My History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times


31/12/2006
  Happy New Year

I wish everyone a Happy New Year,
good health and lots of publishing contracts or whatever success you desire. :)


 


26/12/2006
  Runes

I'm not a specialist on runes; I've only taken the basic courses. Thus, what I will do here is to give some general information that is acknowledged in research, and leave most of the problems out.

The etymology of the word 'rune' derives from Old Germanic rúna and means something in the way of 'secret'. There is a number of theories about the origin of the runic letters but none of these theories have so far been universally acknowledged or give a sufficiently founded explanation (1). In Viking times it was believed that the runes were given to mankind by the god Odin who in his turn received them in a dream after a long period of fasting (Edda: Hávamál, 138).

The Letters

The oldest monuments (engraved on stones) are located in southern Sweden and Danmark and date from 250 AD onwards. Some of them display the entire alphabet containing 24 letters (sometimes grouped 8 x 3). The first six letters: f u þ a r k gave the the runic alphabets, or rune rows, as Düwel prefers to call them, the denomination futhark.

The system of 3 x 8 runes of the Older Futhark is proven by several inscriptions (2). This system could be used for a sort of encoding in secret runes, when not the actual letter was given but its position within the rune row. Occasionally, runes are written from the right to the left, and often they have one stave in common. So there are a lot of puzzles.

About 750 AD the alphabet changed and the number of letters was reduced. From 800 - 1150, the so called Viking period, we have the Younger Futhark with only 16 letters.

Imagine the deciphering problems of inscriptions with 16 letters to cover a range of 26 sounds. No wonder there are wars going on among the academics.

In the Younger Futhark some of the runes stand for several sounds:

u - u, y, o, ö, w
i - i, e, æ, j
a - a, æ
þ - þ, ð
k - k, g, ng
t - t, d
b - b, p
R - r, in Old Norse y
Some writers tried to solve the problem by using dotted runes, that is, they added a dot to distinguish f.e e from i. In the Mediaeval Ages (12th century onwards) the runes often were treated accordingly to the Latin alphabet and put into the same order.

Whereas the inscriptions of the Older Futhark show one form of language (Ancient Germanic) without dialectal differenciations, the Germanic language in the Viking time began to develop into different dialects and later into languages in their own right. (3). That influencd also the pronounciation of several runes. The rune that is transcribed R in the North- and West Germanic languages is a sound between r and z and changes to r proper, whereas in the South Germanic (including today's German) language it is transcribed by z and changes into s sharp. The rune for ei came out of use rather soon because of a process called monophthongization. The rune for j changes into an velar å because the word jâra changes into âr(a). The old a-rune has changed to o (*ansuz > ós). And in Old Norse the R stands for ý (ýr).

The Anglo-Saxon runes, on the other side, did not reduce the number of letters, but rather, added 4 more to the 24-Futhark to cover the additional vowels.

Rune Names

Because of their mythical origin of the runes they were in the Mediaeval Ages believed to have magical powers. The most well-known standardized list of reconstructed Ancient Germanic rune names is the following:

f - *fehu - livestock
u - *ûruz - aurochs
þ - *þurisaz - giant
a - *ansuz - Ase (old god)
r - *raidô - wagon, ride
k - *kaunan - ulcer, disease
g - *gebô - gift
w - *wunjô - pleasure
h - *haglaz - hail (destruction)
n - *naudiz - power of destiny
i - *îsaz - ice
j - *jêran - year
ei - *iwaz - yew
p - *perþô - (fruit bearing) tree
z / R - *algiz - moose
s - *sôwilô - sun
t - *tîwaz - Týr
b - *berkanan - birch tree
e - *ehwaz - horse
m - *mannaz - man
l - *laukaz - leek
ng - *ingwaz - god (of fertility ?)
d - *dagaz - day
o - *ôþalan - inherited property

There is no sufficient explanation for the rune names, and some of them remain unsure. The only thing they have in common is the fact that they belong to the realm of cult like gods, animals, plants, powers of nature. Sometimes it is difficult to decide whether the magical rune name or the letter value are meant. In case there is a single rune we can be sure that it had the magical component of the name, but otherwise there had been a tendency in pre-war research to stress the magical component whereas nowadays it is rather attempted to find a literal explanation of doubtful inscriptions.

Geographical Distribution

Runes can be found on various artefacts which can be engraved, such as weapons, jewellery, bracelets, caskets and others. Those written on perishable materials like wood or bone are mostly lost forever.

The majority of runic inscriptions are made on stones. They can consist of a single word, a short notice, but also encompass entire poems and stories (4). The largest number of findings dates from the Viking time. The art of writing runes was distributed with the Viking expansion from Russia in the East to Ireland in the West, from Piräus/Athens in the South to Greenland in the North. In total we have about 5000 runic memorials. In Sweden there are about 3000, in Norway 1100, in Danemark 700, in Iceland and in England 60 each, and we find 30 in Germany as well as on the Orkneys or the Isle of Man: and still new ones are discovered.

Widespread are memorial stones. They usually begin with a formula "this stone was made by X in memory of Y", often including some additional information about Y. Since X and Y in a number of instances are historical persons, we can glimpse some useful information (5).

There is a 11th century memorial stone, made by one Tola in honour of her son, Harald, brother of Ingvar (who was the leader of a great expedition to the East). Part of the inscription is in poetic language, so called fornyrðislag, and reads (the translation is mine):

"þæiR foru drængiliga
fiarri at gulli
ok austarla
ærni gafu,
dou sunnarla
a Særklandi"

Like bold men they traveled
Far to get gold,
They fed the eagle
In the East,
They died in the South
Under Africas sun. (6)

In the early 1960ies diggings took place near the Tyska Bryggen in Bergen / Norway where an amazing find of ca 600 mostly wooden pieces with runic inscriptions was discovered, which had long been conserved in a favourable climate. They date back to the 12th - 14th centuries, and most of them have a very mundane character untypical for most of the runic engravings: business letters, bills, and love poems (7). Knowledge of the runes, in the beginings reduced to a small group of specialists, spread further, and in the 14th century, as the Bergen-findings show, had become quite common. Nevertheless, shortly after this time the use of runes fell into a final decline.


Literature
Klaus Düwel. Runenkunde. Stuttgart (Metzler), 2nd edition 1983
Wolfgang Kuhn. Runen. Berlin (de Gruyter), 1970
Additionally, I have used the papers and my notes of the "4th International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions" which was held in August 1995 in Göttingen.

Notes
(1) There is no Basque origin; that language is "the universal solution for all unsolved language problems", as one of my professors ironically put it. There is no connection to Ogham, either.
(2) The groups are represented on the bracteats of Vadstena and Motala, the oldest undistinguished row ist to be found on the stone of Kylver / Sweden.
(3) The Germanic languages - which form a part of a greater superfamily, the so-called Indoeuropean languages - are divided into three families, North Germanic (Icelandic, Norvegian, Swedish, Danish, Faroean), West Germanic (Anglo-Saxon, Frankish, Lower Saxon, Bavarian, Alemannic, Dutch, Flemish, Frisian) and East Germanic (Gothic, Burgundian).
(4) Short notes were often something like: "X made", "Y owns me", or formulas invoking heathen magic. The longest example, the famous stone of Rök, contains 750 runes. Longer inscriptions are written in Younger Futhark.
(5) One example is the great stone of Jellinge / Danemark (late 10th century): the inscription reads "haraltr kunukR baþ kaurua kubl þausi aft kurm faþur sin auk aft þaurui muþur sina sa haraltr ias saR uan tanmaurk ala auk nuruiak auk tani karþi kristna". Translation: "Harald ordered this memorial to be made after (= in memory of) Gorm, his father, and Thyre, his mother; the same Harald who conquered all Danemark and Norway, and made the Danes Christians." (Düwel, p. 60)
(6) My translation. The exact meaning of "Serkland" is not clear: It can mean the land of the Saracens, but also "land of silk", which would encompass the Muslim area round the Caspian Sea (Düwel, p. 66). I decided for Africa because of the alliteration.
(7) About this recently: Edith Marold. Bergen als literarischer Umschlagplatz. in: F. Paul (ed.) Arbeiten zur Skandinavistik - 13. Arbeitstagung der deutschsprachigen Skandinavistik 1997 in Oslo. Frankfurt (Lang) 2000, p. 189-201. She proves the continental influence on these poems. Amazingly, some were written in Latin language, but with runes.
 


24/12/2006
  Fröhliche Weihnachten

I wish everyone a Merry Christmas!



Pyramid and figurines German handcrafted work.
The pyramid is an heirloom from my great-grandmother, the figurines are a bit younger.
 


21/12/2006
  Pre-Christmas Inundation

Tomorrow is Dec. 22 and I haven't bought a single present yet. Not that I need to buy many, but still...

The dust bunnies in my flat threaten to overpower the plot bunnies; and I'm not sure 'rat nest' is a fashionable way to wear my hair - I need a cut tomorrow. I've baked one badge of cookies so far, and no idea what to have for Christmas dinner.

Has anyone seen all the time I still had at the beginning of December?


More Christmas decorations.

Close-up, without flash again, but this time I managed to keep my hand steady.
The little trees are Erzgebirge craft again, the cradle is handmade from a Kibbuz in Israel.


And Scott has hooked me something good on Conan. Evil guy; there's two more volumes in the series and I'm out of money.
 


19/12/2006
  A Glimpse of Christmas

Part of my Christmas decorations. The trees and the little snowman are handcrafted art from the Erzgebirge.


Close up of the snowman and trees.


Done without flash or tripod, therefore the pic is not perfectly sharp. But flashes tend to make photos look cold; and a tripod is something I still have to get.
 




The Lost Fort is a history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, and central / eastern Europe. It includes essays on Roman and Mediaeval history and architecture, as well as some geology, illustrated with my own photos of old castles and churches, Roman remains, pretty towns and beautiful landscapes.

This blog is non-commercial.

All texts (except comments by guests) and photos (if no other copyright is noted) on this blog are copyright of Gabriele Campbell.

GDPR Privacy Policy
Contact

My Photo
Name:
Location: Goettingen, Germany

I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
(See here for Sidebar / Archives for mobile devices)



Anchor links lead to the respective sub-category in the sidebar

Peregrinationes
Visiting Historical Sites

Loci Amoeni
Hiking Tours and Landscapes

Roman Remains
- Germania
- Britannia

Mediaeval and Early Modern Places
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Scandinavia
- The Baltic States
- Russia
- Poland and the Czech Republic
- Belgium and Luxembourg
- Other Places




Roman Remains

The Romans at War

Different Frontiers, Yet Alike
Exercise Halls
Mile Castles and Watch Towers
Reconstructed Fort Walls
Soldiers' Living Quarters
Cavalry Barracks

Roman Ships
Transport Barges

Life and Religion

Religious Sites
The Mithraeum of Brocolita
Mithras Altars in Germania
A Roman Memorial Stone


Germania
(Including Gallia Belgica and Raetia)

A Failed Conquest

Romans at Lippe and Ems
Anniversary Exhibitions in Haltern am See
Varus Statue, Haltern am See

Romans at the Weser
The Roman Camp at Hedemünden

Provinces and Borderlands

The Limes and its Forts

Osterburken
The Discovery
The Cohort castellum
The Annex Fort
The Garrisons

Saalburg
Introduction
Main Gate
Shrine of the Standards
The Walls
The vicus

The Cavalry Fort in Aalen
The Fort in Aalen - Barracks

Romans at Rhine and Moselle

Settlements and vici
Boppard - A 4th Century Roman Fort

The Villa Rustica in Wachenheim
Introduction
Baths and Toilets
The Cellar

Villae at the Moselle
The Villa Urbana in Longuich

Roman Towns

Moguntiacum (Mainz)
The Temple of Isis and Mater Magna

Augusta Treverorum (Trier)
The Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths - Roman Times
The Imperial Baths - Post Roman
Porta Nigra - Roman Times
The Roman Bridge

Atuatuca Tungrorum (Tongeren / Belgium)
Roman Remains in Tongeren

Colonia Ulpia Traiana (Xanten)
History of the Town
The Amphitheatre in Birten


Britannia

Frontiers, Fortifications, Forts

The Hadrian's Wall
Introduction / Photo Collection
Fort Baths
Fort Headquarters
Building the Wall
The Wall as Defense Line

Wall Forts - Banna (Birdoswald)
The Dark Age Timber Halls

Wall Forts - Segedunum (Wallsend)
Introduction
The Museum
The Viewing Tower
The Baths

Signal Stations
The Signal Station at Scarborough

Roman Towns

Eboracum (York)
Bath in the Fortress
Multiangular Tower

The Romans in Wales

Roman Forts - Isca (Caerleon)
The Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort


Mediaeval and Early Modern Places

Living Mediaeval
Dungeons and Oubliettes
Pit House (Grubenhaus)
Medical Instruments

Mediaeval Art
Carved Monsters
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee - The Historical Context
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee - The Craftmanship

Mediaeval Weapons
Swords
Trebuchets
Combat Scenes


Germany

- Towns
- Castles and Fortresses
- Churches and Cathedrals
- Other Sites

Towns

Braunschweig
Medieaval Braunschweig, Introduction
Lion Benches in the Castle Square
The Quadriga

Erfurt
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Erfurt

Magdeburg
Magdeburg Cathedral
St.Mary's Abbey - An Austere Archbishop
St.Mary's Abbey - Reformation to Reunion

Paderborn
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Paderborn

Speyer
The Cathedral: Architecture
Cathedral: Richard Lionheart in Speyer
Jewish Ritual Bath

Xanten
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Xanten
The Gothic House

Towns in the Harz

Goslar
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Goslar

Quedlinburg
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Quedlinburg
The Chapter Church

Towns of the Hanseatic League

Gothic Brick Architecture

Lübeck
St. Mary's Church, Introduction

Stralsund
The Harbour

Wismar
The Old Harbour

Castles and Fortresses

Castles in Bavaria

Coburg Fortress
The History of the Fortress
The Architecture

Castles in the Harz

Ebersburg
The Architecture
Power Base of the Thuringian Landgraves
The Marshals of Ebersburg

Harzburg
The Harzburg and Otto IV

Hohnstein
Origins of the Counts of Hohnstein
The Family Between Welfen and Staufen
A Time of Feuds (14th-15th century)

Regenstein
Introduction
The Time of Henry the Lion

Scharzfels
Introduction
History

Hidden Treasures
The Stauffenburg near Seesen

Castles in Hessia

Castles in Northern Hessia
Grebenstein
Reichenbach
Sichelnstein

Kugelsburg
The Counts of Everstein
Troubled Times
War and Decline

Weidelsburg
The History of the Castle
The Architecture
The Castle After the Restoration

Castles in Lower Saxony

Adelebsen / Hardeg
The Keep of Adelebsen Castle
The Great Hall of Hardeg Castle

Hardenberg
Introduction

Plesse
Rise and Fall of the Counts of Winzenburg
The Lords of Plesse
Architecture / Decline and Rediscovery

Castles in the Solling
Salzderhelden - A Welfen Seat
Grubenhagen

Castles in Thuringia

Brandenburg
The Double Castle
Role of the Castle in Thuringian History

Castles in the Eichsfeld
Altenstein at the Werra
Castle Scharfenstein

Hanstein
Introduction
Otto of Northeim
Heinrich the Lion and Otto IV
The Next Generations

Normanstein
Introduction

Wartburg
A Virtual Tour

Castles at the Weser

Bramburg
River Reivers

Krukenburg
History and Architecture
Outbuilding 'Shepherd's Barn'

Polle
The Castle and its History

Sababurg / Trendelburg
Two Fairy Tale Castles

Churches and Cathedrals

Churches in the Harz

Palatine Seat and Monastery Pöhlde
The Church

Steinkirche near Scharzfeld
Development of the Cave Church

Walkenried Monastery
From Monastery to Museum

Churches in Lower Saxony

Königslutter
Exterior Decorations
Cloister

Wiebrechtshausen
Nunnery and Ducal Burial

Churches in Thuringia

Göllingen Monastery
Traces of Byzantine Architecture

Heiligenstadt
St.Martin's Church
St.Mary's Church

Churches at the Weser

Bursfelde Abbey
Early History

Fredelsloh Chapter Church
History and Architecture

Helmarshausen
Remains of the Monastery

Lippoldsberg Abbey
History
Interior

Vernawahlshausen
Mediaeval Murals

Churches in Rhineland-Palatinate

Lorsch Abbey
Lorsch, Gate Hall

Reconstructed Sites / Open Air Museums

Palatine Seat Tilleda
The Defenses

Viking Settlement Haithabu
Haithabu and the Archaeological Museum Schleswig
The Nydam Ship

Development of Civilization
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Miscellanea

Along Weser and Werra
Uslar - Pretty Old Houses
Treffurt - A Walk through the Town
Weser Ferry
Weser Skywalk

Powder and Steam
Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg


England

Towns

Chester
A Virtual Tour of the Town

Hexham
Old Gaol

York
Clifford Tower
Guild Hall
Monk Bar Gate and Richard III Museum
Museum Gardens
Old Town
Along the Ouse River

Castles

Castles in Cumbria

Carlisle
Introduction
Henry II and William of Scotland
The Edwards

Castles in Northumbria and Yorkshire

Alnwick
Malcolm III and the First Battle of Alnwick

Richmond
From the Conquest to King John
From Henry III to the Tudors

Scarborough
From the Romans to the Tudors
From the Civil War to the Present
The Architecture

Churches and Cathedrals

Hexham Abbey
Introduction

York Minster
Architecture


Scotland

Towns

Edinburgh
Views from the Castle

Stirling
The Wallace Monument

Castles

Central Scotland

Doune
A Virtual Tour
History: The Early Stewart Kings
History: Royal Dower House, and Decline

Stirling
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle

West Coast Castles

Dunollie and Kilchurn
Castles Seen from Afar

Duart
Guarding the Sound of Mull

Dunstaffnage
An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
The Wars of Independence
The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

Abbeys and Churches

Inchcolm Abbey
Arriving at Inchcolm

Other Historical Sites

Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort
Staffa

Pre-Historic Orkney
Ring of Brodgar - Introduction
Ring of Brodgar - The Neolithic Landscape
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae


Wales

Welsh Towns

Aberystwyth: Castle and Coast
Caerleon: The Ffwrwm
Conwy: The Smallest House in Great Britain

Castles

Edwardian Castles

Beaumaris
The Historical Context
The Architecture

Caernarfon
Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

Conwy
The History of the Castle
The Architecture

Norman Castles

Cardiff
History

Chepstow
History: Beginnings unto Bigod
History: From Edward II to the Tudors
History: Civil War, Restoration, and Aftermath

Manorbier
The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

Pembroke
Pembroke Pictures
The Caves Under the Castle

Welsh Castles

Criccieth
Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings


Scandinavia

Norway

Towns

Oslo
The Fram Museum in Oslo

Castles and Fortresses

Arkershus Fortress in Oslo
Introduction
Akershus at the Time of King Håkon V
Architectural Development

Vardøhus Fortress
Defending the North for Centuries

Sweden

Towns

Stockholm
The Vasa Museum

Historical Landscapes

Gotland
Gnisvärd Ship Setting


The Baltic States

Lithuania

Historical Landscapes

The Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit


Russia

The Splendour of St.Petersburg

Cathedrals
Isaac's Cathedral
Smolny Cathedral

The Neva
Impressions from the The Neva River


Poland and the Czech Republic

Czech Republic

Towns

Kutná Hora
The Sedlec Ossuary

Poland

Towns

Gdańsk / Danzig
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval and Renaissance Danzig

Wrocław / Breslau
The Wrocław Dwarfs


Belgium and Luxembourg

Belgium / Flanders

Towns

Antwerp
The Old Town

Bruges
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Bruges

Ghent
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Ghent

Tongeren
Roman and Mediaeval Remains

Luxembourg

Luxembourg City
A Virtual Tour of the Town


Other Places

Strasbourg / France
A Virtual Tour of the Town


- Germany
- United Kingdom
- Scandinavia
- Baltic Sea


Beautiful Germany

The Baltic Sea Coast
The Flensburg Firth
Rugia - Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
Rugia - Seaside Ressort Binz
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
Oderteich Reservoir
Rappbode Reservoir
Views from Harz mountains

Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Hessian Switzerland

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
The Hutewald Forest
The Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Thuringian Forests
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

Rivers and Lakes
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
River of the Greenest Shores - The Moselle
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut

Parks and Palaces
Botanical Garden Göttingen
Hardenberg Castle Gardens
Wilhelmsthal Palace and Gardens

Wildlife
Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life

Seasons

Spring
Spring at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Spring in the Rossbach Heath (Meissner)

Summer
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016

Autumn
Autumnal Views from Castle Windows
Autumn Photos from Harz and Werra
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser

Winter
Spectacular Sunset
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Winter Wonderland - Views from my Balcony


Across the Channel - United Kingdom

Mountains and Valleys
Sheep Grazing Among Roman Remains
West Highland Railway

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains - Inverness to John o'Groats
Some Photos from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull - Craignure to Fionnphort
Pentland Firth
Staffa
Summer Days in Oban
Summer Nights in Oban

Wild Wales - With Castles
Hazy Views with Castles
Shadows and Strongholds
Views from Castle Battlements

Wildlife
Sea Gulls


Land of Light and Darkness - Scandinavia

Norway

The Hurtigruten-Tour
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Wildlife
Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord


Shores of History - The Baltic Sea

Baltic Sea Cruise

Lithuania

Nida and the Curonian Spit
Beaches at the Curonian Spit




Historia
Geologia

Comblogium (Blog Roll)
Conexiones (Links)

Roman History
- Germania
- Britannia

Mediaeval History
- Germany
- England and Normandy
- Scotland
- Wales
- Scandinavia
- The Baltic States
- Poland
- Bohemia
- Flanders and Luxembourg

Other Times
Miscellanea


Roman History

Roman Militaria

Armour
Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapons
Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum
Daggers
Swords

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles

Life and Religion

Religion
The Mithras Cult
Isis Worship
Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots
Styli and Wax Tablets

Public Life
Roman Transport - Barges
Roman Transport - Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Miscellaneous
Legend of Alaric's Burial


Germania
(Including Gallia Belgica and Raetia)

Wars and Frontiers

Maps
Romans in Germania

Traces of the Pre-Varus Conquest
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn
Introduction

Along the Limes
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg

Rebellions
The Batavian Rebellion


Britannia

Roman Frontiers in Britain

The Hadrian's Wall
Introduction


Mediaeval History

Feudalism

The History of Feudalism
The Beginnings
Feudalism in the 10th Century

Essays about Specific Topics
The Privilege of the deditio
A Note on handgenginn maðr

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings

Essays about Specific Topics
Examples of Brick Architecture
Stockfish Trade

The Order of the Teutonic Knights

Wars and Battles
The Conquest of Danzig


Germany

Geneaologies

List of Mediaeval German Emperors

Geneaology
Anglo-German Marriage Connections
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors

Biographies

Kings and Emperors
King Heinrich IV
Emperor Otto IV, Introduction

Princes
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto of Northeim
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Famous Feuds

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War - Introduction
The Star Wars

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg


England and Normandy

From the Conquest to King John

Normans, Britons, and Angevins
The Dukes of Brittany and the Honour of Richmond

Contested Borders
King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots

From Henry III to the War of the Roses

Great Fiefs
The Earldom of Richmond and the Duchy of Brittany


Scotland

Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War (1)
King David and the Civil War (2)

Houses Bruce and Stewart
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle
The Early Stewart Kings

Scottish Nobles and their Quarrels

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding


Wales

Princes and Rebels

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

The Rebellions
From Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Scandinavia

Norway

Kings of Norway and their Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

Famous Nobles and their Feuds
Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


The Baltic States

Lithuania

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas


Poland

The Teutonic Knights in Poland
The Conquest of Danzig

The Jagiełłonian Kings

The Polish-Lithuanian Union
Forging the Union


Bohemia

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
(to come)


Flanders and Luxembourg

The Counts of Flanders
(to come)


Other Times

Neolithicum to Iron Age

Germany

European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Scandinavia and Orkney

Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Scandinavia
Ship Setting on Gotland

Post-Mediaeval History

Discoveries
Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

Explorers
Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

European Nobility
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus


Miscellanea

History in Literature and Music

History in Literature

Biographies of German Poets and Writers
Theodor Fontane

Historical Ballads by Theodor Fontane (my translation)
Archibald Douglas
Gorm Grymme
Sir Walter Scott in Abbotsford
The Tragedy of Afghanistan

My Novels in Progress
Roman Novels
The Saga of House Sichelstein
Kings and Rebels

History in Opera

Belcanto and Historicism
Maria Padilla - Mistress Royal
The Siege of Calais in Donizetti's Opera

Fun Stuff

Not So Serious Romans
Aelius Rufus Visits the Future Series
Building Hadrian's Wall
Playmobil Romans

Royal (Hi)Stories
Kings Having a Bad Hair Day
The Case of the Vanished Wine Cask

Historical Memes
Charlemagne meme
Historical Christmas Wishes
New Year Resolutions
Aelius Rufus does a Meme
Rules for Writing Scottish Romances

Funny Sights
Tourist Kitsch in St.Petersburg


Geological Landscapes

The Baltic Sea
Geology of the Curonian Spit
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

The Harz
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in the Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations

Solling-Vogler
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

The Shores of Scotland
Staffa

Palaeontology

Fossils
Ammonites


*********************

Links leading outside my blog will open in a new window. I do not take any responsibility for the content of linked sites.

History Blogs - Ancient

Roman History Today
Ancient Times (Mary Harrsch)
Following Hadrian (Carole Raddato)
Mike Anderson's Ancient History Blog
Mos Maiorum - Der römische Weg
Per Lineam Valli (M.C. Bishop)

Digging Up Fun Stuff
The Anglo-Saxon Archaeology Blog
Arkeologi i Nord
The Journal of Antiquities (Britain)
The Northern Antiquarian
The Roman Archaeology Blog

History Blogs - Mediaeval

Þaér wæs Hearpan Swég
Anglo Saxon, Norse & Celtic Blog
Casting Light upon the Shadow (A. Whitehead)
Norse and Viking Ramblings
Outtakes of a Historical Novelist (Kim Rendfeld)

Beholden Ye Aulde Blogges
A Clerk of Oxford
Daily Medieval
Historical Britain Blog (Mercedes Rochelle)
Magistra et Mater (Rachel Stone)
North Ages
Senchus (Tim Clarkson)
Viking Strathclyde (Tim Clarkson)

Royal and Other Troubles
Edward II (Kathryn Warner)
Henry the Young King (Kasia Ogrodnik)
Piers Gaveston (Anerje)
Lady Despenser's Scribery
Simon de Montfort (Darren Baker)
Weaving the Tapestry (Scottish Houses Dunkeld and Stewart)

A Mixed Bag of History
English Historical Fiction Authors
The Freelance History Writer (Susan Abernethy)
The History Blog
History, the Interesting Bits (S.B. Connolly)
Mediaeval Manuscripts Blog
Mediaeval News (Niall O'Brian)
Time Present and Time Past (Mark Patton)

Thoughts and Images

Reading and Reviews
Black Gate Blog
The Blog That Time Forgot (Al Harron)
Parmenion Books
The Wertzone

Imaginations
David Blixt
Ex Urbe (Ada Palmer)
Constance A. Brewer
Jenny Dolfen Illustrations
Wild and Wonderful (Caroline Gill)

German Blogs
Alte Steine
Anwolf
Meerblog

Highland Mountains
The Hazel Tree (Jo Woolf)
Helen in Wales
Mountains and Sea Scotland

The Colours of the World
Shutterbugs


Research

Archaeology
Past Horizons
Archaeology in Europe
Orkneyar

Roman History
Deutsche Limeskommission
Internet Ancient Sourcebook
Livius.org
Roman Army
Roman Britain
The Romans in Britain
Vindolanda Tablets

Mediaeval History
De Re Militari
Internet Mediaeval Sourcebook
Kulturzeit
The Labyrinth
Mediaeval Crusades
Medievalists.Net
Viking Society for Northern Research

Castles
Burgenarchiv
Burgerbe
Burgenwelt
Exploring Castles
The World of Castles

Miscellaneous History
Heritage Daily
The History Files

Mythology
Ancient History
Encyclopedia Mythica

Online Journals
Ancient Warfare
The Heroic Age
The History Files

Travel and Guide Sites

Germany - History
Antike Stätten in Deutschland
Burgenarchiv
Strasse der Romanik

Germany - Nature
HarzLife
Naturpark Meissner
Naturpark Solling-Vogler

England
English Heritage
Visit Northumberland

Scotland
The Chain Mail (Scottish History)
Historic Scotland
National Trust Scotland

Reiseblogs
Reisen & Fotografie (Tobias Hoiten)
fern & nah (Christian Oeser)

Books and Writing

Interesting Author Websites
Jacqueline Carey
Bernard Cornwell
Dorothy Dunnett (Dorothy Dunnett Society)
Steven Erikson
Diana Gabaldon
Guy Gavriel Kay
George R.R. Martin
Sharon Kay Penman
J.R.R. Tolkien (The Tolkien Society)
Tad Williams

Historical Fiction
Historical Novel Society
Historia Magazine

Writing Sites
Absolute Write
TheLitForum.com
National Novel Writing Month


*********************


05/2005 / 08/2005 / 09/2005 / 11/2005 / 12/2005 / 02/2006 / 03/2006 / 04/2006 / 05/2006 / 08/2006 / 09/2006 / 10/2006 / 11/2006 / 12/2006 / 01/2007 / 02/2007 / 03/2007 / 04/2007 / 05/2007 / 06/2007 / 07/2007 / 08/2007 / 09/2007 / 10/2007 / 11/2007 / 12/2007 / 01/2008 / 02/2008 / 03/2008 / 04/2008 / 05/2008 / 06/2008 / 07/2008 / 08/2008 / 09/2008 / 10/2008 / 11/2008 / 12/2008 / 01/2009 / 02/2009 / 03/2009 / 04/2009 / 05/2009 / 06/2009 / 07/2009 / 08/2009 / 09/2009 / 10/2009 / 11/2009 / 12/2009 / 01/2010 / 02/2010 / 03/2010 / 04/2010 / 05/2010 / 06/2010 / 07/2010 / 08/2010 / 09/2010 / 10/2010 / 11/2010 / 12/2010 / 01/2011 / 02/2011 / 03/2011 / 04/2011 / 05/2011 / 06/2011 / 07/2011 / 08/2011 / 09/2011 / 10/2011 / 11/2011 / 12/2011 / 01/2012 / 02/2012 / 03/2012 / 04/2012 / 05/2012 / 06/2012 / 07/2012 / 08/2012 / 09/2012 / 10/2012 / 11/2012 / 12/2012 / 01/2013 / 02/2013 / 03/2013 / 04/2013 / 05/2013 / 06/2013 / 07/2013 / 08/2013 / 09/2013 / 10/2013 / 11/2013 / 12/2013 / 01/2014 / 02/2014 / 03/2014 / 04/2014 / 05/2014 / 06/2014 / 07/2014 / 08/2014 / 09/2014 / 10/2014 / 11/2014 / 12/2014 / 01/2015 / 02/2015 / 03/2015 / 04/2015 / 05/2015 / 06/2015 / 07/2015 / 08/2015 / 09/2015 / 10/2015 / 11/2015 / 12/2015 / 01/2016 / 02/2016 / 03/2016 / 04/2016 / 05/2016 / 06/2016 / 07/2016 / 08/2016 / 09/2016 / 10/2016 / 11/2016 / 12/2016 / 01/2017 / 02/2017 / 03/2017 / 04/2017 / 05/2017 / 06/2017 / 07/2017 / 08/2017 / 09/2017 / 10/2017 / 11/2017 / 12/2017 / 01/2018 / 02/2018 / 03/2018 / 04/2018 / 05/2018 / 06/2018 / 07/2018 / 08/2018 / 09/2018 / 10/2018 / 11/2018 / 12/2018 / 02/2019 / 03/2019 / 04/2019 / 05/2019 /


Powered by Blogger