The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times

23 Jan 2008
  Aelius Rufus Visits the Future - The Site of Segedunum / Wallsend

Salvete, carissimi amici. It's me, Aelius Rufus. You may remember me from a guided tour through the castellum Saalburg in Germania. I'm visiting my friend Gaius Fannius. He's a centurion with an auxiliary cohort from Gallia stationed in Arbeia and just helped building the Antonine Wall - his lads covered the legionaries from local surprises. *grin* He's on holiday now and promised to show me some places in Britannia. But what is even better, he has a friend from the Caledonian tribes, one Merlinus who is a druid, a sorcerer or something, and he'll show us the future. Let's hope that Tony won't find out about it; he and his generals don't like soldiers to dabble in tribal magic.

So I took a ship from Bononia to Arbeia harbour where the Tinea river flows into the Mare Germanicum and where my friend Gaius awaited me. I recognised him at once in the crowd lining the pier. The soldiers nicknamed him Ursus because of his broad shoulders and hairy arms; some say also because of his temper, but he's a nice guy. He only shows his temper when some inept recruits still don't keep formation after a month's training. Then he can get quite formidable as I've once witnessed. Those recruits probably longed for a good fight against the Caledonian tribes if that got them away from Ursus.

Roman recruits from the future; they call it reenactment. Look at those funny sandals they wear. Can't keep formation either. I could hear Gaius mumble some not so nice comments, but Merlinus told us they don't speak Latin in the future, though some people still understand it.

Together, we walked the few miles to Segedunum - Roman soldiers are very good at walking - the place where Hadrian's Great Wall begins. It's very impressive and a far cry from the earthern walls, trenches and palisades of the limes Germanicus. Gaius told me the Antonine Wall was more like the German defenses, and it didn't really keep the tribes out. Not to mention there were tribes south of it as well with doubtful alliances. Northern Britannia is a worse mess than Germania.

The next morning we met with Merlinus. He had explained that Segedunum was the best place to travel to the future because it would change so much. It was cool and misty, the sky covered with grey clouds, and we huddled in our sagum cloaks. Merlinus didn't look like one might expect a druid to look, he was a slender, dark haired fellow dressed in a simple tunica and a chequered cloak, no bed sheets and no white beard, either.

We found an unobtrusive place behind one of the barracks, touched hands, Merlinus murmured an incantation in an unknown language, and we found ourselves ....

... surrounded by dragons. The low, graphite sky was the same, the air still smelled slightly tangy from the sea, but the sounds were different. There were roars and screeches unheard in a Roman fort, and one of the dragons swung its head towards us. I grasped my gladius - not that it would have been of much avail against a beast standing higher than a Roman insula - and then I realised the dragon was made of iron. It was a giant crane. I could not imagine how many slaves it must have needed to swing it around and to pull the thick ropes with the heavy chest hanging from a hook - no, it were not ropes as we knew them, they were made of steel.

"It's a harbour," Merlinus said. "We're in the year 2007 as it will be called in the future when there are no consuls to count the calendar by - 1863 years into the future. The place is called Wallsend now.

"How large must the ships be that need such giant cranes to unload them," Gaius murmured.

"We'll see the ships in due time," Merlinus said. "Let us have a look around."

Most people we met wore trousers and some sort of longsleeved tunica with weird collars, or a sagum with sleeves, but a few were dressed in Roman attire. "They do it for fun," Merlinus explained, "and call it reenactment or creative anachronism." It had one advantage: we fitted right in and didn't create much of a stir. Though some people stopped in front of us and held little metal boxes into the air, stared at them, and then smiled at us and aimed their little boxes at the cranes or some other object.

"What are they doing," I asked.

"They're taking pictures," Merlinus said.


Merlinus waved a man to join us and spoke to him in a strange language. The man held the little box so we could see a tiny glass plate, and there was indeed a little picture of Gaius and me. The man smiled, and I smiled back, hiding my nervousness. "It's magic," I whispered to Merlinus.

The man said something that sounded like, "ur Italian?"

I recognised the last word. "Italia," I nodded.

"Ah, Italia, Roma .... beautiful." He said something else and left us with a wave of his hand. I waved back; Gaius shook his head in disbelief. "People from the future still remember us?"

"He wished us a good journey," Merlinus translated. "And yes, the Empire of Rome is remembered in the future. They get some things wrong, but they still read Roman books, and keep Roman artifacts they've found."

With that he led us into a building. That it was a building we could see, but it looked different from anything we knew. It was an oversized barrack made of stone, dominated by a high tower, but the tower had an unusual form, a bit like a snake that had swallowed a discus. The discus had glass windows all around.

Display at the museum

It was a museum, Merlinus explained, where objects from our time were displayed. Our attention was immediately caught by this.

"I've seen such tableware in the general's tent sometimes, when I had to make report," Gaius said. "It's pretty, isn't it?"

Our prefect had a few silver pieces as well, but not as beautiful. Beside me, a few children wriggled their way to the glassed box and gaped. School kids, I realised, accompanied by their magister. Some things had not changed in the future, it seemed. It was nice to know that they would have some memories of us. Two of them carried wooden swords.

That, too, had not changed.

After having admired the artefacts, we took the lift up to the glassed discus (you can see the tower in the background of the picture with the recruits). Timber constructions with cogwheels and ropes to move people and goods to a higher level were not unknown to us, but this lift covered a greater height than anything I'd seen, 34 metres, and again I wondered how many slaves it would take to move it so fast. But Merlinus told us there were no more slaves in the future but the lifts, cranes and many other machines worked with something called electricity.

The view from the tower was splendid. Merlinus pointed ahead to a flat area with lines of stone and explained that was our fort, or what was left of it. During time people had taken the stones from our buildings and erected new houses in the area, and those had been taken down and rebuilt many times over until the existence of a Roman fort was all but forgotten.

Segedunum, foundation outlines of the fort

But some people remembered and researched, and during a new phase of construction where old houses were pulled down, excavations took place and remains of the Roman fort were discovered. Since the foundations were still pretty much intact (albeit not much more than those), it was decided to mark them and build the tower so people could get an overview of the fort from above. Archaeologists also reconstructed a Roman style bath and a little section of Hadrian's Great Wall. The park was opened to the public in 2000, Merlinus told us, and has developed into one of the main tourist attractions at the Wall.

We could distinguish the outlines of the headquarters and the commander's building in the foreground, and the barracks where we first entered the future, back to the left. Everything looked small from here, and the tourists walking around resembles children's toys.

View towards the harbour with part of the fort's outer wall outlines
The white house outside the fort is the reconstructed bath house

Tourists seem to abound in the future even more than the Romans who visit Greece. And no Roman ever got the idea to dig in the ground for shards of old amphorae. Though I began to wonder what you might find in those old graves in Egypt.

We moved our gaze towards the Tinea river they now call Tyne, and the harbour. Everything had become so large and wrought of steel and iron. If we could move goods in amounts like that, our supply problems would come to an end. Too bad we could not capture an engineer from the future and have him build some cranes and ships for us. Merlinus grinned at my suggestion.

The weather was something that had not changed in the future. We could have seen to Arbeia, Merlinus told us, but for the low clouds. Yet the view over the Tinea winding its way west was splendid enough. Back in my own time there had been few houses outside the Roman forts and the vici near them, and most of the indigenous buildings were mere huts.

Tyne river at Wallsend

On the street of the other side vehicles moved that were not drawn by horses or oxen. "They use combustion engines," Merlinus said. "Basically, they burn that black liquid you find in the Arab deserts and make the cars run."

Gaius shook his head. "This is all so strange. Can we visit the baths? I might feel more at home there."

Merlinus agreed. But I caught myself wanting to ride in such a car.

12 Jan 2008
  German Winter

Do you see any snow here?

No, you don't because there isn't any. Some sun, some clouds and rain, some more sun, and too warm for the time of the year. I want snow, dangit.

10 Jan 2008
  Carolingian Architecture

This beautiful building - the Gate Hall of Lorsch monastery - is one of the few remaining examples of post-Roman but pre-Romanesque architecture in Germany; its style is called Carolingian.

Gate Hall Lorsch, west facade

A monastery was established in Lorsch (former Lauresham) in the Rhine valley in 764. It received some popular relics and soon developed into an important place, especially after Charlemagne took an interest in it. The minster was consecrated in 774 in presence of King Charles, the future emperor.

Closeup of the mural ornaments

At the beginning of the 9th century, news about construction work in Lorsch come to an end, so we can't say for sure when the gate hall was built, but it seems to date into the 9th century, not the time of Charlemagne. A pity, it would be nice to know he already walked under those vaults.

There is one vague mention of an ecclesia varia (a 'colourful church') in the 870ies that could refer to the hall, but we can't be sure.

Closeup of a pillar

Today, the hall is the only part that remains of the Carolingian building, and the monastery no longer exists. The Gate Hall in Lorsch is part of the World Cultural Heritage.

3 Jan 2008
  List of Medieaval German Emperors until 1250

To get some of the German kings and emperors of the Holy Roman Empire sorted out, I've listed the German Emperors of the Carolingian, Ottonian, Salian and Staufen dynasties. Dates are birth and death.

  • Karl der Große (Charlemagne) 742-814, Carolingian, first Holy Roman Emperor (800)

  • After Charlemagne's death, the reign was split between his surviving son and his grandsons, and a divide between West and East Francia (Regnum Teutonicum) took place, albeit there have still been power overlaps during the Carolingian dynasty.

    The West Francian line (Carolingian):
  • Ludwig (the Pious), Charlemagne's son, 778-840
  • Lothar I, his son, 795-855
  • Ludwig II of Italy, his son, 825-875
  • Karl II (the Bald), youngest son of Ludwig the Pious, 823-877

  • The East Francian line (Carolingian):
  • Ludwig (the German), 806-876
  • Karlmann, 830-880, King of Bavaria
  • Karl III (the Fat), Ludiwg's son, 839-888 (Emperor since 881)
  • Arnulf of Kärnten, 850-899, King of East Francia (Emperor since 896)
  • Ludwig (the Child) 893-911

  • Conradinian:
  • Konrad I, 881-918, King of East Francia

  • With the coronation of Otto I as Emperor, and the rise of the House Capet in West Francia about 960, the divide of the two realms was completed. The eastern, or German part concentrated on Italy and the Slavic tribes they conquered, and they provided most of the Holy Roman Emperors. France had its interests in England (and vice versa) and to some extent in Spain, and so a west-east power split developed, but with a shared culture.

    Ottonian (Liudolfingian):
  • Heinrich I (the Fowler) 876-936, first of the Ottonian Kings of East Francia
  • Otto I (the Great), his son, 912-973 (Emperor since 962)
  • Otto II, his son, 955-983
  • Otto III, his son, 980-1002
  • Heinrich II (the Saint, sideline of the Ottonians) ) 973-1024

  • Salian:
  • Konrad II (the first Salian Emperor) 990-1039
  • Heinrich III, his son, 1017-1056
  • Heinrich IV, his son, 1050-1106
  • Heinrich V, his son, 1086-1125

  • Süpplingenburg:
  • Lothar of Süpplingenburg (Lothar III) 1075-1137

  • Staufen line 1:
  • Konrad III, 1093-1152, King of Germany and Italy
  • Heinrich IV, died 1150, King with his father Konrad
  • Friedrich I (Barbarossa), 1122-1190 (Emperor since 1155)
  • Heinrich VI, his son, 1165-1197

  • Welfen:
  • Otto IV of Braunschweig, son of Duke Heinrich the Lion of Saxony, 1175-1218

  • Staufen line 2:
  • Friedrich II (called stupor mundi) son of Heinrich VI, 1194-1250
  • Konrad IV, his son (last of the Staufen) 1228-1254

  • Of course, this is not the end of the lists of German Emperors. There followed the lines of Luxembourg, Wittelsbach, and Hapsburg.

    1 Jan 2008
      Seven Fun Facts about Heinrich IV

    This time I haven't been tagged, but I found a fun meme on this blog as well as here, and decided to play along. I have a number of historical characters about whom I post occasionally, all the way from Arminius to Charlemagne and to Duke Henry 'the Lion' of Saxony. But I decided for a man I've so far only mentioned a few times in my posts about Otto of Northeim: King Heinrich IV (1050 - 1106, crowned Emperor in 1084).

    Heinrich IV is one of the most controversial characters in Mediaeval history, and he already divided his contemporaries. Some chronicles treat him like a second Nero or Caligula, while others blame his enemies for causing so much trouble. The truth, as usual, lies somewhere in the middle.

    (Magdeburg Cathedral, westwork)

    1) Heinrich became king upon his father's death in 1056, under regentship of his mother Agnes. In 1062, he was kidnapped by a group of nobles who didn't agree with the way Agnes conducted affairs. They lured Heinrich onto a ship on the Rhine and when he noticed what was going on, the young king jumped overboard so that one of the conspirators had to jump after him to prevent Heinrich from drowning. A few years later, in 1065, Heinrich was officially proclaimed adult and he'd have used the sword he got during the ceremony (the so called Schwertleite) to chop off the head of the conspirators' leader, Bishop Anno of Cologne, if not his mother had held him back.

    2) Heinrich wanted to get a divorce from his wife Bertha of Turin because "he just could not live with her, and btw, she's still a virgin." That might have worked today, but it didn't in the 11th century, and he got stuck with Bertha until her death in 1089. Also, the papal legate told Heinrich to sleep with his wife already.

    Antipope Clemens III with Emperor Heinrich IV.
    (Codex Jenesis Bose q.6, dated 1157. Wikipedia Common License)

    3) Heinrich managed to get excommunicated four times by three different popes. The most famous one was the first banishment by pope Gregor VII in 1076. Excommunication meant that the nobles of the realm were no longer bound to the oaths towards the king, and with an increasing opposition that turned out such a big problem that Heinrich prefered to travel to Canossa in northern Italy where Gregor resided, and formally humiliated himself to get accepted back into Church. The pope could not refuse because a repentant sinner was to be forgiven (and the opposing nobles suddenly found themselves oathbreakers). But the troubles didn't get away, so a few years later, Heinrich was excommunicated again. This time he went to Rome with an army, sent Gregor packing and put a pope of his choice, Clemens III, onto St.Peter's See. Clemens then crowned Heinrich as Emperor. During the ensuing schism, two more Gregorian popes excommunicated Heinrich, but he no longer cared, and even part of the German nobles had their fill of those games.

    4) After Bertha's death, Heinrich married Adelheid-Praxedis of Kiev. I'm sorry to say that this marriage didn't work any better. Their mutual accusations of adultery, rape, violence, and sodomy makes the quarrels between Paul McCartney and Heather Mills look like an amicable separation.

    Speyer Cathedral, crypt

    5) Since northern Italy was part of the Holy Roman Empire, Heinrich could not stand idly by when the schism led to military conflicts. He interfered on behalf of Pope Clemens, but then got stuck in Italy - in the surroundings of Verona - because Mathilde of Tuscany blocked the Alpine passes against him. The fun part of this is that Mathilde was married to Welf V of Bavaria, the son of that Welf whom Heinrich gave the duchy of Bavaria after he took it away from Otto of Northeim. Otto was dead by then, or he might have thought something along the lines of neiner, neiner. It took Heinrich three years until he managed to negotiate his way home.

    6) Heinrich had not much luck in his sons, either. Both plotted to send him into early retirement and take over his job. Konrad was the first to join the party of the Gregorian popes, Saxon nobles and whoever else thought Heinrich sucked, but the affair ended in nothing and Konrad died early. During that time, Heinrich had his younger son, another Heinrich, proclamied co-regent under the condition that he promised not to plot against daddy. Ever. But young Heinrich did, and more successfully than his older brother. In 1105, he took his father prisoner and forced him to abdicate. Heinrich IV died soon thereafter.

    Speyer Cathedral, some tombs of Mediaeval German emperors.

    7) Heinrich was first buried in the place of his death, in Liège. But since he was still excommunicated, the church was put under interdict. The body was transfered to Speyer, the traditonal burial place of the German emperors, whereof the Speyer Cathedral was put under interdict as well and the sarcophagus had to be buried outside the sacred ground. Heinrich V finally got the pope to lift the ban in 1111, and Heinrich IV could be properly put to rest in the Speyer Cathedral.

    The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, the Baltic Countries, and central Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.

    This blog is non-commercial.

    All texts and photos (if no other copyright is noted) are copyright of Gabriele Campbell.

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    Location: Goettingen, Germany

    I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History, interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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    Historical Places

    - Towns
    - Castles
    - Abbeys and Churches
    - Roman Remains
    - Neolithicum and Bronze Age
    - Museums
    City Trips

    Hiking Tours and Cruises

    United Kingdom
    Baltic Sea

    Historical Places



    Bad Sooden-Allendorf
    Historical Town and Graduation Tower
    Bruchteiche Reservoir

    A Seaside Resort

    Lion Benches in the Castle Square
    The Quadriga

    Mediaeval Erfurt

    Mediaeval Goslar
    Chapel in the Klus Rock

    Churches St.Martin and St.Mary

    St. Mary's Church

    Church of Our Lady: History

    The Temple of Isis and Mater Magna

    Mediaeval Paderborn

    Mediaeval Quedlinburg
    The Chapter Church

    The Cathedral: Architecture
    Jewish Ritual Bath

    The Harbour
    The Old Town

    Mediaeval Lanes and Old Houses

    The Roman Amphitheatre
    The Aula Palatina
    The Imperial Baths
    The Porta Nigra

    Sites of the Weimar Classicism
    The Park at the Ilm

    The Old Harbour

    Roman and Mediaeval Xanten
    The Gothic House


    The Keep

    Altenstein (Werra)
    A Border Castle

    Weser River Reivers

    Brandenburg (Thuringia)
    The Beginnings
    Albrecht II of Thuringia

    Coburg Fortress

    The Marshals of Ebersburg


    History of the Keep


    Hardeg Castle
    The Great Hall


    Heldenburg (Salzderhelden)
    A Welfen Seat

    Hohnstein (Harz)
    The Counts of Hohnstein
    Between Welfen and Staufen
    14th-15th Century

    Built to Protect a Chapel

    The Counts of Everstein
    Later Times

    The Counts of Winzenburg
    The Lords of Plesse

    Polle Castle
    An Everstein Stronghold


    Reichenbach (Hessia)

    Photo Impressions

    From Castle to Convention Centre



    Stauffenburg (Harz)
    A Secret Mistress

    A Little Known Ruin in the Harz

    Photo Impressions

    A Virtual Tour

    Revisiting the Weidelsburg

    Abbeys and Churches

    Early History of the Abbey

    A Romanesque Basilica

    A Romanesque Church

    The Byzantine Crypt

    The Stave Church

    Remains of the Monastery

    Early History of the Abbey
    Interior of the Church

    The Carolingian Gate Hall

    Remains of the Monastery

    Scharzfeld (Harz)
    The Cave Church

    Mediaeval Murals

    The Monastery - Introduction

    Romanesque Church and a Ducal Burial

    Wilhelmshausen (Kassel)
    The Romanesque Church

    Roman Remains

    Augusta Treverorum / Trier
    The Amphitheatre
    The Aula Palatina
    The Imperial Baths
    The Porta Nigra
    The Roman Bridge

    Colonia Ulpia Traiana / Xanten
    Roman Xanten
    The Amphitheatre in Birten

    Limes Fort Aalen
    The Barracks

    Limes Fort Osterburken
    The Discovery
    The Cohort castellum
    The Annex Fort
    The Garrisons

    Limes Fort Saalburg
    A Reconstructed Limes Fort
    Shrine of the Standards

    Romans in North Rhine-Westphalia
    Playmobil Romans, LWL Museum Haltern
    Varus Statue, Haltern am See

    Romans at the Moselle
    The Villa Urbana in Longuich

    Romans at the Rhine
    Boppard - The Roman Baudobriga
    The Villa at Wachenheim

    Neolithicum and Bronze Age

    Neolithic Burials
    Neolithic Burials in the Everstorf Forest and Rugia
    The Necropolis of Oldendorf

    Bronze Age
    Bronze and Iron Age Remains at the Werra

    Museums / Reconstructed Sites

    Palatine Seat Tilleda
    The Defenses

    Viking Settlement Haithabu
    The Nydam Ship

    Open Air Museums
    European Bread Museum Ebergötzen
    Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

    Post-Mediaeval Exhibits
    Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
    Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg



    Roman and Medieaval Chester

    The Abbey - Introduction
    The Old Gaol

    Clifford Tower
    The Guild Hall
    Monk Bar Gate with Richard III Museum
    Museum Gardens
    Houses in the Old Town
    York Minster: Architecture



    Conquest to King John
    Henry III to the Tudors

    Romans to the Tudors
    Civil War to the Present

    Roman Remains

    Eboracum / York
    Roman Bath in the Fortress

    Wall Fort Birdoswald
    The Dark Age Timber Halls

    Wall Fort Segedunum
    Museum and Viewing Tower
    The Baths

    Other Roman Sites
    The Mithraeum at Brocolita
    The Signal Station at Scarborough



    Views from the Castle

    The Wallace Monument


    A Virtual Tour
    History: The Early Stewart Kings
    History: Royal Dower House

    Duart Castle
    Guarding the Sound of Mull

    An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
    The Wars of Independence
    The Campbells Are Coming
    Dunstaffnage Chapel

    Robert the Bruce

    Abbeys and Churches

    Arriving at Inchcolm Abbey

    Neolithicum and Bronze Age

    Neolithic Orkney
    Ring of Brodgar
    Skara Brae

    Brochs and Cairns
    Clava Cairns
    The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Introduction

    Picts and Dalriatans
    Dunadd Hill Fort



    Castle and Coast

    The Ffwrwm
    The Roman Amphitheatre
    The Baths in the Legionary Fort

    The Smallest House in Great Britain



    Master James of St.George
    The Castle Kitchens

    From Romans to Victorians

    Beginnings unto Bigod
    Edward II to the Tudors
    Civil War


    Llywelyn's Buildings
    King Edward's Buildings

    The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

    Photo Impressions
    The Caves Under the Castle

    Roman Remains

    Isca Silurum / Caerleon
    The Amphitheatre
    The Baths in the Legionary Fort



    Viking Museum Roskilde
    To come


    Castles and Fortresses

    Akershus Fortress in Oslo
    Kings and Pirates
    The Time of King Håkon V

    Vardøhus Fortress


    The Fram Museum in Oslo


    Neolithicum and Bronze Age

    Gnisvärd Ship Setting


    The Vasa Museum in Stockholm



    Mediaeval Porvoo



    The History of Mediaeval Tallinn



    The History of Mediaeval Riga



    To come



    Gdańsk / Danzig
    History of Mediaeval Gdańsk
    Mediaeval and Renaissance Gdańsk

    The Old Town
    Jewish Kraków - Kazimierz and the Ghetto

    Wrocław / Breslau
    The Botanical Garden
    The Wrocław Dwarfs


    Ogrodzieniec Castle
    A Virtual Tour
    First Castle to the Boner Family



    Cheb / Eger
    The Old Town

    Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
    Brief History of the Town

    Kutná Hora
    The Sedlec Ossuary
    The Medieaval Town and St.Barbara's Church



    The Old Town

    Mediaeval Bruges

    Mediaeval Ghent

    Mediaeval Buildings

    Roman Remains

    Atuatuca Tungrorum / Tongeren
    Roman Remains in the Town



    Luxembourg City
    A Tour of the Town

    City Trips

    St.Petersburg (Russia)
    Impressions from the Neva River

    Strasbourg (France)
    A Tour of the Town

    Hiking Tours and Cruises


    Baltic Sea Coast
    Flensburg Firth
    Rugia: Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
    Rugia: Photo Impressions
    Rugia: The Pier of Sellin
    A Tour on the Wakenitz River

    Lüneburg Heath
    Hiking Tours in the Lüneburg Heath

    Harz National Park
    Arboretum (Bad Grund)
    Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
    Devil's Wall
    Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
    Oderteich Reservoir
    Rappbode Reservoir
    Views from Harz mountains

    Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
    Bruchteiche / Bad Sooden Allendorf
    Hessian Switzerland

    Nature Park Solling-Vogler
    The Forest Pasture Project
    Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

    Nature Park Reinhardswald
    Old Forest at the Sababurg

    Thuringian Forests
    Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

    Rivers and Lakes
    The Danube in Spring
    Edersee Reservoir
    A Rainy Rhine Cruise
    Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut
    Weser River Ferry
    Weser Skywalk

    Harz Falcon Park
    Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
    Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life
    Red squirrels

    Spring Impressions from Göttingen
    Spring in the Hardenberg Castle Gardens
    Spring in the Meissner
    Memories of Summer
    Summer Hiking Tours 2016
    Autumn in the Meissner
    Autumn at Werra and Weser
    Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake

    United Kingdom

    The East Coast
    By Ferry to Newcastle
    Highland Mountains: Inverness to John o'Groats
    Some Photos from the East Coast

    Scottish Sea Shores
    Crossing to Mull
    Mull: Craignure to Fionnphort
    Dunollie and Kilchurn: Photo Impressions
    Pentland Firth
    Summer in Oban

    Scotland by Train
    West Highland Railway

    Views of Snowdownia

    Sea Gulls


    Coast of Norway: Hurtigruten-Tour
    A Voyage into Winter
    Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
    Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

    Norway by Train
    From Oslo to Bergen
    From Trondheim to Oslo

    Bearded Seals
    Dog Sledding With Huskies
    Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord

    The Baltic Sea

    A Baltic Sea Cruise

    The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
    Beaches at the Curonian Spit
    Geology of the Curonian Spit

    Mediaeval History

    General Essays

    by Country
    - Germany
    - England
    - Scotland
    - Wales
    - Denmark
    - Norway
    - Sweden
    - Livonia
    - Lithuania
    - Poland
    - Bohemia
    - Luxembourg
    - Flanders

    Roman History

    The Romans at War
    Famous Romans
    Roman Life and Religion

    Other Times

    Neolithicum to Iron Age
    Post-Mediaeval History
    History and Literature

    Mediaeval History

    General Essays

    Mediaeval Warfare


    Late Mediaeval Swords

    Mediaeval Art and Craft

    Mediaeval Art
    The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
    The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
    The Hunting Frieze in Königslutter Cathedral
    Mediaeval Monster Carvings
    The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

    Medical Instruments


    The History of Feudalism
    The Beginnings
    Feudalism in the 10th Century

    Special Cases
    The privilege of the deditio

    The Hanseatic League

    The History of the Hanseatic League
    Introduction and Beginnings

    Hanseatic Architecture
    Examples of Brick Architecture
    Hall Houses (Dielenhäuser)

    Goods and Trade
    Stockfish Trade

    Towns of the Hanseatic League
    Tallinn / Reval

    The Order of the Teutonic Knights

    Wars and Battles
    The Conquest of Danzig
    The Siege of Vilnius 1390

    The Vikings

    Viking Material Culture
    The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

    Viking Ships
    The Nydam Ship

    Essays by Country



    List of Mediaeval German Emperors
    Anglo-German Marriage Connections

    Kings and Emperors

    The Salian Dynasty
    King Heinrich IV

    Staufen against Welfen
    Emperor Otto IV

    Princes and Lords

    House Welfen
    Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors
    The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
    Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen

    The Landgraves of Thuringia
    The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
    Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

    Dukes and Princes of other Families
    Duke Otto of Northeim
    Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus

    Counts and Local Lords
    The Marshals of Ebersburg
    The Counts of Everstein
    The Counts of Hohnstein
    The Lords of Plesse
    The Counts of Reichenbach
    The Counts of Winzenburg

    Feuds and Rebellions

    Royal Troubles
    Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

    Local Feuds
    The Lüneburg Succession War
    The Thuringian Succession War
    The Star Wars


    Kings of England

    House Plantagenet
    Richard Lionheart in Speyer
    King Henry IV's Lithuanian Crusade

    Normans, Britons, Angevins

    Great Noble Houses
    The Dukes of Brittany
    The Earls of Richmond

    Contested Borders

    King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


    Kings of Scots

    House Dunkeld
    Malcolm III and Northumbria
    Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
    King David and the Civil War, Part 1
    King David and the Civil War, Part 2

    Houses Bruce and Stewart
    The Early Stewart Kings

    Local Troubles

    Clan Feuds
    MacLeans and MacDonalds
    A Scottish Wedding

    Scotland and England

    The Wars of Independence
    Alexander of Argyll
    The Fight for Stirling Castle


    Welsh Princes

    The Princes of Gwynedd
    The Rise of House Aberffraw

    Wales and England

    A History of Rebellion
    Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


    Kings of Denmark

    House of Knýtlinga
    Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

    Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

    The Duchy of Estonia
    Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


    Kings of Norway

    Foreign Relations
    King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
    King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
    Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

    Feuds and Rebellions

    Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


    Troubles and Alliances

    Scandinavian Unity
    Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

    (Latvia and Estonia)

    Contested Territories

    Livonian Towns
    The History of Mediaeval Riga
    The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


    Lithuanian Princes

    The Geminid Dynasty
    Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas

    The Northern Crusades

    The Wars in Lithuania
    The Siege of Vilnius 1390


    Royal Dynasties

    The Jagiełłonian Kings
    Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union

    The Northern Crusades

    The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
    The Conquest of Danzig


    Royal Dynasties

    The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
    King Sigismund and the Hussite Wars


    House Luxembourg
    King Sigismund


    More to come

    Roman History

    The Romans at War

    Forts and Fortifications

    The German Limes
    The Cavalry Fort Aalen
    Limes Fort Osterburken
    Limes Fort Saalburg

    The Hadrian's Wall
    The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend

    Border Life
    Exercise Halls
    Mile Castles and Watch Towers
    Soldiers' Living Quarters
    Cavalry Barracks

    Campaigns and Battles

    The Romans in Germania

    The Pre-Varus Invasion in Germania
    Roman Camp Hedemünden
    New Finds in 2008

    The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
    Museum Park at Kalkriese

    The Battle at the Harzhorn

    The Batavian Rebellion
    A Short Introduction

    Roman Militaria

    Early Imperial Helmets
    Late Roman Helmets
    The Negau B Helmet

    Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
    The pilum

    Other Equipment
    Roman Saddles

    Famous Romans

    The Late Empire

    The Legend of Alaric's Burial

    Roman Life and Religion

    Religion and Public Life

    Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms
    Isis Worship
    Memorial Stones
    The Mithras Cult

    Public Life
    Roman Transport: Barges
    Roman Transport: Amphorae and Barrels
    Roman Water Supply

    Roman Public Baths

    Domestic Life

    Roman villae
    Villa Urbana Longuich
    Villa Rustica Wachenheim

    Everyday Life
    Bathing Habits
    Children's Toys
    Face Pots

    Other Times

    Neolithicum to Iron Age


    Development of Civilisation
    European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
    The Hutewald Project in the Solling
    Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

    Neolithic Remains
    Stone Burials of the Funnelbeaker Culture
    The Necropolis of Oldendorf

    Bronze Age / Iron Age
    The Nydam Ship


    Neolithic Orkney
    The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
    Ring of Brodgar
    Skara Brae
    Life in Skara Brae

    Bronze Age / Iron Age
    Clava Cairns
    The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Their Function in Iron Age Society


    Bronze / Iron Age
    The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd / Gotland

    Post-Mediaeval History

    Explorers and Discoveries

    Fram Expedition to the North Pole
    Fram Expedition to the South Pole

    Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
    Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

    History and Literature


    The Weimar Classicism


    Geological Landscapes: Germany

    Baltic Sea Coast
    Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
    Flint Fields on Rugia

    Harz Mountains
    Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
    The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
    Karst Formations in Southern Harz
    The Lonau Falls
    The Rhume Springs
    Sandstone Formations: Daneil's Cave
    Sandstone Formations: Devil's Wall
    Sandstone Formations: The Klus Rock

    Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
    Blue Dome near Eschwege
    Diabase and Basalt Formations
    Karst Formations
    Salt Springs at the Werra

    Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
    Hannover Cliffs

    Geological Landscapes: Great Britain

    The Shores of Scotland

    Geological Landscapes: Baltic Sea

    Geology of the Curonian Spit

    Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

    Fossilized Ammonites
    The Loket Meteorite (Czechia)

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