Illustrated Travel Journal with Essays about Roman and Mediaeval History


23/01/2008
  Aelius Rufus Visits the Future, part 2

Most people we met wore trousers and some sort of longsleeved tunica with weird collars, or a sagum with sleeves, but a few were dressed in Roman attire. They do it for fun, Merlinus explained, and call it reenactment or creative anachronism. It had one advantage: we fitted right in and didn't create much of a stir. Though some people stopped in front of us and held little metal boxes into the air, stared at them, and then smiled at us and aimed their little boxes at the cranes or some other object.

"What are they doing," I asked.

"They're taking pictures," Merlinus said.

"Pictures?"

Merlinus waved a man to join us and spoke to him in a strange language. The man held the little box so we could see a tiny glass plate, and there was indeed a little picture of Gaius and me. The man smiled, and I smiled back, hiding my nervousness. "It's magic," I whispered to Merlinus.

"No, there's an explanation, but it is very complicated."

The man said something that sounded like, "ur Italian?"

I recognised the last word. "Italia," I nodded.

"Ah, Italia, Roma .... beautiful." He said something else and left us with a wave of his hand. I waved back; Gaius shook his head in disbelief. "People from the future still remember us?"

"He wished us a good journey," Merlinus translated. "And yes, the Empire of Rome is remembered in the future. They get some things wrong, but they still read Roman books, and keep Roman artifacts they've found."

With that he led us into a building. That it was a building we could see, but it looked different from anything we knew. It was an oversized barrack made of stone, dominated by a high tower, but the tower had an unusual form, a bit like a snake that had swallowed a discus. The discus had glass windows all around.

It was a museum, Merlinus explained, where objects from our time were displayed. Our attention was immediately caught by this.


"I've seen such tableware in the general's tent sometimes, when I had to make report," Gaius said. "It's pretty, isn't it?"

Our prefect had a few silver pieces as well, but not as beautiful. Beside me, a few children wriggled their way to the glassed box and gaped. School kids, I realised, accompanied by their magister. Some things had not changed in the future, it seemed. It was nice to know that they would have some memories of us. Two of them carried wooden swords.

That, too, had not changed.

Continued here
 


  Aelius Rufus Visits the Future, part 1

Salvete, carissimi amici. It's me, Aelius Rufus. You may remember me from a guided tour through the castellum Saalburg in Germania. I'm visiting my friend Gaius Fannius. He's a centurion with Gaul auxiliary stationed in Arbeia and just helped building the Antonine Wall - his lads covered the legionaries from local surprises. *grin* He's on holiday now and promised to show me some places in Britannia. But what is even better, he has a friend from the Caledonian tribes, one Merlinus who is a druid, a sorcerer or something, and he'll show us the future. Let's hope that Tony won't find out about it; he and his generals don't like soldiers to dabble in tribal magic.

So I took a ship from Bononia to Arbeia harbour where the Tinea river flows into the Mare Germanicum and where my friend Gaius awaited me. I recognised him at once in the crowd lining the pier. The soldiers nicknamed him Ursus because of his broad shoulders and hairy arms; some say also because of his temper, but he's a nice guy. He only shows his temper when some inept recruits still don't keep formation after a month's training. Then he can get quite formidable as I've once witnessed. Those recruits probably longed for a good fight against the Chatti if that got them away from Ursus.

Roman recruits from the future; they call it reenactment. Look at those funny sandals they wear. Can't keep formation either. I could hear Gaius mumble some not so nice comments, but Merlinus told us they don't speak Latin in the future, though some people still understand it.

Together, we walked the few miles to Segedunum - Roman soldiers are very good at walking - the place where Hadrian's Great Wall begins. It's very impressive and a far cry from the earthern walls, trenches and palisades of the limes Germanicus. Gaius told me the Antonine Wall was more like the German defenses, and it didn't really keep the tribes out. Not to mention there were tribes south of it as well with doubtful alliances. Northern Britannia is a worse mess than Germania.

The next morning we met with Merlinus. He had explained that it was the best place to travel to the future because it would change so much. It was cool and misty, the sky covered with grey clouds, and we huddled in our sagum cloaks. Merlinus didn't look like one might expect a druid to look, he was rather handsome, slender and with long hair the colour of dark red wine, dressed in a simple tunica and a chequered cloak. And he spoke a pretty good Latin.

We found an unobtrusive place behind one of the barracks, touched hands, Merlinus murmured an incantation in an unknown language, and we found ourselves ....


... surrounded by dragons. The low, graphite sky was the same, the air still smelled slightly tangy from the sea, but the sounds were different. There were roars and screeches unheard in a Roman fort, and one of the dragons swung its head towards us. I grasped my gladius - not that it would have been of much avail against a beast standing higher than a Roman insula - and then I realised the dragon was made of iron. It was a giant crane. I could not imagine how many slaves it must have needed to swing it around and to pull the thick ropes with the heavy chest hanging from a hook - no, it were not ropes as we knew them, they were made of steel.

"It's a harbour," Merlinus said in a soft, dark voice. "We're in the year 2007 as it will be called in the future when there are no consuls to count the calendar by - 1863 years into the future. The place is called Wallsend now.

"How large must the ships be that need such giant cranes to unload them," Gaius murmured.

"We'll see the ships in due time," Merlinus said. "Let us have a look around."

Continued here
 


12/01/2008
  German Winter

Do you see any snow here?


No, you don't because there isn't any. Some sun, some clouds and rain, some more sun, and too warm for the time of the year. I want snow, dangit.
 


10/01/2008
  Carolingian Architecture

This beautiful building - the Gate Hall of Lorsch monastery - is one of the few remaining examples of post-Roman but pre-Romanesque architecture in Germany; its style is called Carolingian.

Gate Hall Lorsch, west facade

A monastery was established in Lorsch (former Lauresham) in the Rhine valley in 764. It received some popular relics and soon developed into an important place, especially after Charlemagne took an interest in it. The minster was consecrated in 774 in presence of King Charles, the future emperor.

Closeup of the mural ornaments

At the beginning of the 9th century, news about construction work in Lorsch come to an end, so we can't say for sure when the gate hall was built, but it seems to date into the 9th century, not the time of Charlemagne. A pity, it would be nice to know he already walked under those vaults.

There is one vague mention of an ecclesia varia (a 'colourful church') in the 870ies that could refer to the hall, but we can't be sure.

Closeup of a pillar

Today, the hall is the only part that remains of the Carolingian building, and the monastery no longer exists. The Gate Hall in Lorsch is part of the World Cultural Heritage.
 


03/01/2008
  List of Medieaval German Emperors until 1250

To get some of the German kings and emperors of the Holy Roman Empire sorted out, I've listed the German Emperors of the Carolingian, Ottonian, Salian and Staufen dynasties. Dates are birth and death.

Carolingian:
  • Karl der Große (Charlemagne) 742-814, Carolingian, first Holy Roman Emperor (800)


  • After Charlemagne's death, the reign was split between his surviving son and his grandsons, and a divide between West and East Francia (Regnum Teutonicum) took place, albeit there have still been power overlaps during the Carolingian dynasty.

    The West Francian line (Carolingian):
  • Ludwig (the Pious), Charlemagne's son, 778-840
  • Lothar I, his son, 795-855
  • Ludwig II of Italy, his son, 825-875
  • Karl II (the Bald), youngest son of Ludwig the Pious, 823-877


  • The East Francian line (Carolingian):
  • Ludwig (the German), 806-876
  • Karlmann, 830-880, King of Bavaria
  • Karl III (the Fat), Ludiwg's son, 839-888 (Emperor since 881)

  • Arnulf of Kärnten, 850-899, King of East Francia (Emperor since 896)
  • Ludwig (the Child) 893-911


  • Conradinian:
  • Konrad I, 881-918, King of East Francia


  • With the coronation of Otto I as Emperor, and the rise of the House Capet in West Francia about 960, the divide of the two realms was completed. The eastern, or German part concentrated on Italy and the Slavic tribes they conquered, and they provided most of the Holy Roman Emperors. France had its interests in England (and vice versa) and to some extent in Spain, and so a west-east power split developed, but with a shared culture.

    Ottonian (Liudolfingian):
  • Heinrich I (the Fowler) 876-936, first of the Ottonian Kings of East Francia
  • Otto I (the Great), his son, 912-973 (Emperor since 962)
  • Otto II, his son, 955-983
  • Otto III, his son, 980-1002
  • Heinrich II (the Saint, sideline of the Ottonians) ) 973-1024


  • Antipope Clemens III with Emperor Heinrich IV.
    (Codex Jenesis Bose q.6, dated 1157. Wikipedia Common License)

    Salian:
  • Konrad II (the first Salian Emperor) 990-1039
  • Heinrich III, his son, 1017-1056
  • Heinrich IV, his son, 1050-1106
  • Heinrich V, his son, 1086-1125


  • Süpplingenburg:
  • Lothar of Süpplingenburg (Lothar III) 1075-1137


  • Staufen line 1:
  • Konrad III, 1093-1152, King of Germany and Italy
  • Heinrich IV, died 1150, King with his father Konrad
  • Friedrich I (Barbarossa), 1122-1190 (Emperor since 1155)
  • Heinrich VI, his son, 1165-1197


  • Welfen:
  • Otto IV of Braunschweig, son of Duke Heinrich the Lion of Saxony*, 1175-1218


  • Staufen line 2:
  • Friedrich II (called stupor mundi) son of Heinrich VI, 1194-1250
  • Konrad IV, his son (last of the Staufen) 1228-1254


  • Of course, this is not the end of the lists of German Emperors. There followed the lines of Luxembourg, Wittelsbach, and Hapsburg, but the time until 1250 is the one I concentrate on in this blog.

    Note
    * Duke Heinrich (Henry) the Lion of the Welfen family (1129-1195) was Friedrich Barbarossa's most formidable opponent which led to his spending several years in exile at the English court of Henry II.

    His descendants would later provide England with several kings named George. :) And since Heinrich's mother Gertrud was the great-granddaughter of Otto of Northeim, the English Georges I-III go back to that line as well.
     


    01/01/2008
      A History Meme (Emperor Heinrich IV)

    This time I haven't been tagged, but I found a fun meme on this blog as well as here, and decided to play along. I have a number of historical characters about whom I post occasionally, all the way from Arminius to Charlemagne and to Duke Henry 'the Lion' of Saxony. But I decided for a man I've so far only mentioned a few times in my posts about Otto of Northeim: King Heinrich IV (1050 - 1106, crowned Emperor in 1084).

    Heinrich IV is one of the most controversial characters in Mediaeval history, and he already divided his contemporaries. Some chronicles treat him like a second Nero or Caligula, while others blame his enemies for causing so much trouble. The truth, as usual, lies somewhere in the middle. With the Holy Roman Empire exhibition in Magdeburg in 2006 and Gerd Althoff's new biography, interest in Heinrich IV has recently grown.

    (Magdeburg Cathedral, westwork)

    1) Heinrich became king upon his father's death in 1056, under regentship of his mother Agnes. In 1062, he was kidnapped by a group of nobles who didn't agree with the way Agnes conducted affairs. They lured Heinrich onto a ship on the Rhine and when he noticed what was going on, the young king jumped overboard so that one of the conspirators had to jump after him to prevent Heinrich from drowning. A few years later, in 1065, Heinrich was officially proclaimed adult and he'd have used the sword he got during the ceremony (the so called Schwertleite) to chop off the head of the conspirators' leader, Bishop Anno of Cologne, if not his mother had held him back.

    2) Heinrich wanted to get a divorce from his wife Bertha of Turin because "he just could not live with her, and btw, she's still a virgin." That might have worked today, but it didn't in the 11th century, and he got stuck with Bertha until her death in 1089. Also, the papal legate told Heinrich to sleep with his wife already.

    3) Heinrich managed to get excommunicated four times by three different popes. The most famous one was the first banishment by pope Gregor VII in 1076. Excommunication meant that the nobles of the realm were no longer bound to the oaths towards the king, and with an increasing opposition that turned out such a big problem that Heinrich prefered to travel to Canossa in northern Italy where Gregor resided, and formally humiliated himself to get accepted back into Church. The pope could not refuse because a repentant sinner was to be forgiven (and the opposing nobles suddenly found themselves oathbreakers). But the troubles didn't get away, so a few years later, Heinrich was excommunicated again. This time he went to Rome with an army, sent Gregor packing and put a pope of his choice, Clemens III, onto St.Peter's See. Clemens then crowned Heinrich as Emperor. During the ensuing schism, two more Gregorian popes excommunicated Heinrich, but he no longer cared, and even part of the German nobles had their fill of those games.

    4) After Bertha's death, Heinrich married Adelheid-Praxedis of Kiev. I'm sorry to say that this marriage didn't work any better. Their mutual accusations of adultery, rape, violence, and sodomy makes the quarrels between Paul McCartney and Heather Mills look like an amicable separation.

    Speyer Cathedral, crypt

    5) Since northern Italy was part of the Holy Roman Empire, Heinrich could not stand idly by when the schism led to military conflicts. He interfered on behalf of Pope Clemens, but then got stuck in Italy - in the surroundings of Verona - because Mathilde of Tuscany blocked the Alpine passes against him. The fun part of this is that Mathilde was married to Welf V of Bavaria, the son of that Welf whom Heinrich gave the duchy of Bavaria after he took it away from Otto of Northeim. Otto was dead by then, or he might have thought something along the lines of neiner, neiner. It took Heinrich three years until he managed to negotiate his way home.

    6) Heinrich had not much luck in his sons, either. Both plotted to send him into early retirement and take over his job. Konrad was the first to join the party of the Gregorian popes, Saxon nobles and whoever else thought Heinrich sucked, but the affair ended in nothing and Konrad died early. During that time, Heinrich had his younger son, another Heinrich, proclamied co-regent under the condition that he promised not to plot against daddy. Ever. But young Heinrich did, and more successfully than his older brother. In 1105, he took his father prisoner and forced him to abdicate. Heinrich IV died soon thereafter.

    7) Heinrich was first buried in the place of his death, in Liège. But since he was still excommunicated, the church was put under interdict. The body was transfered to Speyer, the traditonal burial place of the German emperors, whereof the Speyer Cathedral was put under interdict as well and the sarcophagus had to be buried outside the sacred ground. Heinrich V finally got the pope to lift the ban in 1111, and Heinrich IV could be properly put to rest in the Speyer Cathedral.

    Speyer Cathedral, some tombs of Mediaeval German emperors.

    I tag the usual suspects, and then some, lol.
     




    The Lost Fort is a travel journal and history blog based on my travels in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, and other places. It includes essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, as well as some geology, illustrated with my own photos of old castles and churches, Roman remains, and beautiful landscapes.

    All texts (except comments by guests) and photos (if no other copyright is noted) on this blog are copyright of Gabriele Campbell.

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    I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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    Introduction
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    Roman Towns

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    History of the Town
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    Gallia Belgica
    (Including the lands at the Moselle)

    Roman Towns

    Atuatuca Tungrorum (Tongeren / Belgium)
    Roman Remains in Tongeren

    Augusta Treverorum (Trier / Germany)
    The Amphitheatre
    The Aula Palatina
    The Imperial Baths - Roman Times
    The Imperial Baths - Post Roman
    Porta Nigra - Roman Times
    The Roman Bridge


    Britannia

    Frontiers, Fortifications, Forts

    The Hadrian's Wall
    Introduction / Photo Collection
    Fort Baths
    Fort Headquarters
    Building the Wall
    The Wall as Defense Line

    Wall Forts - Banna (Birdoswald)
    The Dark Age Timber Halls

    Wall Forts - Segedunum (Wallsend)
    Introduction
    The Museum
    The Viewing Tower
    The Baths

    Signal Stations
    The Signal Station at Scarborough

    Roman Towns

    Eboracum (York)
    Bath in the Fortress
    Multiangular Tower

    The Romans in Wales

    Roman Forts - Isca (Caerleon)
    The Amphitheatre
    The Baths in the Legionary Fort


    Mediaeval and Early Modern Places

    Living Mediaeval
    Dungeons and Oubliettes
    Pit House (Grubenhaus)
    Medical Instruments

    Mediaeval Art
    The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
    The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
    Mediaeval Monster Carvings
    The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee - The Historical Context
    The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee - The Craftmanship

    Mediaeval Weapons
    Swords
    Trebuchets
    Combat Scenes


    Germany

    Towns

    Braunschweig
    Medieaval Braunschweig, Introduction
    Lion Benches in the Castle Square
    The Quadriga

    Erfurt
    A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Erfurt

    Magdeburg
    Magdeburg Cathedral
    St.Mary's Abbey - An Austere Archbishop
    St.Mary's Abbey - Reformation to Reunion

    Paderborn
    Town Portrait

    Speyer
    The Cathedral: Architecture
    Cathedral: Richard Lionheart in Speyer
    Jewish Ritual Bath

    Xanten
    Town Portrait
    The Gothic House

    Towns in the Harz

    Goslar
    Town Portrait

    Quedlinburg
    Town Portrait
    The Chapter Church

    Towns of the Hanseatic League

    Lübeck
    St. Mary's Church, Introduction

    Stralsund
    The Harbour

    Wismar
    The Old Harbour

    Castles and Fortresses

    Castles in Bavaria

    Coburg Fortress
    The History of the Fortress
    The Architecture

    Castles in the Harz

    Ebersburg
    The Architecture
    Power Base of the Thuringian Landgraves
    The Marshals of Ebersburg

    Harzburg
    The Harzburg and Otto IV

    Hohnstein
    Origins of the Counts of Hohnstein
    The Family Between Welfen and Staufen
    A Time of Feuds (14th-15th century)

    Regenstein
    Introduction
    The Time of Henry the Lion

    Scharzfels
    Introduction
    History

    Hidden Treasures
    The Stauffenburg near Seesen

    Castles in Hessia

    Castles in Northern Hessia
    Grebenstein
    Reichenbach
    Sichelnstein

    Kugelsburg
    The Counts of Everstein
    Troubled Times
    War and Decline

    Weidelsburg
    The History of the Castle
    The Architecture
    The Castle After the Restoration

    Castles in Lower Saxony

    Adelebsen / Hardeg
    The Keep of Adelebsen Castle
    The Great Hall of Hardeg Castle

    Hardenberg
    Introduction

    Plesse
    Rise and Fall of the Counts of Winzenburg
    The Lords of Plesse
    Architecture / Decline and Rediscovery

    Castles in the Solling
    Salzderhelden - A Welfen Seat
    Grubenhagen

    Castles in Thuringia

    Brandenburg
    The Double Castle
    Role of the Castle in Thuringian History

    Castles in the Eichsfeld
    Altenstein at the Werra
    Castle Scharfenstein

    Hanstein
    Introduction
    Otto of Northeim
    Heinrich the Lion and Otto IV
    The Next Generations

    Normanstein
    Introduction

    Wartburg
    A Virtual Tour

    Castles at the Weser

    Bramburg
    River Reivers

    Krukenburg
    History and Architecture
    Outbuilding 'Shepherd's Barn'

    Polle
    The Castle and its History
    Views from the Keep

    Sababurg / Trendelburg
    Two Fairy Tale Castles

    Churches and Cathedrals

    Churches in the Harz

    Steinkirche near Scharzfeld
    Development of the Cave Church

    Walkenried Monastery
    From Monastery to Museum

    Churches in Lower Saxony

    Königslutter
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    Cloister

    Wiebrechtshausen
    Nunnery and Ducal Burial

    Churches in Thuringia

    Göllingen Monastery
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    Heiligenstadt
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    St.Mary's Church

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    Bursfelde Abbey
    Early History

    Fredelsloh Chapter Church
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    Helmarshausen
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    Lippoldsberg Abbey
    History
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    Vernawahlshausen
    Mediaeval Murals

    Reconstructed Sites

    Palatine Seat Tilleda
    The Defenses

    Viking Settlement Haithabu
    Haithabu and the Archaeological Museum Schleswig
    The Nydam Ship

    Miscellanea

    Other Mediaeval Buildings
    Lorsch, Gate Hall
    Palatine Seat and Monastery Pöhlde

    Along Weser and Werra
    Bad Karlshafen
    Hannoversch-Münden
    Uslar
    Treffurt
    Weser Ferry
    Weser Skywalk


    England

    Towns

    Chester
    A Walk Through the Town

    Hexham
    Old Gaol

    York
    Clifford Tower, Part 1
    Clifford Tower, Part 2
    Guild Hall
    Monk Bar Gate and Richard III Museum
    Museum Gardens
    Old Town
    Along the Ouse River

    Castles

    Castles in Cumbria

    Carlisle
    Introduction
    Henry II and William of Scotland
    The Edwards

    Castles in Northumbria and Yorkshire

    Alnwick
    Malcolm III and the First Battle of Alnwick

    Richmond
    From the Conquest to King John

    Scarborough
    From the Romans to the Tudors
    From the Civil War to the Present
    The Architecture

    Churches and Cathedrals

    Hexham Abbey
    Introduction

    York Minster
    Architecture


    Scotland

    Towns

    Edinburgh
    Views from the Castle

    Stirling
    The Wallace Monument

    Castles

    Central Scotland

    Doune
    A Virtual Tour
    History: The Early Stewart Kings
    History: Royal Dower House, and Decline

    Stirling
    Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle

    West Coast Castles

    Dunollie and Kilchurn
    Castles Seen from Afar

    Duart
    Guarding the Sound of Mull

    Dunstaffnage
    An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
    The Wars of Independence
    The Campbells Are Coming
    Dunstaffnage Chapel

    Abbeys and Churches

    Inchcolm Abbey
    Arriving at Inchcolm

    Other Historical Sites

    Picts and Dalriatans
    Dunadd Hill Fort
    Staffa


    Wales

    Towns

    Walks in Welsh Towns
    Aberystwyth: Castle and Coast
    Caerleon: The Ffwrwm
    Conwy: The Smallest House in Great Britain

    Castles

    Edwardian Castles

    Beaumaris
    The Historical Context
    The Architecture

    Caernarfon
    Master James of St.George
    The Castle Kitchens

    Conwy
    The History of the Castle
    The Architecture

    Norman Castles

    Cardiff
    History

    Chepstow
    History: Beginnings unto Bigod
    History: From Edward II to the Tudors
    History: Civil War, Restoration, and Aftermath

    Manorbier
    The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

    Pembroke
    Pembroke Pictures
    The Caves Under the Castle

    Welsh Castles

    Criccieth
    Llywelyn's Buildings
    King Edward's Buildings


    Scandinavia

    Norway

    Castles and Fortresses

    Defense over the Centuries
    Akershus Fortress: Middle Ages
    Akershus Fortress: Architectural Development
    Vardøhus Fortress

    Sweden

    Towns

    Stockholm
    The Vasa Museum


    Russia

    The Splendour of St.Petersburg

    Cathedrals
    Isaac's Cathedral
    Smolny Cathedral

    The Neva
    Impressions from the The Neva River


    Poland and the Baltic States

    Lithuania

    Historical Landscapes
    The Curonian Spit


    Belgium and Luxembourg

    Belgium / Flanders

    Towns

    Antwerp
    The Old Town

    Bruges
    A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Bruges

    Ghent
    A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Ghent

    Tongeren
    Roman and Mediaeval Remains

    Luxembourg

    Luxembourg City

    A Virtual Town Tour


    France

    Strasbourg
    A Virtual Walk through the Town


    Other Times

    Prehistoric Times to Iron Age

    Ages of Stone and Bronze

    Development of Civilization
    European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
    Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

    From Stone to Bronze
    Paleolithic Cave 'Steinkirche' in the Harz mountains
    Gnisvärd Ship Setting on Gotland

    Pre-Historic Orkney
    Ring of Brodgar - Introduction
    Ring of Brodgar - The Neolithic Landscape
    Skara Brae
    Life in Skara Brae


    Post-Mediaeval Times

    Powder and Steam

    Development of Weapons
    Historical Guns

    Steampunk and Beyond
    The Fram Museum in Oslo
    Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg


    - Germany
    - United Kingdom
    - Scandinavia
    - Baltic Sea


    Beautiful Germany

    The Baltic Sea Coast
    From the Bay of Wismar to Hiddensee
    The Flensburg Firth
    A Tour on the Wakenitz River

    Harz National Park
    Arboretum (Bad Grund)
    Bode Valley, Rosstrappe and Devil's Wall
    Cave Dwellings in Langenstein
    Harzburg and the Ilsetal
    Oderteich Reservoir
    Views from Harz mountains

    Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
    Sea Stones, Kitzkammer, Heldrastein
    'Hessian Switzerland'
    Karst Dolines and Kalbe Lake

    Nature Park Solling-Vogler
    The Hutewald Forest
    The Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

    Rivers and Lakes
    The Danube in Spring
    Edersee Reservoir
    A Rainy Rhine Cruise
    River of the Greenest Shores - The Moselle
    Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut

    Parks and Palaces
    Botanical Garden Göttingen
    Forest Botanical Garden, Göttingen
    Hardenberg Castle Gardens
    Junkerberg Cemetary
    Wilhelmsthal Palace and Gardens

    Other Landscape Sites
    Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

    Seasons and More

    Spring
    Spring on my Balcony
    Spring at the Kiessee Lake
    Spring in the Rossbach Heath

    Summer
    Memories of Summer
    Summer Hiking Tours 2016
    Summer Thunderstorms

    Autumn
    Autumnal Views from Castle Windows
    Autumn Photos from Harz and Werra
    Autumn in the Meissner
    Autumn at Werra and Weser

    Winter
    Advent Impressions
    Christmas Decorations from the Ore Mountains
    Winter at the Kiessee Lake
    Winter Wonderland
    Winter 2010

    Wildlife
    Birds at the Feeder
    Harz Falcon Park
    Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
    Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life

    Experimental
    Alien Architecture
    Carved Monsters in Cathedrals
    Llama, Llama
    Odd Angles
    Spectacular Sunset
    Carved Animals


    Across the Channel - United Kingdom

    Mountains, Valleys, and Rivers
    Sheep Grazing Among Roman Remains
    A Ghost Cruise on the Ouse River
    West Highland Railway

    The East Coast
    By Ferry to Newcastle
    Highland Mountains - Inverness to John o'Groats
    Some Photos from the East Coast

    Scottish Sea Shores
    Crossing to Mull
    Mull - Craignure to Fionnphort
    Pentland Firth
    Staffa
    Summer Days in Oban
    Summer Nights in Oban

    Wild Wales - With Castles
    Hazy Views with Castles
    Shadows and Strongholds
    Views from Castle Battlements

    Wildlife
    Sea Gulls


    Land of Light and Darkness - Scandinavia

    Norway

    The Hurtigruten-Tour
    A Voyage into Winter
    The Farthest North
    Culture and Nature in Norway
    Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
    Along the Coast - North of the Polar Circle

    Norway by Train
    From Oslo to Bergen
    From Trondheim to Oslo

    Wildlife
    Bearded Seals
    Dog Sledding With Huskies
    Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord


    Shores of History - The Baltic Sea

    Baltic Sea Cruise

    Lithuania

    Nida and the Curonian Spit
    Beaches at the Curonian Spit




    Historia
    Geologia
    Delectatio (Fun Stuff)
    Comblogium (Blog Roll)
    Conexiones (Links)

    - Roman History
    - Mediaeval History
    - Other Times and Miscellanea


    Roman History

    Wars and Frontiers

    Maps
    Romans in Germania

    Traces of the Pre-Varus Conquest
    Roman Camp Hedemünden
    New Finds in 2008

    The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
    Museum Park at Kalkriese

    The Battle at the Harzhorn
    Introduction

    Along the Limes
    Limes Fort Osterburken
    Limes Fort Saalburg

    Roman Frontiers in Britain
    Hadrian's Wall

    Rebellions
    The Batavian Rebellion

    Roman Militaria

    Armour
    Early Imperial Helmets
    Late Roman Helmets
    The Negau B Helmet

    Weapons
    The pilum
    Daggers
    Swords

    Other Equipment
    Roman Saddles

    Life and Religion

    Religion
    The Mithras Cult
    Isis Worship
    Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms

    Everyday Life
    Bathing Habits
    Children's Toys
    Face Pots
    Styli and Wax Tablets

    Public Life
    Roman Transport - Barges
    Roman Transport - Amphorae and Barrels
    Roman Water Supply

    Roman villae
    Villa Rustica Wachenheim

    Miscellaneous
    Legend of Alaric's Burial


    Mediaeval History

    Feudalism
    Feudalism, Beginnings
    Feudalism, 10th Century
    The Privilege of the deditio
    A Note on handgenginn maðr

    The Hanseatic League
    Introduction and Beginnings
    Stockfish Trade


    Germany

    Geneaologies

    List of Mediaeval German Emperors

    Geneaology
    Anglo-German Marriage Connections
    Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors

    Biographies

    Kings and Emperors
    King Heinrich IV
    Emperor Otto IV, Introduction

    Princes
    Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen
    The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
    Otto of Northeim
    The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
    Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

    Counts and Local Lords
    The Marshals of Ebersburg
    The Counts of Everstein
    The Counts of Hohnstein
    The Lords of Plesse
    The Counts of Reichenbach
    The Counts of Winzenburg

    Famous Feuds

    Local Feuds
    The Lüneburg Succession War
    The Thuringian Succession War - Introduction
    The Star Wars

    Royal Troubles
    Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg


    England and Normandy

    From the Conquest to King John

    Normans, Britons, and Angevins
    The Honour of Richmond and the Dukes of Brittany


    Scotland

    Kings of Scots

    House Dunkeld
    Malcolm III and Northumbria
    Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
    King David and the Civil War (1)
    King David and the Civil War (2)

    Houses Bruce and Stewart
    Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle
    The Early Stewart Kings

    Scottish Nobles and their Quarrels

    Clan Feuds
    MacLeans and MacDonalds
    A Scottish Wedding


    Wales

    Princes and Rebels

    The Princes of Gwynedd
    The Rise of House Aberffraw

    The Rebellions
    From Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


    Scandinavia

    Kings and Vikings

    Kings of Norway
    King Eirik's Scottish Marriages

    Famous Nobles and their Feuds
    Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


    Other Times and Miscellanea

    Post-Mediaeval History

    Discoveries
    Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
    Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

    Explorers
    Fram Expedition to the North Pole
    Fram Expedition to the South Pole

    History in Opera and Literature

    Opera

    Belcanto and Historicism
    Maria Padilla - Mistress Royal
    The Siege of Calais in Donizetti's Opera

    Historical Ballads

    Ballads by Th. Fontane, translated by me
    About Theodor Fontane
    Archibald Douglas
    Gorm Grymme
    Sir Walter Scott in Abbotsford
    The Tragedy of Afghanistan


    Geological Landscapes

    The Baltic Sea
    Geology of the Curonian Spit

    The Harz
    Karst Landscape
    Karst - Lonau Falls
    Karst - Rhume Springs

    Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
    Blue Dome near Eschwege
    Diabase and Basalt Formations
    Karst Formations

    Solling-Vogler
    Raised Bogs
    The Hannover Cliffs

    The Shores of Scotland
    Staffa

    Paleontology

    Fossils
    Ammonites


    Fun Stuff

    Not So Serious Romans
    Aelius Rufus Visits the Future Series
    Building Hadrian's Wall
    Playmobil Romans

    Royal (Hi)Stories
    Kings Having a Bad Hair Day
    The Case of the Vanished Wine Cask

    Historical Memes
    Charlemagne meme
    Historical Christmas Wishes
    New Year Resolutions
    Aelius Rufus does a Meme
    Rules for Writing Scottish Romances

    Funny Sights
    Tourist Kitsch in St.Petersburg

    My Novels in Progress / Planning

    I'm a bit of a writer, too; here are the novel projects on which I'm currently working

    Roman Novels (Historical Fiction)
    The Saga of House Sichelstein (Historical Fiction)
    Kings and Rebels (Fantasy)


    *********************

    Links leading outside my blog will open in a new window. I do not take any responsibility for the content of linked sites.

    History Blogs - Ancient

    Roman History Today
    Ancient Times (Mary Harrsch)
    Bread and Circuses (Adrian Murdoch)
    Following Hadrian (Carole Raddato)
    Mike Anderson's Ancient History Blog
    Mos Maiorum - Der römische Weg
    Per Lineam Valli (M.C. Bishop)
    Zenobia (Judith Weingarten)

    Digging Up Fun Stuff
    The Anglo-Saxon Archaeology Blog
    Arkeologi i Nord
    The Journal of Antiquities (Britain)
    The Northern Antiquarian
    The Roman Archaeology Blog

    History Blogs - Mediaeval

    Þaér wæs Hearpan Swég
    Anglo Saxon, Norse & Celtic Blog
    Casting Light upon the Shadow (A. Whitehead)
    Norse and Viking Ramblings
    Outtakes of a Historical Novelist (Kim Rendfeld)

    Beholden Ye Aulde Blogges
    A Clerk of Oxford
    Historical Britain Blog (Mercedes Rochelle)
    Magistra et Mater (Rachel Stone)
    Michelle of Heavenfield (Michelle Ziegler)
    Senchus (Tim Clarkson)

    Royal and Other Troubles
    Edward II (Kathryn Warner)
    Henry the Young King (Kasia Ogrodnik)
    Piers Gaveston (Anerje)
    Lady Despenser's Scribery
    Simon de Montfort (Darren Baker)
    Weaving the Tapestry (Scottish Houses Dunkeld and Stewart)

    A Mixed Bag of History
    English Historical Fiction Authors
    The Freelance History Writer (Susan Abernethy)
    The History Blog
    History, the Interesting Bits (S.B. Connolly)
    Mediaeval Manuscripts Blog
    Mediaeval News (Niall O'Brian)
    Time Present and Time Past (Mark Patton)

    Thoughts and Images

    Reading and Reviews
    Black Gate Blog
    The Blog That Time Forgot (Al Harron)
    Parmenion Books
    Reading the Past
    The Wertzone

    Imaginations
    David Blixt
    Ex Urbe (Ada Palmer)
    Constance A. Brewer
    Jenny Dolfen Illustrations
    Wild and Wonderful (Caroline Gill)

    German Travel Blogs
    Alte Steine
    Blickgewinkelt
    Meerblog
    Reiseaufnahmen
    Sonne und Wolken
    Teilzeitreisender
    Travelita
    Unterwegs und Daheim

    Highland Mountains
    The Hazel Tree (Jo Woolf)
    Helen in Wales
    Mountains and Sea Scotland

    The Colours of the World
    Shutterbugs


    Research

    Archaeology
    Past Horizons
    Archaeology in Europe
    Orkneyar

    Roman History
    Deutsche Limeskommission
    Internet Ancient Sourcebook
    Livius.org
    Roman Army
    Roman Britain
    The Romans in Britain
    Vindolanda Tablets

    Not so Dark Ages
    Burgundians in the Mist
    Viking Society for Northern Research

    Mediaeval History
    De Re Militari
    Internet Mediaeval Sourcebook
    Kulturzeit
    The Labyrinth
    Mediaeval Crusades
    Medievalists.Net

    Castles
    Burgenarchiv
    Burgerbe
    Burgenwelt
    Exploring Castles
    The World of Castles

    Miscellaneous History
    Heritage Daily
    The History Files

    Mythology
    Ancient History
    Encyclopedia Mythica

    Online Journals
    Ancient Warfare
    The Heroic Age
    The History Files

    Travel and Guide Sites

    Germany - History
    Antike Stätten in Deutschland
    Burgenarchiv
    Strasse der Romanik

    Germany - Nature
    HarzLife
    Naturpark Meissner
    Naturpark Solling-Vogler

    England
    English Heritage
    Visit Northumberland

    Scotland
    The Chain Mail (Scottish History)
    Historic Scotland
    National Trust Scotland

    Books and Writing

    Interesting Author Websites
    Bernard Cornwell
    Dorothy Dunnett
    Steven Erikson
    Diana Gabaldon
    Guy Gavriel Kay
    George R.R. Martin
    Sharon Kay Penman
    Brandon Sanderson
    J.R.R. Tolkien
    Tad Williams

    Historical Fiction
    Historical Novel Society
    Historia Magazine

    Writing Sites
    Absolute Write
    TheLitForum.com
    National Novel Writing Month


    *********************


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