The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times

30 Mar 2021
  Summer Colours – The Bruchteiche Lakes near Bad Sooden-Allendorf

We all need a bit of summer greens and blue sky after the browns and dull yellows of winter (at least there were a few days of pretty white snow as well this year), don't we? So here's a picture post about a lovely little lake.
The Bruchteiche lakes near Bad Sooden-Allendorf, first lake

The Bruchteiche (Bruch Ponds) are two artificial lakes which were dug out in 1910 to cover the increasing need of drinking water in the nearby twin spa town of Bad Sooden-Allendorf which had prospered due to the salt deposits beneath the Werra for centuries.
Bruchteiche near Bad Sooden-Allendorf, different angle

The salt deposits beneath the Werra river have been exploited at least since the time the German tribe of the Chatti settled in the area during the Roman attempts to conquer Germania (it is the first time saltworks are mentioned in the sources; see Tacitus). The salt was extracted from brine by boiling; a method that continued until the early 20th centurly.

The Werra often was a border river, so between the Chatti and Hermunduri who fought over the salt wells, and later between Hessia and Thuringia. When the GDR still existed, I could see the flood lights of the Iron Fence from the train that went along the river on the way to Göttingen. Luckily, I saw them from the western side.
Surrounded by green shrubbery

Charlemagne granted the the saltsprings, the income from the saltworks, and the market rights of the settlement – which was then called Westera – to the Fulda Abbey (charte dated to 779).

The settlement, which later was named Allendorf, was granted rights of a town in 1218. The income from the salt deposits enriched the burghers of the town; in the 16th century Allendorf was one of the leading salt evaporation ponds in Germany. The first graduation work was built in 1638 - the way of having the saltwater run down layers of straw and thus condense into a brine of 25% saved firewood and charcoal compare to boiling the water in flat pans.
Water lily leaves in the foreground

In the wake of the Thirty Years War, the town was badly damaged and the salt trade declined, though salt was still produced in Allendorf. The town recovered, but never attained its former importance. The first bath house was built in the new settlement of Sooden on the other side of the Werra river in 1818.

Allendorf and Sooden lost their salt monopoly with the annexation by Prussia in 1866. The fall of the price for salt eventually led to the end of the salt industy; the last salt was produced in 1906.
Way around the lakes

Meanwhile, the brine's healing properties had been discovered and the salt was brought to a new use in the developing spa industry. A large and fashionable spa with bathhouse graduation works etc. was built in 1881. The baths, the increasing population, and the many guests of the spa needed a lot of water, therefore the Bruchteiche Ponds were created.
Ripples on the second lake

Today, the lakes are a nice recrational area with hiking paths and spots for fishing. The main fish species include carp, tench, eel, pike, pike-perch, perch and various whitefish. Some artificial peninsulae make access to the shore easier.

The lakes are surrounded by a belt of trees, shrubs and – in some parts – of reeds, followed by fields and meadows, with forests to the south and west. Beyond the lakes and the valley rise the hills of the Unteres Werrabergland which surround the Werra valley between Treffurt in Thuringia and Hedemünden in Lower Saxony.
Reeds with plank way

If you wonder where all that salt comes from, let us do some time traveling. Whoosh, 260 million years back to the Late Permian. What is going to become Europe was hanging out at the equator as part of Pangaea. There was a great inland sea, the Zechstein Sea, located in the rain shadow of the Central Pangaean Mountains. The Zechstein Sea extended from what is toady the North Sea and the lowland areas of Britain to Germany (about the line of the Main river), and northern Poland. The climate was hot and arid, so the water evaporated and left behind layers of salt. This happened in several steps with marine transgressions adding more water and salt.
Reeds at the shore of the lake

The hills of the Unteres Werrabergland are Bunter sandstone and musselkalk which, together with Keuper, form the German Trias supergroup. About 250 million years ago, a connection opened up between the Zechstein Sea and the Paleo-Thetys Ocean. The resulting inflow of seawater under different climatic conditions (colder and more humid) caused the sedimentary rocks to develop in shapes of large alluvial fans. The new Germanic Basin encompassed the area of the former Zechstein Sea and extended further south to the Netherlands and southern Baltic Sea (~ 250-200 million years ago). Where those rocks have eroded or been washed out by rivers, the zechstein salt deposits have come close to the surface to be mined.
The second lake

The Hannover Cliffs at the Weser belong to the same geological formation. Bunter layers of the Germanic Trias can also be found in parts of the Harz mountains, esp. the northern Harz where the Saxon Orogeny (150-69 million years ago) developed a fault that pushed the old buntsandstone over the younger Jurassic strata.
An artificial peninsula

On a hill near the lakes is an Early Mediaeval ringwall fort, mistakenly dubbed Römerlager, though it has nothing to do with the Romans. Near the fort are also several burial mounds dating the the middle Bronze Age (1600-1200 BCE).

14 Mar 2021
  Another Little-Know Romanesque Church – St.Mary in Wilhelmshausen / Fulda Valley

St.Mary's Church in Wilhelmshausen, a village in the Fulda river vallley not far from Kassel, was not exactly a chance find since had I learned about its existence when I researched the history of Castle Sichelnstein. So I put the little beauty on the list for a time we would come into the area – which happened during the tour to Castle Grebenstein.
View to St.Mary in Wilhelmshausen

The amount of obscure Romanesque churches that dot parts of Germany is due to the fact that they belonged to monasteries in the Middle Ages. Monasteries served as focus points of Christianisation and learning, furthered cultivation of the land, were part of the itinerant royal court – together with the palatine castles – and sometimes served as place of retirement for a dowager queen or career choice for a daughter (abbesses could hold a surprising amount of power).
St.Mary in Wilhelmshausen, northern transept

Most monasteries in the Protestant parts of Germany were secularized in the aftermath of the Reformation, the buildings dismantled or modernised and given new use from farmsteads to palaces, depending on historical circumstances. Even Catholic monasteries became less important with the decline of the attraction of a monastic life; many of those were abadononed or given over to an different purpose as well.

But the churches – which after all, are sacred places – remained and continued to be used by the local population. A number of them became Protestant churches.
St. Mary, the triple apse

The church in the Romanesque basilica style was built as part of the convent of Wahlshausen (old: Walehusen) in 1142-1150. The nunnery obviously stood under the protection of the archbishop of Mainz, Heinrich I. A local benefactor is not known, which implies that the land may have been in royal possession at the time (the reign of Emperor Konrad III of Staufen). The nuns of Wahlshausen were either Cistercians or Benedictines; the information I could find about the church disagrees on that point.
The 12th century westwork with the belfry from 1891

The nunnery seems to have been terminated at the end of the 13th century, and the convent was refounded as Cistercian monastery in 1310. The first monks came from the monastery in Riddagshausen near Braunschweig; mother monastery was Hardehausen near Höxter, part of the bishopric Paderborn. Wahlshausen remained a Cistercian monastery until the Reformation.
Interior, the main nave

The event that induced my interest in the church was the burial of one Count Bardo of Sichelnstein in 1239; at a time when Wahlshausen was still a convent. One might wonder why he chose a nunnery as burial place – maybe he was a benefactor of the convent, or some female family member lived in the convent and saw to a resting place of the last male member of that house.
Interior, view to a side nave

The monastery was secularised in 1525. It had been in decline already before, and the buildings continued to fall into disrepair. An engraving of the time shows that the side naves of the church were basically ruins, though the chuch was still in use – its first Protestant curate was a former monk of the monastery, Cunradus Satte.

In 1572, Landgrave Wilhelm IV of Hessia gave the land and possessions of the former monastery to new settlers. From that time on, the village took the name Wilhelmshausen. The church was renovated in 1588.
The altar

The church was badly damanged during the Thirty Years War twice, and suffered from another fire in 1769 (the exterior stone walls mostly survived, but the interior, benches, roof beams and such, as well as the glass windows were destroyed). But the church remained sufficiently important for the landgraves of Hessia – and likely the people in the surrounding villages as well – to put their money and effort into the repair every time.
Main nave, view to the organ

King Jérome, one of Napoleon's brothers, also known as King Merry (König Lustig) in Germany since he liked his parties, must have had a soft spot for old churches. It was he who gifted the fine Rococo organ and the decorated gallery to the church (it came from another monastery in Wesphalia). We remember, he also took an interest in the Romanesque church of Gehrden
Exterior, detail of the reconstructed side nave

The organ survived another fire from 1891 which was caused by a lightning stroke. After that one, the church was restored to its original three naved pattern and a belfry tower was added to the westwork (belfry towers are part of the westwork in German churches, not separate towers like you can often see in England, Belgium and France). The original Cistercian church had no tower.
The – partly restored – triple apse seen from a different angle

The church was again damaged, this time by water, when the Edersee reservoir dam was bombed in May 1943 and 160 million m³ water rushed down the Eder valley into the Fulda (the Eder is a tributary of the Fulda) and thus all the way into the Weser. The water stood up to 1.20 m inside the church which caused damage to the walls.

Repairs took place in the 1950/60ies and again in 2002 to 2007, with a thorough renovation of the church, including the walls which showed some cracks, the roof, the addition of drainage outlets, and new interior furnishing.
Interior, side nave with alternating supports

The repairs and reconstructions in the 1890ies and 1950ies also restored the Romanesque design of the church. I already mentioned the re-addition of the side naves. The transept with the crossing towerlet had also been added at the time. During the second restoration the alternating supports of the naves were more clearly distinguished.

Alternate support or Rhenish support means the alternating between a sturdy, usually quadratic column with a lighter round pillar to support the archs (the Lower Saxon support alternates one column with two pillars).
The Romanesque baptismal font

One treasure survived all the wars, fires and floods: the 12th century Romanesque baptismal font. It is an octagonal bassin decorated with stone carved figures; a giant fish, a stag, a dragon. The stag is the symbol of Jesus Christus fighting the forces of Evil, represented by creatures from mythology.

The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, the Baltic Countries, and central Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.

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Location: Goettingen, Germany

I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History, interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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Historical Places

- Towns
- Castles
- Abbeys and Churches
- Roman Remains
- Neolithicum and Bronze Age
- Museums
City Trips

Hiking Tours and Cruises

United Kingdom
Baltic Sea

Historical Places



Bad Sooden-Allendorf
Historical Town and Graduation Tower
Bruchteiche Reservoir

A Seaside Resort

Lion Benches in the Castle Square
The Quadriga

Mediaeval Erfurt

Mediaeval Goslar
Chapel in the Klus Rock

Churches St.Martin and St.Mary

St. Mary's Church

Church of Our Lady: History

The Temple of Isis and Mater Magna

Mediaeval Paderborn

Mediaeval Quedlinburg
The Chapter Church

The Cathedral: Architecture
Jewish Ritual Bath

The Harbour
The Old Town

Mediaeval Lanes and Old Houses

The Roman Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths
The Porta Nigra

Sites of the Weimar Classicism
The Park at the Ilm

The Old Harbour

Roman and Mediaeval Xanten
The Gothic House


The Keep

Altenstein (Werra)
A Border Castle

Weser River Reivers

Brandenburg (Thuringia)
The Beginnings
Albrecht II of Thuringia

Coburg Fortress

The Marshals of Ebersburg


History of the Keep


Hardeg Castle
The Great Hall


Heldenburg (Salzderhelden)
A Welfen Seat

Hohnstein (Harz)
The Counts of Hohnstein
Between Welfen and Staufen
14th-15th Century

Built to Protect a Chapel

The Counts of Everstein
Later Times

The Counts of Winzenburg
The Lords of Plesse

Polle Castle
An Everstein Stronghold


Reichenbach (Hessia)

Photo Impressions

From Castle to Convention Centre



Stauffenburg (Harz)
A Secret Mistress

A Little Known Ruin in the Harz

Photo Impressions

A Virtual Tour

Revisiting the Weidelsburg

Abbeys and Churches

Early History of the Abbey

A Romanesque Basilica

A Romanesque Church

The Byzantine Crypt

The Stave Church

Remains of the Monastery

Early History of the Abbey
Interior of the Church

The Carolingian Gate Hall

Remains of the Monastery

Scharzfeld (Harz)
The Cave Church

Mediaeval Murals

The Monastery - Introduction

Romanesque Church and a Ducal Burial

Wilhelmshausen (Kassel)
The Romanesque Church

Roman Remains

Augusta Treverorum / Trier
The Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths
The Porta Nigra
The Roman Bridge

Colonia Ulpia Traiana / Xanten
Roman Xanten
The Amphitheatre in Birten

Limes Fort Aalen
The Barracks

Limes Fort Osterburken
The Discovery
The Cohort castellum
The Annex Fort
The Garrisons

Limes Fort Saalburg
A Reconstructed Limes Fort
Shrine of the Standards

Romans in North Rhine-Westphalia
Playmobil Romans, LWL Museum Haltern
Varus Statue, Haltern am See

Romans at the Moselle
The Villa Urbana in Longuich

Romans at the Rhine
Boppard - The Roman Baudobriga
The Villa at Wachenheim

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Neolithic Burials
Neolithic Burials in the Everstorf Forest and Rugia
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age
Bronze and Iron Age Remains at the Werra

Museums / Reconstructed Sites

Palatine Seat Tilleda
The Defenses

Viking Settlement Haithabu
The Nydam Ship

Open Air Museums
European Bread Museum Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Post-Mediaeval Exhibits
Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg



Roman and Medieaval Chester

The Abbey - Introduction
The Old Gaol

Clifford Tower
The Guild Hall
Monk Bar Gate with Richard III Museum
Museum Gardens
Houses in the Old Town
York Minster: Architecture



Conquest to King John
Henry III to the Tudors

Romans to the Tudors
Civil War to the Present

Roman Remains

Eboracum / York
Roman Bath in the Fortress

Wall Fort Birdoswald
The Dark Age Timber Halls

Wall Fort Segedunum
Museum and Viewing Tower
The Baths

Other Roman Sites
The Mithraeum at Brocolita
The Signal Station at Scarborough



Views from the Castle

The Wallace Monument


A Virtual Tour
History: The Early Stewart Kings
History: Royal Dower House

Duart Castle
Guarding the Sound of Mull

An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
The Wars of Independence
The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

Robert the Bruce

Abbeys and Churches

Arriving at Inchcolm Abbey

Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Neolithic Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae

Brochs and Cairns
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Introduction

Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort



Castle and Coast

The Ffwrwm
The Roman Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort

The Smallest House in Great Britain



Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

From Romans to Victorians

Beginnings unto Bigod
Edward II to the Tudors
Civil War


Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings

The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

Photo Impressions
The Caves Under the Castle

Roman Remains

Isca Silurum / Caerleon
The Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort



Viking Museum Roskilde
To come


Castles and Fortresses

Akershus Fortress in Oslo
Kings and Pirates
The Time of King Håkon V

Vardøhus Fortress


The Fram Museum in Oslo


Neolithicum and Bronze Age

Gnisvärd Ship Setting


The Vasa Museum in Stockholm



Mediaeval Porvoo



The History of Mediaeval Tallinn



The History of Mediaeval Riga



To come



Gdańsk / Danzig
History of Mediaeval Gdańsk
Mediaeval and Renaissance Gdańsk

The Old Town
Jewish Kraków - Kazimierz and the Ghetto

Wrocław / Breslau
The Botanical Garden
The Wrocław Dwarfs


Ogrodzieniec Castle
A Virtual Tour
First Castle to the Boner Family



Cheb / Eger
The Old Town

Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
Brief History of the Town

Kutná Hora
The Sedlec Ossuary
The Medieaval Town and St.Barbara's Church



The Old Town

Mediaeval Bruges

Mediaeval Ghent

Mediaeval Buildings

Roman Remains

Atuatuca Tungrorum / Tongeren
Roman Remains in the Town



Luxembourg City
A Tour of the Town

City Trips

St.Petersburg (Russia)
Impressions from the Neva River

Strasbourg (France)
A Tour of the Town

Hiking Tours and Cruises


Baltic Sea Coast
Flensburg Firth
Rugia: Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
Rugia: Photo Impressions
Rugia: The Pier of Sellin
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

Lüneburg Heath
Hiking Tours in the Lüneburg Heath

Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Devil's Wall
Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
Oderteich Reservoir
Rappbode Reservoir
Views from Harz mountains

Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Bruchteiche / Bad Sooden Allendorf
Hessian Switzerland

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
The Forest Pasture Project
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Nature Park Reinhardswald
Old Forest at the Sababurg

Thuringian Forests
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

Rivers and Lakes
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut
Weser River Ferry
Weser Skywalk

Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life
Red squirrels

Spring Impressions from Göttingen
Spring in the Hardenberg Castle Gardens
Spring in the Meissner
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake

United Kingdom

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains: Inverness to John o'Groats
Some Photos from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull: Craignure to Fionnphort
Dunollie and Kilchurn: Photo Impressions
Pentland Firth
Summer in Oban

Scotland by Train
West Highland Railway

Views of Snowdownia

Sea Gulls


Coast of Norway: Hurtigruten-Tour
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord

The Baltic Sea

A Baltic Sea Cruise

The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
Beaches at the Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit

Mediaeval History

General Essays

by Country
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Livonia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Bohemia
- Luxembourg
- Flanders

Roman History

The Romans at War
Famous Romans
Roman Life and Religion

Other Times

Neolithicum to Iron Age
Post-Mediaeval History
History and Literature

Mediaeval History

General Essays

Mediaeval Warfare


Late Mediaeval Swords

Mediaeval Art and Craft

Mediaeval Art
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
The Hunting Frieze in Königslutter Cathedral
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Medical Instruments


The History of Feudalism
The Beginnings
Feudalism in the 10th Century

Special Cases
The privilege of the deditio

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings

Hanseatic Architecture
Examples of Brick Architecture
Hall Houses (Dielenhäuser)

Goods and Trade
Stockfish Trade

Towns of the Hanseatic League
Tallinn / Reval

The Order of the Teutonic Knights

Wars and Battles
The Conquest of Danzig
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

The Vikings

Viking Material Culture
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Viking Ships
The Nydam Ship

Essays by Country



List of Mediaeval German Emperors
Anglo-German Marriage Connections

Kings and Emperors

The Salian Dynasty
King Heinrich IV

Staufen against Welfen
Emperor Otto IV

Princes and Lords

House Welfen
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen

The Landgraves of Thuringia
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

Dukes and Princes of other Families
Duke Otto of Northeim
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Feuds and Rebellions

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War
The Star Wars


Kings of England

House Plantagenet
Richard Lionheart in Speyer
King Henry IV's Lithuanian Crusade

Normans, Britons, Angevins

Great Noble Houses
The Dukes of Brittany
The Earls of Richmond

Contested Borders

King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War, Part 1
King David and the Civil War, Part 2

Houses Bruce and Stewart
The Early Stewart Kings

Local Troubles

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding

Scotland and England

The Wars of Independence
Alexander of Argyll
The Fight for Stirling Castle


Welsh Princes

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

Wales and England

A History of Rebellion
Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Kings of Denmark

House of Knýtlinga
Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

The Duchy of Estonia
Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


Kings of Norway

Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

Feuds and Rebellions

Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Troubles and Alliances

Scandinavian Unity
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

(Latvia and Estonia)

Contested Territories

Livonian Towns
The History of Mediaeval Riga
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Lithuanian Princes

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas

The Northern Crusades

The Wars in Lithuania
The Siege of Vilnius 1390


Royal Dynasties

The Jagiełłonian Kings
Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union

The Northern Crusades

The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
The Conquest of Danzig


Royal Dynasties

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
King Sigismund and the Hussite Wars


House Luxembourg
King Sigismund


More to come

Roman History

The Romans at War

Forts and Fortifications

The German Limes
The Cavalry Fort Aalen
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg

The Hadrian's Wall
The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend

Border Life
Exercise Halls
Mile Castles and Watch Towers
Soldiers' Living Quarters
Cavalry Barracks

Campaigns and Battles

The Romans in Germania

The Pre-Varus Invasion in Germania
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn

The Batavian Rebellion
A Short Introduction

Roman Militaria

Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles

Famous Romans

The Late Empire

The Legend of Alaric's Burial

Roman Life and Religion

Religion and Public Life

Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms
Isis Worship
Memorial Stones
The Mithras Cult

Public Life
Roman Transport: Barges
Roman Transport: Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Roman Public Baths

Domestic Life

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots

Other Times

Neolithicum to Iron Age


Development of Civilisation
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
The Hutewald Project in the Solling
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Neolithic Remains
Stone Burials of the Funnelbeaker Culture
The Necropolis of Oldendorf

Bronze Age / Iron Age
The Nydam Ship


Neolithic Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Bronze Age / Iron Age
Clava Cairns
The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Their Function in Iron Age Society


Bronze / Iron Age
The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd / Gotland

Post-Mediaeval History

Explorers and Discoveries

Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

History and Literature


The Weimar Classicism


Geological Landscapes: Germany

Baltic Sea Coast
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

Harz Mountains
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs
Sandstone Formations: Daneil's Cave
Sandstone Formations: Devil's Wall
Sandstone Formations: The Klus Rock

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations
Salt Springs at the Werra

Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

Geological Landscapes: Great Britain

The Shores of Scotland

Geological Landscapes: Baltic Sea

Geology of the Curonian Spit

Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

Fossilized Ammonites
The Loket Meteorite (Czechia)

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