07/14 / 08/14 / 09/14 / 10/14 / 11/14 / 12/14 / 01/15 / 02/15 / 03/15 / 04/15 / 05/15 / 06/15 / 07/15 / 08/15 / 09/15 / 10/15 / 11/15 / 12/15 / 01/16 / 02/16 / 03/16 / 04/16 / 05/16 / 06/16 / 07/16 / 08/16 / 09/16 / 10/16 / 11/16 / 12/16 / 01/17 / 02/17 / 03/17 / 04/17 / 05/17 / 06/17 / 07/17 / 08/17 / 09/17 / 10/17 / 11/17 / 12/17 / 01/18 / 02/18 / 03/18 / 04/18 / 05/18 / 06/18 / 07/18 / 08/18 / 09/18 / 10/18 / 11/18 / 12/18 / 02/19 / 03/19 / 04/19 / 05/19 / 06/19 / 07/19 / 08/19 / 09/19 / 10/19 / 12/19 / 01/20 / 02/20 / 03/20 / 04/20 / 05/20 / 06/20 / 07/20 / 08/20 / 09/20 / 10/20 / 11/20 / 12/20 / 02/21 / 03/21 / 04/21 / 05/21 / 06/21 / 07/21 / 08/21 / 09/21 / 10/21 /

Powered by Blogger