My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times


27 Apr 2008
  Junkerberg Cemetary

There is a new feature in the Junkerberg cemetary outside Göttingen where my mother is buried.


If you look through the stones, you can distinguish the shape of a cross. A number of those stones has been arranged in the lay of a church, with an altar and some stone seats in the centre. Several walkways meander through it, giving different views of the cross-stones. I can imagine that once the trees have sprouted leaves and grown a bit, it will be even more interesting.


Wales

If everything goes well, I'll be off May 14 - 28, which gives me two weeks to explore Roman remains and great whopping castles. I'll take a four corner trip, so to speak: Cardiff, Pembroke, Caernarfon, Chester (ok, the last is just outside Wales, but it has too much Roman stuff to be missed). From those places I should be able to cover a good number of interesting sites, even by public traffic. Some on my list are Caerleon and Caerwent Roman remains, the castles of Caerphilly, Chepstow, Pembroke and Manorbier, Caernarfon castle and the Roman remains of Segontium, plus the castles of Beaumaris and Dolwyddelan.

The only part of the trip I'm not looking forward to is the transfer Pembroke - Caernarfon, an 8 ½ hour journey with several changes of buses and trains, and King Arthur knows if there'll be the chance to see a bathroom any time. I could rent a car, but I really don't feel like driving on the wrong side on single track roads. Or on normal roads, for that matter.

So if anyone feels like picking me up in Carmarthen and give me a ride .... *grin*

A little lake, also in Junkerberg cemetary

It's still a low winter sun in those pics, because I took them back in January.
 


21 Apr 2008
  Spring is Coming

That's a view from my balcony about two weeks ago. Winter had decided January was not much fun to be around, but April was. Added nuisance factor or something. Though I love snow even in April.


That's the same view a few days ago. Lots of rain and rising temperatures really made the shots shoot, and then the sun decided to play along as well.


Heather in the snow.


Pansies in the sunshine.


Closeup of a violet I planted last week.


We call them Stiefmütterchen, little stepmothers, though I have no idea how such pretty flowers deserve a name associated with the bad girl from the fairy tales.
 


16 Apr 2008
  Vows and Secret Meetings - The History of Lippoldsberg Abbey, part 1

As usual, there had been an older building on the site of Lippoldsberg Abbey. Some time between 1051-56, archbishop Luitpold (Lippold) of Mainz founded Lippoldsberg and had the first wooden chapel built. I've mentioned before that the possesions of the archbishop of Mainz stretched from the Rhine all the way into Thuringia, and the Weser was one station on the way there, with a ford near the future Lippoldsberg. Luitpold bought the land from the monastery at Corvey, probably to ensure an unhindered passage on his 'own' lands all the way to Erfurt in Thuringia (today the county capital).

Lippoldsberg Church, view from the south, detail of the angle at the west tower

His successor Siegfried got deeply embroiled in the investiture controversy, the contest between the Emperor (notably Heinrich IV) and pope Gregory VII about the appointment of church officials and the overall role of the Church in relation to the secular power. A quarrel that found its way to England as well where Heinrich's namesake Henry I had his share of troubles with the Gregorian papacy.

The controversy would end with the Concordate of Worms 1122 which gave the Church more rights (for England, it was the Concordate of Westminster 1107), but right here we're still in the middle of the fun.

Choir with triple apse attached to nave and aisles, and transept behind

Archbishop Siegfried I of Mainz - who also was a prince of the realm - changed sides several time during the conflict, and managed to get excommunicated in the process (can we say oops?). He obviously did say 'oops, soory', because some time later we find him back in grace and member of the alliance against Heinrich IV. It didn't do Siegfried much good though, because he was taken prisoner by Heinrich in 1178 and spent the next four years in captivity.

The Chronicon of the Prioress Margaretha from 1151 mentions that Siegfried vowed to build a stone church in Lippoldsberg upon his release. He'd gotten better in keeping promises, because a new church, dedicated to St. George, was indeed built in 1082; some remains of foundations have been discovered during restoration work in 1966. The church got a nice amount of land and tithes as well.

View from the north side

In 1089, a lady's chapterhouse or nunnery was established. We can't be sure which one, though there are some arguments in favour of a chapterhouse. The difference between those and a nunnery was that the women, which were usually daughters and widows of noble birth, didn't take permanent vows so they could leave and marry if familiy politics required it. But as long as they lived in the monastery, they vowed chastity and obedience, and kept vigils the same way nuns did.

The Chronicon, based on fake chartes for this event, mentions an obscure Betto as founder, but it was most probably archbishop Ruthard of Mainz. Another charte dating between 1099 and 1101, the Oath of the Lippoldsberg Nuns, has been proven genuine. In this document the 25 nuns vow to live according to the Benedictine rules of Hirsau. It is signed not only by archbishop Ruthard, the abbess and the nuns, but also by a number of other leading ecclesiastic and secular princes. This is particularly interesting because the whole lot is known to have been opposed to Heinrich IV. There are no other documents about the meeting, but it was surely about more than witnessing a few nuns taking a vow of chastity.

West side with tower

Considering the fact that Bursfelde Abbey is only a few miles away, and the strong connections of Heinrich of Northeim with that place, one may wonder if the Count of Northeim was present and if he really had turned to the side of Heinrich IV or played double like his dad did on occasion. I'd like to get a list of the people who signed that document. ;)

Whatever plot against the Emperor - of the many he faced - was cooked up there, the event brought Lippoldsberg Abbey into the spotlight for a moment. After that, the place sank into obscurity until 1138.

Sources: The guide booklet about the history of Lippoldsberg Abbey Church and the official website.

Some interior shots can be seen here.
 


14 Apr 2008
  Romanesque Murals in Vernawahlshausen

I've mentioned that some villages in Germany have churches of great age and sometimes unexpected beauty. One of these can be found in a village called Vernawahlshausen (not only Wales has long names), built in early Romanesque style about 1100. It's a simple, rectangular building with no aisles. The half timbered tower was added in 1744.

Village Church Vernawahlshausen

The eastern part dates back to about 1100. It now holds the altar, but originally it was a choir with gross grain vault but no apse. There may have been an even older building, a chapel dedicated to St. Margarethe built by monks from Corvey, one of the great German monastic centres which had its roots in the Cluny tradition.

East wall; the oldest part of the building.

The church belonged to the Dukes of Braunschweig until 1296, then went to the Abbey of Lippoldsberg; and after the reformation in 1538, the patronship came to the landgraves of Hessen.

Descent from the Cross, Romanesque mural

When restoration work was done in 1955, some Gothic and Romanesque mural paintings were discovered which the Landgrave Moritz of Hessen, a stout Calvinist, had covered with a layer of white paint in the 17th century.

View into the altar room with the rediscovered murals

Fresco style murals can also be found in the nearby church of Bursfelde Abbey. (Edited 2016: Some of those have been refreshed; I took some new photos of them.)

Closeup of some Romanesque murals:
in the centre the archangel Michael, to the right two apostles

In 1589, the nave was expanded, and thereafter either a traveling painter, or a more or less talented guy from the village added some paintings on the sides of the gallery. Whoever did the job might have benefitted from some lessons in human anatomy. The snake looks pretty good, though.

Adam and Eve, Rennaissance painting

The vicar at that time - and as rumor has it, his wife in particular - thought his parishioners should not be exposed to such sinful paintings. Yes, you can see Eva's boobies. The offending pictures were painted over with white colour as well and have been rediscovered in 1955, together with the Romanesque murals in the choir.
 


10 Apr 2008
  British Country Style

Because it is such a pretty place, here's a photo of the B&B where I stayed in Corbridge: Hayes Guest House. They have a huge garden facing downhill towards the Tyne river. Just the place to sit and read on a sunny summer evening.


The weather displayed a strange pattern the first days: sunshine in the mornings, an overcast sky in the afternoons, and sun again in the evenings.
 


9 Apr 2008
  And order you to have made a good and strong gaol

In June 1330, William Melton Archbishop of York wrote the following letter to one Thomas Fox in Hexham:

‘William, by the Grace of God, Archbishop of York, to our beloved in Christ, Thomas Fox our receiver in Hexhamshire, greeting. We wish and order you to have made a good and strong gaol, in which our prisoners can be securely held and guarded and the expenses incurred in the building of this we will allow out of your account.’ (Borthwick Institute, Reg. 9A f.45, quote found on the official website of the Gaol)

The result can be seen here.

Old Gaol Hexham

Hexham Gaol was the first purpose-built prison in England. Before, prisons were rooms adapted from other buildings (I've mentioned prisoners were for example kept in Carlisle Castle, either the gatehouse or the keep).

The Archbishop of York ruled over Hexhamshire through his bailiff and other officials. Looks like it was an unruly place that he thought a decent prison was neccessary. Already in 1332 he wanted additional equipment for the gaol. His prisoners must have been Scots to have caused to much trouble. *grin*

‘William, by the Grace of God, Archbishop of York to our beloved master Robert de Bridelington, Steward of our lands, greeting. We wish and order you to repair our gaol at Hexham and to provide shackles, manacles, fetters and other items necessary to the repair of the gaol and the guarding of the prisoners. Wherefore we appoint John de Cawood, barber, bearer of these letters, sergeant of our manor and town of Hexham and keeper of the gaol. And we wish that you will allow the said John for his salary and expenses as was automany the sum of two pence a day.’ (Borthwick Institute, Reg. 9B. F.541)

So William got the lot chained up. Probably in the cellar where you can today see the dungeon by going down in a glass elevator. The chains and manacles are still there, plus some straw on the ground. Not very comfortable. The other three storeys were used for less troublesome, or more noble prisoners who demanded a somewhat better treatment, and as guardroom.

The gaol has been in use as such over the centuries and came to some fame during the time of the Border Reivers in the 16th century. They were basically a belligerent mix of robbers, feuding clans and guerrilla warriors along the Scottish / English border. I admit I don't know much about the Reivers besides what I saw in the exhibitions in Hexham and the Tullie House in Carlisle. Considering the high costs and bad exchange rates, I could not buy every book I wanted and had to forego getting one about the Reivers.

Those were very troubled times and the gaol used a lot. Though it wasn't that secure; there have been several escapes, either because of bribed guards or help from outside. One of the most famous was the one of Robert More in 1538. He was a priest who got on the wrong side of our friend Henry of the Many Wives who had just sacked the wealth of the Catholic Church. More was suspected to be a spy for the Scots - who were Catholics and in league with France - and incarcerated in Hexham Gaol. For some reason, maybe an outbreak of plague, the responsible officials were somewhere else, the guards went dining, and the gaol was promptly broken into by a 'band of outlaws', a feat that didn't prove difficult because the locks were rusty and none of the prisoners in irons. So More and a bunch of others took a night walk and forgot to return. The blame was laid on the Reivers, particularly because among the escapees were an Armstrong and two Dodd, notorious Reiver clans.

I don't know what Archbishop William would have said about that.

Moot Hall with gatehouse tower

The gaol was in use as prison until 1820 and then used for different functions until restoration began in 1973, and the building was made into a tourist attraction with a museum about the Reivers and exhibitions in the upper storeys.

Opposite the gaol stands the moot hall, a combination of the old bailiff's hall and a gatehouse tower which was added about 1400 as result of the constant threat by the Scottish armies. At first, the bailiff of the Archbishop of York held court in the hall, and later it was used as town hall for Hexham. Today, it is a place for art exhibitions.
 


7 Apr 2008
  Carlisle Castle and the Edwards

After some time of peace, Carlisle came back into the focus of politics and war during the reign of the three Edwards. Edward I - who ranks high on the Top Ten list of most unpopular persons in Scotland - used the succession quarrels after the death of Alexander III to claim the hegemony over Scotland. Of course, the Scots, or at least a number of important Scottish nobles with claims of their own, told him to slink off.

Edward I did the opposite and declared war upon Scotland. As answer, the Scots launched a surprise attack on Carlisle in May 1296. They didn't succeed to conquer the place, though, and neither did they in the second attempt after the Scottish victory at Stirling Bridge. But it brought the importance of Carlisle for the English back to attention.

Edward I used the castle as assembling point and storage stronghold, locked prisoners up in the keep, and spent some time in the castle himself. Around the time parliament met at Carlisle in 1306, Edward had a great hall for the king's household built in the inner bailey. He also added additional fortifications, re-cut the moats (not himself, of course, and I don't think he let his son do it much as Edward II loved digging ditches) and placed some springalds, giant crossbows, on the keep and western postern. The remains of the great hall and the king's appartements have been replaced by some smaller buildings in the 19th century.

Western postern on the battlements, facing the tower of the inner gate

Thus, Edward I left his son a well fortified castle, and Edward II used it as base for his Scottish war as well. But he lost the battle of Bannockburn in 1314 and returned to England, defeated and without even a shoulder to cry on since Piers was already dead and Hugh Despenser not yet his favourite.

Robert the Bruce lost no time to try and get his hands on Carlisle. The town held a garrison of 500 men commanded by Andrew de Harclay. Harclay seemed to have been a skilled commander, but it was the weather that caused the final result. It was a British summer like the one last year, rain, and rain, and more rain. When the Scots tried to dig mines under the castle walls, they filled with water, the assault towers got stuck in the mud, any material to fill the ditches swam away, and so even the Scots, as used to rainy summers as the English, had enough and retreated in early August 1315.

View from the battlements into the inner bailey

With the bad press Ed II had at that time, the unsuccessful siege of Carlisle was proclaimed a victory, and Harclay earned some very wet laurels. *grin* He started a military career and was created Earl of Carlisle after he defeated the rebel Thomas of Lancaster in the battle of Boroughbridge in 1322 (remember the unhappy fate of Roger de Clifford in that context). But Harclay had not much time to enjoy his new position. He got entangled in border politics with the Scots and less than a year later was summoned to court to answer charges of conspiracy. He failed to appear and King Edward sent a party of knights to arrest him. They caught Harclay in his room in the castle, and though proclaiming his innocence, Andrew de Harclay suffered the same traitor's death as Lancaster; he was hanged, drawn and quatered on Carlisle's Gallows Hill.

Ironically, the very truce de Harclay had conspired for was concluded between Edward II and the Scots only three months later. Quod licet Iovi ....

Edward II was disposed and murdered (or not?) in 1327, and a few years later his son, Edward III, made it clear to his mother that he'd reign without her and Roger de Mortimer now, thank you very much. Mortimer lost his head, while Isabella was retired with a handsome apanage. Edward III was a better general than is father and won most of his battles, among them Crécy and indirectly, through William la Zouche Archbishop of York, St. Neville's Cross, both in 1346.

View across inner bailey towards the battlements on the curtain wall

The king of the Scots at that time was David II. He spent several years in France because his nobles didn't like him (did Scottish nobles ever like their king?). A few years after his return, Philippe IV of France, fearing an English invasion - in fact, he had them already sitting round Calais - asked David under the conditions of the Auld Alliance to invade England in his turn, to keep them busy in the north.

David had all the military advantages on his side, but he blundered around in the borderlands and finally managed to take up a strategically bad position at St. Neville's Cross. After the English longbowmen lured the Scottish army to attack and thus made it split into smaller groups because of the terrain, the Scots proved an easy deal for the English. Several Scottish leaders fled and David got captured. He was brought to Calais, forced into negotiations with King Edward III and kept prisoner in various English castles until 1357 (Treaty of Berwick). He promised to pay a ransom which he never managed to scrape out of the impoverished land.

Edward III had last been to Carlisle Castle in 1335. After St. Neville's Cross, he and his successors concentrated on their interests in France. That time would later be called the Hundred Years War.
 


1 Apr 2008
  Aelius Rufus Does a Meme

I'll have to do something evil to Sam and Wynn who tagged me for a meme, lol. Since I'm tired of the things, I've asked Aelius Rufus to do it for me this time.

Four Jobs I've Had
I've had only one: soldier in the second Raetian cohors equitata. Maybe I'll get promoted to decurio some day.

Four Movies I could Watch Over and Over
Movies? You mean those theatre performances on a curtain Merlinus spoke about? There are some I'd like to see because I would get a good laugh out of them: Gladiator, King Arthur, The Last Legion.

Four People Who Email me Regularly
Don't know about email, but I do write to my father and he sometimes writes back. He can write you know, he's been in the Roman army for 25 years and got promoted to first decurio a few years before his retirement.

Four Shows That I Watch
Shows? You mean those mini theatre thingies you can watch in your insula? I've heard there is one about Roma that may be interesting, involving a lot of juicy scandals during the time of Caesar and the deified Augustus.

(Left: Another mural detail from the baths in Sege-dunum / Wallsend)

Four Places You'd Like to Be Right Now?
Back at our farm in the Raetian Alpes. Or have another trip to the future with Merlinus. Definitely not standing sentinel at the main gate in Arcataunum. It's raining. Again.

Four Favourite Foods
I like honey cakes with raisins, goat cheese with pepper and honey, fish in an egg and herb crust, and venison stew, though we get the latter way too seldom.

Four Places I Have Visited
Besides my 'home' fort in Germania and Mogunt-iacum, I've been to Britannia and seen the Wall and some places along it. There is talk that I may get a commission with the troops in Isca Silurnum in Britannia for a few months. It could be interesting if those Silures don't start another rebellion just then. I'd like to see Roma, but I think that'll have to wait until retirement.

Four Events I'm Looking Forward to This Year
The Saturnalia, and the games with the garrisons of some other Limes forts. And hopefully we'll get a new praefectus castrorum this year; he can't be worse than the one we have right now. Oh, and I'm looking forward to the day Tullius Ferrarius will finally get caught with his grubby paws in the money chest of our burial funds.

I'm supposed to tag five people, whatever that means. Hm, if I could get Merlinus to do it, that would be fun. Is there anyone who knows where those druid guys hang out when they're not time traveling?
 


  Aelius Rufus Visits the Future - The Baths of Segedunum

We left the tower and went to the bath house, the one truly Roman looking feature on what Merlinius called 'the site'; obviously a modern word for the places where they'd dug out our walls and some terra sigillata. The baths were modeled after the ones in Cilurnum where quite a lot of walls had been found, Merlinus explained. People in the future were pretty interested in Roman baths.

Baths at Segedunum, details of the wall paint

"Don't they have any baths these days?" Gaius asked.

"They do," Merlinus said, "but they have only tubs and something they call showers in their insulae, and public indoor and outdoor swimming pools in most towns. Some also have what is called a sauna, a bit like the laconicum, the hot dry room. It is considered bad manners to stink."

"So, even the barbarians at the Wall have adopted baths?"

Merlinus nodded.

Gaius grinned and slapped my shoulder. "See, Roma has conquered them in the end, and taught them civilization."

Fountain in the tepidarium, the warm room

We went through the changing room (the apodyterium) into the frigidarium, the cold bath. Pity we could not really use it but with all those tourists around, it might not have been much fun. I did not want to appear on those camera thingies wearing nothing. Not that I'm ashamed of my body which is in very good shape, but the sight of nude men always makes the girls giggle.

We strolled over to the tepidarium, the warm room, complete with fountain and some very blue paint. Merlinus muttered something about a "vain attempt to recreate the sky over Rome, which is often veiled by all that smoke anyway." There were no slaves who'd scrap the bathers' skin with scented oil, and I wondered if people used electricity for that in the future like with the cranes.

Hot bath, caldarium

There was water in the caldarium, the hot bath, but obviously not really hot since the steam so common in this room was missing. Though we learned that the baths were fully functional with a Roman underfloor steam heating system heated by furnaces outside the building.

In one wall we found a niche with a little statue of the fertility goddess Ceres holding a bundle of wheat gleans. It was rather crudely made.

"I wonder how that guy received the status of immunis," I said. "Anyone can slab some paint on a figure like that."

"Maybe he was the best they could find, or he knew someone who knew someone. You know how it works," Gaius replied.

Wall niche with goddess figurine

The immunes were soldiers exempt from some of the more tedious duties like guard service, because they had special skills. Among them were drill sergeants, artisans, clerks and the medical orderlies. Some brought their skills because of their background, but others like weapons instructors or cavalry troopers - the legionary ones, not the auxiliary - received training as discens before they got promoted. Officially, they didn't receive extra payment, but bribery was pretty common.
 




The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, and central / eastern Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, geologically themed hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.

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Location: Goettingen, Germany

I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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Castles

Alnwick
Malcolm III and the First Battle of Alnwick

Carlisle
Introduction
Henry II and William of Scotland
The Edwards

Richmond
From the Conquest to King John
From Henry III to the Tudors
The Architecture

Scarborough
From the Romans to the Tudors
From the Civil War to the Present
The Architecture

Churches and Cathedrals

Hexham Abbey
Introduction

York Minster
Architecture


Scotland

Towns

Edinburgh
Views from the Castle

Stirling
The Wallace Monument

Castles

Doune
A Virtual Tour of the Castle
The Early Stewart Kings
Royal Dower House, and Decline

Duart
Guarding the Sound of Mull

Dunstaffnage
An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
The Wars of Independence
The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

Stirling
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle

Abbeys and Churches

Inchcolm Abbey
Arriving at Inchcolm

Other Historical Sites

Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort
Staffa

Pre-Historic Orkney
Ring of Brodgar - Introduction
Ring of Brodgar - The Neolithic Landscape
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae


Wales

Towns

Aberystwyth
Castle and Coast

Caerleon
The Ffwrwm

Conwy
The Smallest House in Great Britain

Castles

Beaumaris
The Historical Context
The Architecture

Caernarfon
Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

Cardiff
From the Romans to the Victorians

Chepstow
Beginnings unto Bigod
From Edward II to the Tudors
Civil War, Restoration, and Aftermath

Conwy
The History of the Castle
The Architecture

Criccieth
Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings

Manorbier
The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

Pembroke
Pembroke Pictures
The Caves Under the Castle


Norway

Towns

Oslo
The Fram Museum in Oslo

Castles and Fortresses

Arkershus Fortress in Oslo
Introduction
Akershus at the Time of King Håkon V
Architectural Development

Vardøhus Fortress
Defending the North for Centuries


Sweden

Towns

Stockholm
The Vasa Museum

Historical Landscapes

Gotland
Gnisvärd Ship Setting


Finland

Towns

Porvoo
Tour through the Mediaeval Town


Russia

Towns

St. Petersburg
Isaac's Cathedral
Smolny Cathedral
Impressions from the The Neva River


Lithuania

Historical Landscapes

The Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit


Poland

Towns

Gdańsk / Danzig
The History of Gdańsk
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval and Renaissance Danzig

Wrocław / Breslau
The Wrocław Dwarfs


Czech Republic

Towns

Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
Brief History of the Town

Kutná Hora
The Sedlec Ossuary


Belgium

Towns

Antwerp
The Old Town

Bruges
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Bruges

Ghent
A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Ghent

Tongeren
Roman and Mediaeval Remains


Luxembourg

Towns

Luxembourg City
A Virtual Tour of the Town


France

Towns

Strasbourg
A Virtual Tour of the Town








Historia
Loci Amoeni et Geologia

Roman History

- Germania
- Britannia

Mediaeval History

- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Norway
- Sweden
- Russia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Bohemia
- Luxembourg

Other Times
Miscellanea


Roman History

Roman Militaria

Armour
Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapons
Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum
Daggers
Swords

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles

Life and Religion

Religion
The Mithras Cult
Isis Worship
Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots

Public Life
Roman Transport - Barges
Roman Transport - Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Miscellaneous
Legend of Alaric's Burial


Germania
(Including Gallia Belgica and Raetia)

Wars and Frontiers

Maps
Romans in Germania

Traces of the Pre-Varus Conquest
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn
Introduction

Along the Limes
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg

Rebellions
The Batavian Rebellion


Britannia

Roman Frontiers in Britain

The Hadrian's Wall
Introduction
The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend


Mediaeval History

Feudalism

The History of Feudalism
The Beginnings
Feudalism in the 10th Century

Essays about Specific Topics
The Privilege of the deditio
A Note on handgenginn maðr

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings

Essays about Specific Topics
Examples of Brick Architecture
Stockfish Trade

The Order of the Teutonic Knights

Wars and Battles
The Conquest of Danzig
The Siege of Vilnius 1390


Germany

Geneaology

List of Mediaeval German Emperors

Geneaologies
Anglo-German Marriage Connections
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors

Kings and Emperors

The Salian Dynasty
King Heinrich IV

House Welf and House Staufen
Emperor Otto IV, Introduction

Biographies

Princes
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto of Northeim
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Famous Feuds

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War - Introduction
The Star Wars


England

Royal Biographies

King Henry IV
King Henry's Lithuanian Crusade

Normans, Britons, Angevins

Great Fiefs - The Honour of Richmond
The Dukes of Brittany and the Honour of Richmond
The Earldom of Richmond and the Duchy of Brittany

Contested Borders

Northumbria
King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


Scotland

Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War, Part 1
King David and the Civil War, Part 2

Houses Bruce and Stewart
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle
The Early Stewart Kings

Scottish Nobles and their Quarrels

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding


Wales

Welsh Princes

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

Rebels

A History of Rebellion
From Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Norway

The Kings of Norway

Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

A Time of Feuds

Famous Nobles and their Feuds
Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Sweden

Troubles and Alliances

Scandinavian Unity
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union


Russia

The History of St.Petersburg
(to come)


Lithuania

The Teutonic Knights in Lithuania

The Northern Crusades
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

Lithuanian Princes

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas


Poland

The Teutonic Knights in Poland

The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
The Conquest of Danzig

Royal Dynasties

The Jagiełłonian Kings
Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union


Bohemia
(Including Silesia and Moravia)

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
(to come)


Luxembourg

The Counts of Luxembourg
(to come)


Other Times

Neolithicum to Iron Age

Germany

European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Scandinavia and Orkney

Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Scandinavia
Ship Setting on Gotland

Post-Mediaeval History

Discoveries
Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

Explorers
Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

European Nobility
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus


Miscellanea

History in Literature and Music

History in Literature

Biographies of German Poets and Writers
Theodor Fontane

Historical Ballads by Theodor Fontane (my translation)
Archibald Douglas
Gorm Grymme
Sir Walter Scott in Abbotsford
The Tragedy of Afghanistan

History in Opera

Belcanto and Historicism
Maria Padilla - Mistress Royal
The Siege of Calais in Donizetti's Opera

Not so Serious History

Romans
Building Hadrian's Wall
Playmobil Romans

Mediaeval Times
Kings Having a Bad Hair Day
The Case of the Vanished Wine Cask

Other
Rules for Writing Scottish Romances
Tourist Kitsch in St.Petersburg


- Geological Landscapes
-
Germany
- United Kingdom
- Scandinavia
- Baltic Sea


Geological Landscapes

The Baltic Sea
Geology of the Curonian Spit
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

The Harz
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in the Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations

Solling-Vogler
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

The Shores of Scotland
Staffa

Stones and Bones
Fossilized Ammonites
The Loket Meteorite


Beautiful Germany

The Baltic Sea Coast
The Flensburg Firth
Rugia - Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
Rugia - Seaside Ressort Binz
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
Oderteich Reservoir
Rappbode Reservoir
Views from Harz mountains

Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Hessian Switzerland

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
The Hutewald Forest
The Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Thuringian Forests
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

Rivers and Lakes
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
The Moselle
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut
Weser River Ferry
Weser Skywalk

Parks and Palaces
Botanical Garden Göttingen
Hardenberg Castle Gardens
Wilhelmsthal Palace and Gardens

Wildlife
Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life

Seasons
Spring at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Spring in the Rossbach Heath (Meissner)
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Winter Wonderland - Views from my Balcony


Across the Channel - United Kingdom

Mountains and Valleys
West Highland Railway

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains - Inverness to John o'Groats
Some Photos from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull - Craignure to Fionnphort
Pentland Firth
Castles Seen from Afar (Dunollie and Kilchurn)
Staffa
Summer Days in Oban
Summer Nights in Oban

Wild Wales - With Castles
Views of Snowdownia
Views from Castle Battlements

Wildlife
Sea Gulls


Land of Light and Darkness - Scandinavia

The Hurtigruten-Tour / Norway
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Wildlife
Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord


Shores of History -
The Baltic Sea


A Baltic Sea Cruise

The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
Beaches at the Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit



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