My Illlustrated Travel Journal with Essays about Roman and Mediaeval History and some Geology


30.10.15
  A Belligerent Knight and a Faithful Wife - The History of Castle Weidelsburg

It's time for another castle, so I've been digging in my photo archives to find something interesting. My father and I visited the still impressive ruins of Castle Weidelsburg in 2008. The site was undergoing renovation and the western palas (great hall) scaffolded in, but I got enough pretty pics nevertheless. I know most of you like photos of castles and stories about feuds.

Weidelsburg, the eastern keep

The Weidelsburg is situated on a a 492 metres high basaltic conical hill at the borders between northern Hessia, Thuringia, the earldom of Waldeck, and the enclave of the archbishopric Mainz around Naumburg (1). It is the largest castle in northern Hessia and its possession was often contested.

As usual, its beginnings are shrouded in the mists of missing documents. Archaeological traces point at a fortification on the hill dating back to the 7th or 8th century. The castrum Alstat mentioned in a 12th century chronicle may be indentical with the predecessor of the present castle (2) but definite proof is still lacking.

Weidelsburg, view through the Naumburg Gate into the outer bailey

The history of the Weidelsburg is easier to trace when it came into possession of the archbishopric of Mainz in 1266 (3). The archbishop of Mainz and the landgrave of Hessia (in this case, Heinrich I) were at cahoots most of the time. In one of their feuds, the Weidelsburg was destroyed during the Star Wars in 1275.

Landgrave Hermann II (4) and Count Heinrich IV of Waldeck rebuilt the castle in 1380, but ran into problems with Mainz again, which claimed the right to the castle. It took several years to sort out the legal mess. The castle fell to the archbishop who ordered his vassal, the Lord of Hertinghausen, with the rebuilding. The remains of the Weidelsburg we can see today mostly date from that time.

Outer bailey

The feud between the archbishops of Mainz and the landgraves of Hessia, which had lasted about two hundred years already, went on and the castle was partly destroyed by the landgrave of Hessia again in 1402, together with the Naumburg, the other castle in possession of the archbishop.

(left: The eastern keep)

The next and final step in the feud took place in 1427. Count Heinrich IV of Waldeck (6) and his son Wolrad, vassals of the archbishop of Mainz, had pawned out half of the earldom to Ludwig Landgrave of Hessia in 1424 for the sum of 22,000 gulden (guilder). But then Heinrich went back on the deal, arguing that he already had given his word to the archbishop of Mainz to whom he then pawned out half of his earldom for 18,000 gulden (the landgrave would have been the better deal). Heinrich and Wolrad opened their castles to the archbishops of Mainz and Cologne, Konrad of Dhaun and Dietrich of Moers - the latter being interested in getting a foothold in the borderlands because of his interests in the bishopric of Paderborn and the Castle Krukenburg.

Landgrave Ludwig had already paid the sum and accepted the oath of fealty from vassals, burghers and farmers of the county. Of course, he was furious. Archbishop Konrad of Mainz offered Ludwig to repay the sum Ludwig had given to Heinrich and Wolrad of Waldeck. But Ludwig wanted nothing of that; it must have been more important for him to hold the power in the lands of Waldeck, so the war continued. How the young man (born 1402) got the nickname 'the Peaceful' is beyond me (7). Well, Ludwig won two battles during the summer 1427, took some 300 knights of the archbishop of Mainz captive - albeit Konrad himself escaped the Battle of Fulda - and with that card up his sleeve returned to the negotiation table.

At the Peace of Frankfurt (December 1427) Mainz paid 44,000 guilder reparation and had to hold all its Hessian possessions as fief from the landgrave. But Ludwig gave the pawn of Waldeck to Mainz and accepted a refund. The Weidelsburg must have remained a fief of the archbishop of Mainz, because it was Konrad who appointed Reinhard of Dalwigk as reeve in 1437. It turned out he let the cat loose among the pigeons by that decision.

Weidelsburg, inner curtain walls

The Dalwigk were an ancient family that first appears in documents in 1036 as ministeriales of the monastery in Corvey (5). Later, they became vassals of the counts of Waldeck; 'Bernhard and Elgar de Dalewich' were elevated to lords by Count Adolf of Waldeck in 1227. In the 14th century, members of the family also were vassals of the landgraves of Hessia and the archbishops of Mainz.

Naumburg Gate, seen from the bailey

Reinhard of Dalwigk (1400 - 1461) was called 'the Unborn' because he was delivered by cesarean. He married Agnes of Hertingshausen (1412) which may have helped in him getting the position as reeve of the Weidelsburg and probably the fief itself, which had been held by the Hertinghausen family before. The Weidelsburg might have been Agnes' dowry. The Hertinghausen played an important role in the northern Hessian borderlands from about 1250 - 1700.

Reinhard of Dalwigk fortified the castle according to the standard of his time, adding an outer bailey and a zwinger to the south. He also modernised the living quarters where he is said to have 'held court like a prince'.

(right: Interior of the eastern keep with the well tower on the kitchen level and some windows in the upper storeys)

Reinhard was rich, ambitious, and loved feuds. He kept burning villages and fighting local nobles to an extent that he was considered a breaker of the king's peace. Landgrave Ludwig I of Hessia and the archbishop of Mainz worked together for a change and laid siege to the Weidelsburg in 1443. Reinhard submitted; it seems he got away with an admonition but no real loss in power and ressources. He promptly went back to his favourite pastime and burned some more villages, joined by his nephew Friedrich IV of Hertinghausen. This time he got into real trouble when Landgrave Ludwig I of Hessia appeared before the Weidelsburg with an army in 1448.

Ludwig demanded that Reinhard surrender unconditionally. If the following legend is true, that may have implied that there were no prior negotiations and Reinhard would have risked permanent imprisonment or even capital punishment by undergoing a deditio.

The legend has it that his wife, Agnes née Hertinghausen, went to Ludwig and pleaded for her husband's life. Ludwig allowed the women to leave the castle, bearing 'what was most dear to them', but the men had to stay and await his further decisions. Not much gained there. But Agnes remembered the legend about King Konrad and the Women of Weinsberg (8). So she said what was most dear to her was her husband, and carried him on her back down from the castle while her ladies-in-waiting followed with the pretty dresses and the bling. Ludwig was angry, but the legend about King Konrad obviously was strong enough to influence his decision and he, too, stood to his word and spared Reinhard's life.

But Reinhard had to undergo the deditio, the formal surrender, and lost the Weidelsburg (thus he likely held the castle itself and not only the position as reeve - the feudal relationship is a bit murky due to lack of sources, like so often). Reinhard and his nephew Friedrich of Hertinghausen were allowed to keep the castle Naumburg where they lived together.

Remains of a half tower in the curtain wall, interior

Reinhard of Dalwigk and Friedrich of Hertinghausen didn't learn their lesson. As soon as a good feud showed itself at the horizon, they went to join it with flying banners. Both got into trouble with the family of Elben about the rights to some forests and tithes. The Elben were another noble family with possessions in northern Hessia and related to the Hertinghausen. That did not stop Werner von Elben to join with other nobles as Lords of the Federacy (Bundesherren) against Reinhard and Friedrich. Between 1450-54, the fire spread to involve more nobles on both sides; villages were plunderned and burned and skirmishes fought. During one of those, Friedrich was severly wounded and captured.

The curtain wall of the outer bailey to the north

Landgrave Ludwig and Count Wolrad of Waldeck - both obviously on speaking terms again after the Peace of Frankfurt - in vain tried to mediate between the warring parties several times. It took a number of dead nobles before Ludwig and Wolrad managed to settle the mess in December 1454. Both sides released their prisoners, Werner of Elben paid a guerdon for Friedrich of Hertighausen's wound that left him badly limping, the tithes in question were granted to Reinhard of Dalwigk. Both parties signed a settlement. That peace held.

Rounded corner of the trapezoid eastern keep, looking skyward

Reinhard von Dalwigk died on the Naumburg in 1461, without known heirs.

Since Reinhard had surrendered the Weidelsburg to Ludwig, the landgrave established a Hessian reeve in the castle, though Reinhard had held the castle from Mainz (maybe it was an Afterlehen, a fief Mainz held from the landgrave and then enfeoffed to Reinhard). There was a quarrel between the archbishop of Mainz and Landgrave Ludwig II in 1463, after which the Weidelsburg was officially given to the landgrave. It continued to be administered by Hessian reeves.

But the castle was considerend technologically outdated in the 16th century, and no money was invested in its upkeep. A severe fire in 1591 left the Weidelsburg a ruin.

The west palas building (photo taken 2016 after the restoration)

In 1891, a platform was built on the keep - the tourism to picturesque ruins had become popular. Excavations were done in the 1930ies, and restoration work from 1979-87 and again 2008-14. A good reason to go back. :-) Since both the keep and the palas or great hall are in pretty good condition, as well as remains of gates and curtain walls, the castle makes for an impressive ruin. A post about the architecture can be found here, and one about our post-restoration visit here.

The inner curtain wall with integrated great hall, seen from the outside
Footnotes
1) This is not Naumburg at the Saale with its famous cathedral, but a town with the same name in northern Hessia. The castle of the same name is now defunct.
2) Most of the information I got from the official website of the castle, cross-checking facts where I could.
3) The archbishop bought the castle, but I could not find out from whom. Likely either the landgrave of Hessia or the count of Waldeck.
4) Heinrich IV (1340 - 1397) was married to Mathilde of Braunschweig-Lüneburg. One of their daughters, Irmgard, would marry into the House of Everstein that held possessions in Hessia as well as at the Weser.
5) Dear Wikipedia, you cannot have a family be ministeriales and freeborn nobles in the same article. There was a difference. ;-) I think it's more likely they were ministeriales since it was that group of nobles the monasteries preferably employed. They are not connected with a hereditary castle at first, either.
6) He led the men who murdered Duke Friedrich of Braunschweig-Lüneburg in 1400. Another of the assassins was Friedrich III of Hertinghausen.
7) After the feud with Mainz, Ludwig got involved in a war with the grandsons of Otto the Quarrelsome during which he - unsuccessfully - laid siege to Castle Salzderhelden (1447).
8) During a feud with Duke Welf of Bavaria in 1140, Konrad III had allowed the women to leave the besieged castle of Weinsberg in Swabia under the condition that they may bring along what they could carry, and they came down bearing their husbands. Albeit some of the king's advisors argued against it, Konrad decided that he had given his word and would stick to it.
 
Comments:
Eine schöne Burganlage mit wohl recht wechselvoller Geschichte. Wir müssen wohl doch auch einmal in diese Gegend Hessens :-)
Liebe Grüße von der Silberdistel
 
Die Gegend zwischen Meissner und Edersee ist sicher eine Reise wert.
 
You know your readers well - castles and feuds - can't beat it;). Once again, super pictures.
 
Thank you, Anerje.
 
'How the young man (born 1402) got the nickname 'the Peaceful' is beyond me'
Sarcasm, like 'Little John'? Do German nicknames go in for sarcasm?

Great pictures, as always. I can't help feeling for the poor villagers in all this.
 
What a castle! Magnificent! Such formidable walls and what history involved! I will re-read the post though, for I got lost somewhere in the middle ;-)
 
Carla, not usually. Maybe they had a different idea about what counted as peaceful in the 15th century.

Kasia, all those German landgraves and archbishops are difficult to sort out. If you have a question, feel free to ask.
 
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The Lost Fort is a travel journal and history blog based on my travels in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, and other places. It includes essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, as well as some geology, illustrated with photos of old castles and churches, Roman remains, and beautiful landscapes.

All texts (except comments by guests) and photos (if no other copyright is noted) on this blog are copyright of Gabriele Campbell.
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Location: Germany

I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who hasn't yet gotten an Instagram account. :-)



Illustrated travel essays: Roman remains, Mediaeval buildings and ruins, other places; sorted by country


Roman Times

The Romans at War

Different Frontiers, Yet Alike
Exercise Halls
Mile Castles and Watch Towers
Reconstructed Fort Walls
Soldiers' Living Quarters
Cavalry Barracks

Roman Ships
Transport Barges

Life and Religion

Religious Sites
The Mithraeum of Brocolita
Mithras Altars in Germania
A Roman Memorial Stone


Germania

The Limes and its Forts

Limes Fort Osterburken
The Discovery
The Cohort castellum
The Annex Fort
The Garrisons

Limes Fort Saalburg
Introduction
Main Gate
Shrine of the Standards
The Walls
The vicus

Romans in Bavaria
Overview: Aalen, Weissenburg, Regensburg
The Fort in Aalen - Barracks

Romans at Lippe and Ems
Anniversary Exhibitions in Haltern am See
Varus Statue, Haltern am See

Romans at the Rhine
Boppard - A 4th Century Roman Fort
Villa Rustica Wachenheim
Wachenheim Villa, Baths and Toilets
Wachenheim Villa, Cellar

Romans at the Weser
The Roman Camp at Hedemünden
Weapon Finds

Roman Towns

Augusta Treverorum (Trier)
The Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths - Roman Times
The Imperial Baths - Post Roman
Porta Nigra - Roman Times
The Roman Bridge

Colonia Ulpia Traiana (Xanten)
History of the Town
The Amphitheatre in Birten

Moguntiacum (Mainz)
The Temple of Isis and Mater Magna


Gallia Belgica

Roman Towns

Atuatuca Tungrorum
Roman Remains in Tongeren


Britannia

Frontiers, Fortifications, Forts

The Hadrian's Wall
Introduction / Photo Collection
Fort Baths
Fort Headquarters
Building the Wall
The Wall as Defense Line

Wall Forts - Banna (Birdoswald)
The Dark Age Timber Halls

Wall Forts - Segedunum (Wallsend)
Introduction
The Museum
The Viewing Tower
The Baths

Signal Stations
The Signal Station at Scarborough

Roman Towns

Eboracum (York)
Bath in the Fortress
Multiangular Tower

Romans in Wales

The Forts in Wales
Overview

Roman Forts - Isca (Caerleon)
The Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort


Mediaeval Times

Living Mediaeval
Dungeons and Oubliettes
Pit House (Grubenhaus)
Medical Instruments

Mediaeval Art
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee - The Historical Context
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee - The Craftmanship

Mediaeval Weapons
Swords
Trebuchets
Combat Scenes


Mediaeval Germany

Towns

Braunschweig
Medieaval Braunschweig, Introduction
Lion Benches in the Castle Square
The Quadriga

Erfurt
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Erfurt

Magdeburg
Magdeburg Cathedral
St.Mary's Abbey - An Austere Archbishop
St.Mary's Abbey - Reformation to Reunion

Paderborn
Town Portrait

Speyer
The Cathedral: Architecture
Cathedral: Richard Lionheart in Speyer
Jewish Ritual Bath

Xanten
Town Portrait
The Gothic House

Towns in the Harz

Goslar
Town Portrait

Quedlinburg
Town Portrait
The Chapter Church

Towns of the Hanseatic League

Lübeck
St. Mary's Church, Introduction

Stralsund
The Harbour

Wismar
The Old Harbour

Castles and Fortresses

Castles in Bavaria

Coburg Fortress
The History of the Fortress
The Architecture

Castles in the Harz

Ebersburg
The Architecture
Power Base of the Thuringian Landgraves
The Marshals of Ebersburg

Harzburg
The Harzburg and Otto IV

Hohnstein
Origins of the Counts of Hohnstein
The Family Between Welfen and Staufen
A Time of Feuds (14th-15th century)

Regenstein
Introduction
The Time of Henry the Lion

Scharzfels
Introduction
History

Hidden Treasures
The Stauffenburg near Seesen

Castles in Hessia

Castles in Northern Hessia
Grebenstein
Reichenbach
Sichelnstein

Kugelsburg
The Counts of Everstein
Troubled Times
War and Decline

Weidelsburg
The History of the Castle
The Architecture
The Castle After the Restoration

Castles in Lower Saxony

Adelebsen / Hardeg
The Keep of Adelebsen Castle
The Great Hall of Hardeg Castle

Hardenberg
Introduction

Plesse
Rise and Fall of the Counts of Winzenburg
The Lords of Plesse
Architecture / Decline and Rediscovery

Castles in the Solling
Salzderhelden - A Welfen Seat
Grubenhagen

Castles in Thuringia

Brandenburg
The Double Castle
Role of the Castle in Thuringian History

Castles in the Eichsfeld
Altenstein at the Werra
Castle Scharfenstein

Hanstein
Introduction
Otto of Northeim
Heinrich the Lion and Otto IV
The Next Generations

Normanstein
Introduction

Wartburg
A Virtual Tour

Castles at the Weser

Bramburg
River Reivers

Krukenburg
History and Architecture
Outbuilding 'Shepherd's Barn'

Polle
The Castle and its History
Views from the Keep

Sababurg / Trendelburg
Two Fairy Tale Castles

Churches and Cathedrals

Churches in the Harz

Steinkirche near Scharzfeld
Development of the Cave Church

Walkenried Monastery
From Monastery to Museum

Churches in Lower Saxony

Königslutter
Exterior Decorations
Cloister

Wiebrechtshausen
Nunnery and Ducal Burial

Churches in Thuringia

Göllingen Monastery
Traces of Byzantine Architecture

Heiligenstadt
St.Martin's Church
St.Mary's Church

Churches at the Weser

Bursfelde Abbey
Early History

Fredelsloh Chapter Church
History and Architecture

Helmarshausen
Remains of the Monastery

Lippoldsberg Abbey
History
Interior

Vernawahlshausen
Mediaeval Murals

Reconstructed Sites

Palatine Seat Tilleda
The Defenses

Viking Settlement Haithabu
Haithabu and the Archaeological Museum Schleswig
The Nydam Ship

Miscellanea

Other Mediaeval Buildings
Lorsch, Gate Hall
Palatine Seat and Monastery Pöhlde

Miscellanea - Along Weser and Werra
Bad Karlshafen
Hannoversch-Münden
Uslar
Treffurt
Weser Ferry
Weser Skywalk


Mediaeval England

Towns

Chester
A Walk Through the Town

Hexham
Old Gaol

York
Clifford Tower, Part 1
Clifford Tower, Part 2
Guild Hall
Monk Bar Gate and Richard III Museum
Museum Gardens
Old Town
Along the Ouse River

Castles

Castles in Cumbria

Carlisle
Introduction
Henry II and William of Scotland
The Edwards

Castles in Northumbria and Yorkshire

Alnwick
Malcolm III and the First Battle of Alnwick

Scarborough
From the Romans to the Tudors
From the Civil War to the Present

Churches and Cathedrals

Hexham Abbey
Introduction

York Minster
Architecture


Mediaeval Scotland

Towns

Edinburgh
Views from the Castle

Stirling
The Wallace Monument

Castles

Central Scotland

Doune
A Virtual Tour
History: The Early Stewart Kings
History: Royal Dower House, and Decline

Stirling
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle

West Coast Castles

Dunollie and Kilchurn
Castles Seen from Afar

Duart
Guarding the Sound of Mull

Dunstaffnage
An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
The Wars of Independence
The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

Abbeys and Churches

Inchcolm Abbey
Arriving at Inchcolm

Other Historical Sites

Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort
Staffa


Mediaeval Wales

Towns

Walks in Welsh Towns
Aberystwyth: Castle and Coast
Caerleon: The Ffwrwm
Conwy: The Smallest House in Great Britain

Castles

Edwardian Castles

Beaumaris
The Historical Context
The Architecture

Caernarfon
Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

Conwy
The History of the Castle
The Architecture

Norman Castles

Cardiff
History

Chepstow
History: Beginnings unto Bigod
History: From Edward II to the Tudors
History: Civil War, Restoration, and Aftermath

Manorbier
The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

Pembroke
Pembroke Pictures
The Caves Under the Castle

Welsh Castles

Criccieth
Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings


Baltic States and Poland

Towns along the Sea Coast
From Tallinn to Gdansk


Flanders / Belgium

Towns

Antwerp
The Old Town

Bruges
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Bruges

Ghent
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Ghent

Tongeren
Roman and Mediaeval Remains


Scandinavia

Norway

Castles and Fortresses

Defense over the Centuries
Akershus Fortress: Middle Ages
Akershus Fortress: Architectural Development
Vardøhus Fortress


Other Times

Ages of Stone and Bronze

Development of Civilization
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

From Stone to Bronze
Paleolithic Cave 'Steinkirche' in the Harz mountains
Gnisvärd Ship Setting on Gotland

Pre-Historical Orkney
Ring of Brodgar - Introduction
Ring of Brodgar - The Neolithic Landscape
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae


Post-Mediaeval

Thirty Years of War
The Vasa Museum in Stockholm

The Splendour of St.Petersburg
Isaac's Cathedral
Smolny Cathedral
Impressions from the The Neva River

Steampunk and Beyond
Fram Museum, Oslo, Part 1
Fram Museum Oslo, Part 2
Historical Guns
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then - The Vasa Museum
Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg


Tours and Cruises

Travelling in Germany
Hanseatic Towns at the Baltic Sea
At the Coast of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Quedlinburg and Surroundings
Halberstadt and Surroundings
In the Land of Saale and Unstrut
Interesting Sites in Thuringia
Some Castles in Thuringia (2017)
Teutoburg Forest and Paderborn
Towns, Castles and Churches in Bavaria
Summer Tours 2016

Travelling in the UK
Castles in Northumbria and Eastern Scotland
Abbeys and Churches in Northumbria
From Edinburgh to Oban - A Visit to Scotland
Neolithic, Pictish and Viking Remains on Orkney
Castles in Wales

Cruises
Cruise on the Baltic Sea
The Hurtigruten Tour / Norway


Beautiful Germany

The Baltic Sea Coast
From the Bay of Wismar to Hiddensee
The Flensburg Firth
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley, Rosstrappe and Devil's Wall
Cave Dwellings in Langenstein
Harzburg and the Ilsetal
Oderteich Reservoir
Views from Harz mountains

Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Sea Stones, Kitzkammer, Heldrastein
'Hessian Switzerland'
Karst Dolines and Kalbe Lake

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
The Hutewald Forest
The Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Rivers and Lakes
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
River of the Greenest Shores - The Moselle
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut

Parks and Palaces
Botanical Garden Göttingen
Forest Botanical Garden, Göttingen
Hardenberg Castle Gardens
Junkerberg Cemetary
Wilhelmsthal Palace and Gardens

Other Landscape Sites
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

Seasons and More

Spring
Spring on my Balcony
Spring at the Kiessee Lake
Spring in the Rossbach Heath

Summer
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016
Summer Thunderstorms

Autumn
Autumnal Views from Castle Windows
Autumn Photos from Harz and Werra
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser

Winter
Advent Impressions
Christmas Decorations from the Ore Mountains
Winter at the Kiessee Lake
Winter Wonderland
Winter 2010

Wildlife
Birds at the Feeder
Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life

Experimental
Alien Architecture
Carved Monsters in Cathedrals
Llama, Llama
Odd Angles
Spectacular Sunset
Carved Animals


Across the Channel - United Kingdom

Mountains, Valleys, and Rivers
Sheep Grazing Among Roman Remains
A Ghost Cruise on the Ouse River
West Highland Railway

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains - Inverness to John o'Groats
Some Photos from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull - Craignure to Fionnphort
Pentland Firth
Staffa
Summer Days in Oban
Summer Nights in Oban

Wild Wales - With Castles
Hazy Views with Castles
Shadows and Strongholds
Views from Castle Battlements

Wildlife
Sea Gulls


Shores of History - The Baltic Sea

The Northern Coast
From Gotland to St.Petersburg

The South-Eastern Coast
Beaches at the Curonian Spit
From Tallinn to Gdansk


Land of Light and Darkness - Norway

The Hurtigruten-Tour
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast - North of the Polar Circle
A Voyage into Winter
Culture and Nature in Norway
The Farthest North

Norway by Train
Winter in the Mountains

Wildlife
Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord




Illustrated Essays about historical themes, events, and persons - mostly Roman and Mediaeval


Roman History

Wars and Frontiers

Maps
Romans in Germania

Traces of the Pre-Varus Conquest
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn
Introduction

Along the Limes
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg

Roman Frontiers in Britain
Hadrian's Wall

Rebellions
The Batavian Rebellion

Roman Militaria

Armour
Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapons
The pilum
Daggers
Swords

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles

Life and Religion

Religion
The Mithras Cult
Isis Worship
Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots
Styli and Wax Tablets

Public Life
Roman Transport - Barges
Roman Transport - Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Roman villae
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Miscellaneous
Legend of Alaric's Burial


Mediaeval History

Feudalism
Feudalism, Beginnings
Feudalism, 10th Century
The Privilege of the deditio
A Note on handgenginn maðr

The Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings
Stockfish Trade


Germany

Geneaologies

List of Mediaeval German Emperors

Geneaology
Anglo-German Marriage Connections
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors

Biographies

Kings and Emperors
King Heinrich IV
Emperor Otto IV, Introduction

Princes
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto of Northeim
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Famous Feuds

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War - Introduction
The Star Wars

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg


Scotland

Scottish Kings

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War (1)
King David and the Civil War (2)

Houses Bruce and Stewart
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle
The Early Stewart Kings

Scottish Nobles and their Quarrels

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding


Wales

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

The Rebellions
From Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Scandinavia

Kings of Norway
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages

Famous Nobles and their Feuds
Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg

Post-Mediaeval

Explorers
Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole


Miscellanea

Maria Padilla - Mistress Royal
The Siege of Calais in Donizetti's Opera
Otto von Guericke


Geological Landscapes

The Baltic Sea
Geology of the Curonian Spit

The Harz
Karst Landscape
Karst - Lonau Falls
Karst - Rhume Springs

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations

Solling-Vogler
Raised Bogs
The Hannover Cliffs

The Shores of Scotland
Staffa

Paleontology

Fossils
Ammonites


Novels in Progress / Planning

Roman Novels
(Historical Fiction)

The Saga of House Sichelstein
(Historical Fiction)

Kings and Rebels
(Fantasy)

Poetry Translations

Historical Ballads by Theodor Fontane
Archibald Douglas
Gorm Grymme
Sir Walter Scott in Abbotsford
The Tragedy of Afghanistan

Poems by Theodor Storm
From Heaven into Valleys Deep
The Grey Town By the Sea
The Seagull Flies Ashore Now

Other German Poems
Kästner, Progress of Mankind
Hebbel, Summer Picture
Rainer Maria Rilke, Autumn Day


Not So Serious Romans
Aelius Rufus Visits the Future Series
Building Hadrian's Wall
Playmobil Romans

Royal (Hi)Stories
Kings Having a Bad Hair Day
The Case of the Vanished Wine Cask

Historical Memes
Charlemagne meme
Historical Christmas Wishes
New Year Resolutions
Aelius Rufus does a Meme
Rules for Writing Scottish Romances

Funny Sights
Tourist Kitsch in St.Petersburg


*********************

Links leading outside my blog will open in a new window. I do not take any responsibility for the content of linked sites.

History Blogs - Ancient

Roman History Today
Ancient Times (Mary Harrsch)
Bread and Circuses (Adrian Murdoch)
Following Hadrian (Carole Raddato)
Mike Anderson's Ancient History Blog
Mos Maiorum - Der römische Weg
Per Lineam Valli (M.C. Bishop)
Judith Weingarten

Digging Up Fun Stuff
The Anglo-Saxon Archaeology Blog
Arkeologi i Nord
The Journal of Antiquities (Britain)
The Northern Antiquarian
The Roman Archaeology Blog

History Blogs - Mediaeval

Þaér wæs Hearpan Swég
Anglo Saxon, Norse & Celtic Blog
Casting Light upon the Shadow (A. Whitehead)
Norse and Viking Ramblings
Outtakes of a Historical Novelist (Kim Rendfeld)

Beholden Ye Aulde Blogges
A Clerk of Oxford
Historical Britain Blog (Mercedes Rochelle)
Magistra et Mater (Rachel Stone)
Michelle of Heavenfield (Michelle Ziegler)
Senchus (Tim Clarkson)

Royal and Other Troubles
Edward II (Kathryn Warner)
Henry the Young King (Kasia Ogrodnik)
Piers Gaveston (Anerje)
Lady Despenser's Scribery
Simon de Montfort (Darren Baker)
Weaving the Tapestry (Scottish Houses Dunkeld and Stewart)

A Mixed Bag of History
English Historical Fiction Authors
The Freelance History Writer (Susan Abernethy)
The History Blog
History, the Interesting Bits (S.B. Connolly)
Mediaeval News (Niall O'Brian)
Time Present and Time Past (Mark Patton)

Thoughts and Images

Reading and Reviews
Black Gate Blog
The Blog That Time Forgot (Al Harron)
Parmenion Books
Reading the Past
The Wertzone

Imaginations
David Blixt
Ex Urbe (Ada Palmer)
Constance A. Brewer
Jenny Dolfen Illustrations
Wild and Wonderful (Caroline Gill)

Poets and Photographers (German Blogs)
Alte Steine (Burgdame Eva)
Durch Bücherstaub geblinzelt (Silberdistel)
Insel-Aus-Zeit (Carmen Wedeland)

German Travel Blogs
Good Morning World
Meerblog
Sonne und Wolken
Teilzeitreisender
Unterwegs und Daheim

Highland Mountains
The Hazel Tree (Jo Woolf)
Helen in Wales
Mountains and Sea Scotland

The Colours of the World
Shutterbugs


Research

Archaeology
Past Horizons
Archaeology in Europe
Orkneyar

Roman History
Deutsche Limeskommission
Internet Ancient Sourcebook
Livius.org
Roman Army
Roman Britain
The Romans in Britain
Vindolanda Tablets

Not so Dark Ages
Burgundians in the Mist
Viking Society for Northern Research

Mediaeval History
De Re Militari
Internet Mediaeval Sourcebook
Kulturzeit
The Labyrinth
Mediaeval Crusades
Medievalists.Net

Castles
Burgenarchiv
Burgenwelt
Exploring Castles
The World of Castles

Miscellaneous History
Heritage Daily
The History Files

Post-Mediaeval Sites
Vasa Museets Skeppsbloggen

Mythology
Ancient History
Encyclopedia Mythica

Online Journals
Ancient Warfare
The Heroic Age
The History Files

Travel and Guide Sites

Germany - History
Antike Stätten in Deutschland
Burgenarchiv
Strasse der Romanik

Germany - Nature
HarzLife
Naturpark Meissner
Naturpark Solling-Vogler

England
English Heritage
Visit Northumberland

Scotland
The Chain Mail (Scottish History)
Historic Scotland
National Trust Scotland

Books and Writing

Writing Sites
Absolute Write
TheLitForum.com

Historical Fiction
Historical Novel Society
Historia Magazine

Interesting Author Websites
Bernard Cornwell
Dorothy Dunnett
Steven Erikson
Diana Gabaldon
Guy Gavriel Kay
George R.R. Martin
Sharon Kay Penman
Brandon Sanderson
J.R.R. Tolkien
Tad Williams


*********************


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