The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times


29 Jan 2009
  The Centurion Found the Stones

And poor Gaius Numerius and Quintus Didius are back at work.

The wine has not been found, but an investigation about the illegal trade of Roman weapons has been started. It could take some time, though, and the culprits will most likely be back in Rome by then and produce some evidence supported by high ranking patrons that they never did anything wrong.

As far as I know, the Roman army was the only one that regularly tasked the soldiers with building forts and border defenses or constructing roads. They also never entrusted the auxiliaries with those jobs. Made by Romans meant something back then. :)

Copyright of the comic unidentified.
 


26 Jan 2009
  Building the Wall

The Hadrian's Wall between Housesteads and Birdoswald counts as the most scenic part, though I doubt the Roman soldiers who built the Wall had an eye for the landscape. For them, it was difficult terrain in an alien country.

For some reason, the guys had taken a liking to olive tree groves, vineyards and sunshine, not to mists and windswept mountains. ;)

Housesteads, view from Vircovicium fortress

"It's raining, it's cold, we're out of stones and the centurion is in a mean mood because his local girlfriend kicked him out. Why did I join the army again?"

"Erm, regular pay, health insurance and retirement funds?"

"Health insurance? That damn medicus told me I only have a cold and I'm not sick. And the pay was late twice because the Selgovae keep attacking the escort. Next time they'll tell us to walk to Eboracum and get it ourselves; wait and see."

"Don't worry, Gaius Numerius, once we're done with this bloody wall, we'll get stationed elsewhere. Aegypt or Spain, maybe."

"With our luck it will be the German Limes. Another place full of rain and savages. And trees." (*)

Housesteads (not the original heigth, but you can see how broad the wall was)

Centurion marches up to them. " Gaius Numerius, Quintus Didius, why are you lazy sods sitting around? There's work to be done!"

"There are no more stones, centurion."

"Damn, what twit of a civilian in the staff has messed up this time? The whole useless lot should be sent to the arena as fodder for the lions, it would be the one useful thing they did in their life."

Near Walltown Crags (the line on the ridge of the hill is the wall)

"Centurion, it gets worse. The last wine delivery is missing as well, and some of those sleazy looking tribal warriors with those funny beards carry knives and spears that look suspiciouly like our manufacture ware."

"What?!" Centurion bangs hand on wall. "Ouw. Gaius Numerius, are you saying that someone is selling army equipment to the enemy?"

"I'm not saying anything. I'm just telling what I've seen. Don't want to get into trouble."

"Don't worry. Someone else will get into trouble this time. Get back to your tent, there's no use sitting out here in the rain. But ... as soon as I've found those damn stones, I want to see some very busy legionaries."

"Aye."

One of the Walltown Crags

Centurion leaves.

"What's that, did Titus Merula's girlfriend move back in?"

"I don't know. But let me tell you something, Gaius Numerius. There's one thing a centurion loves more than rasing hell for us legionaries."

"And what, Quintus Didius?"

"Raising hell for the civilian staff."

Wall at Birdoswald

"I hope he'll find the missing wine as well, not only those damn stones."

"He will, believe me."

"Yeah, in the bellies of the staff and the tribunes. Spoiled brats, the lot."

"That they are. Well, let's follow orders and get inside, Gaius Numerius. There should be some beer left. And boar roast."

"Knowing our cook and his love for indigenous food, we'll end up with lukewarm cervisia and boar in mint sauce."

Mile castle near Birdoswald, view towards the fortress (to the left)

* Gaius Numerius is mistaken, of course. There are not only trees in Germania; we do have some vineyards as well.

And our beer is definitely not lukewarm. :)
 


22 Jan 2009
  The Caledonians Are Coming!

Today the view from the remains of a fortress tower or mile castle along the Hadrian's Wall shows a peaceful scenery.

View from the ruins of a mile castle near Birdoswald

Back when the towers still stood proud, a Roman sentinel on guard service may have seen something else.

Damn, not another bunch of those ill tempered Caledonian Celts!

Exhibition at Birdoswald fortress

Hm, looks like they got some reinforcements from the continent. Some of those guys are really blond. Or is that our Batavian auxiliary? You never know what side they are on.*

Miniatures; Roman Army Museum

Some poor sod must have lost his sword. If the centurion sees all that rust, the guy will be in big trouble.

Roman sword; Roman Army Museum

And that's what is left behind today. A wall to keep the tourists and their money in.

Remains of the Hadrian's Wall near Birdoswald

* To be just, the Batavians were on the Roman side most of the time, except for that one big mutiny in 69 AD.

Not traveling around in the dark months of winter has its advantages; I finally manage to post some of my older photos. I take too many, that's the problem. ;)
 


19 Jan 2009
  Roman Weapons

Since I came back from my visit to the Saalburg fortress in 2007 with a lot of photos; I got some more for you. How about a few sharp and pointy toys for the big boys?


Roman swords of the gladius type, with metal (to the left below) and bone (upper rows left) sheath mountings, and sword strap buckles (to the right).


A spatha, a Roman cavalry sword. Those were longer than the gladius type and used to fight from horseback. In the later Empire, the spatha began to replace the gladius even for the infantry.


Spears and javelins, partly reconstructed. Nothing tops the Roman pilum, lol.

Btw, I found our friend Aelius Rufus. He was hanging out in the Leisure Centre in Caerleon, but I've dragged him home.
 


16 Jan 2009
  Roman Pottery

I'm not a specialist in Roman pottery, but I've seen enough of it to get an image what a Roman table may have looked like. I've also eaten from the replica of Roman tableware in restaurants that serve Roman dishes. Which make for some interesting taste experiences, but that's another topic. (And no, stuffed dormouse was not on the menu, lol.)

The terra sigillata style Roman pottery was a mass product; shards of it can be found pretty much everywhere the Romans stayed for longer than an hour, and trade spread it even outside the spheres of Roman influence.

Some terra sigillata (Saalburg Museum)

What struck me as an interesting variation when I visited the museum in the Saalburg Fortress was another shelf with larger pots which were decorated with faces. I filed them under the Odd Things Roman category and pretty much forgot about them. Until I today came across a post in Adrian Murdoch's Bread and Circuses blog, linking to an obituary of Jill Braithwaite, an archaeologist specialising in those face pots.

Face pots can be found all over the Roman empire in the wake of the movements of the army. The Saalburg displays are finds from the area. Turns out they have nothing to do with food storage (like the amphorae also displayed in the museum).

Face pots (Saalburg Museum)

Obviously, at least some of those pots are connected with cremation burials. Sometimes, remains of human cremations have been found, and some pots were clearly located in cemeteries. The tradition stems from Italian burials where a number of pots display the face of Charon. It seems that the types of faces, often leering and grotesque, became more variable with further distribution, and local styles developed.

Another interesting aspect Mrs Braithwaite was exploring is the discovery that the style of those pots did not disappear from an area after the army left but lingered on in the civilian settlements. Someone else will now have to research this aspect further.
 


10 Jan 2009
  Winter Wonderland - Views from my Balcony

This post is a collection of several winter posts with photos taken from my balcony, because I love me some snow (and hoarfrost).

Hoarfrost on the famous tree in front of my balcony

The temperatures demonstrated how far they can get down when they really want. The record was -24°C on the night to Tuesday. And I seem to be the only one to like such temperatures, lol.

View from the kitchen window

We got a bit snow, too. I took a few pics when it fell at night. The ones I took with a flash make the snow flakes sparkle; it's a very pretty effect.

Snowfall at night

It's not enough for skiing, though. There is more snow in the Harz, but since I only have the weekends to myself these days, and the Harz is overrun by tourists who can't drive in winter, I haven't been there yet.

Snow on my balcony

It's still very cold. It makes you wonder how people in pre-central heating times coped with winters like this. Those castles must have been freezing cold - the fireplaces were not enough to warm the large halls, though maybe the cooks were happy. Alianore has a post about some cold winters during the time of Edward II.

Trees in the garden after sunset

According to the forecast, the cold will stay with us a bit longer. Some more snow would be nice, of course, but you can't have everything. It's a lot more winter than I got those last years, and I missed it.

View from my balcony a few minutes ago

Inside, it's nice and warm, the candles are burning and I got some hot tea and ginger cake. The writing still goes reasonably well though not at Nano speed. And of course, there are plotholes you can drive a truck through which I now have to fill in.

Snow on the winter plants on my balcony

Advent time with snow; a rare thing in Germany. The flip side of this time is that the town is always crowded with people and grocery shopping is even less fun than the rest of the year.

With the new year (2010), the winter has come to Germany with snow and temperatures of minus 10°C -15°C during the nights and still below zero during the days.

Fluffy stuff

The pretty pillows in the foreground are some of my potted heather. Yep, we got a nice amount of the white fluff this time, and more is to come next weekend, hopefully.

My balcony again

My balcony is somewhat sheltered by the balcony above, but some snow found its way inside to powder my conifers.

Gardens in the snow

The summer gardens in the Leine valley offer a beautiful view from my balcony all year round. Now they are snowed in - let's hope for some time. Rainy winters are so dreary.
 


5 Jan 2009
  Autumn at the Werra / Weser

Autumn is my favourite season, and it has truly arrived here. Not only with the flame coloured leaves and melancholical mists, but also with storms and rain, and the first hoarfrosts.

The Werra, linguistically the same as the Weser (the Roman Visurgis), is another of those typical German rivers surrounded by mountains and fertile plains where the valley widens. It runs through Thuringia and northern Hessia, the ancient land of the Chatti. Like most German rivers, its main direction is south to north to either the Baltic or the North Sea (the Werra / Weser runs into the North Sea).

Werra river in the autumn sun

It is an area rich in history as well, all the way back to the Roman camp in Hedemünden close to where the Werra confluences with the Fulda and is then called Weser.

View from the Hanstein

A view from Hanstein Castle overlooking the Werra. I love the warm colours and the soft haze that veils the distant views, the promise of winter in the crisp air. It's a time of melancholy and poems, of breathing more slowly and deeply, of being aware of time.

Werra river with limestone cliffs

The dramatic cliffs in the background are shellbearing limestone, carved out by the river during thousands of years.

Another view of the cliffs

The place is called 'Werra's Knee', a bend in the river near town and castle Creuzburg (another castle connected with the landgraves of Thuringia - and another one on my increasing list of Posts to Write If I Can Find the Time).

Creuzburg Castle in the evening sun

The Creuzburg is an intact (partly reconstructed, of course) castle that today houses a hotel and restaurant. It has a different atmosphere than those splendid ruins so abundant in Germany, but at least it survived by being in use over time.

A reconstructed Medieaval boat on the Werra

We came across this reconstructed merchant vessel in the Schlagd, the old harbour of Wanfried. The Schlagd of Wanfried was a change harbour where goods from the ships were loaded upon pack animals and wagons for further transportation.

Old guest house at the Schlagd in Wanfried

Today a nice little town on the border between Hessia and Thuringia, Wanfried was involved in several feuds in the Midde Ages.

Hawthorne

The photos below are from the part of the river known as Weser, after it confluences with the Fulda in Hannoversch-Münden.

Meadows and woods at the Weser

The fields are plown, the winter wheat starting to sprout. Red and yellow leaves rustle in a breeze still warm with memories of summer.

An old orchard

Grazings and orchards down at the river, woodcovered mountains, haze-veiled, rising behind.

Sunset

I love to just sit and watch the dark waters flow by and the sun vanish behind the hills. And I think maybe Arminius has sat here as well, finding a moment of peace.

Westwork of Bursfelde Abbey

Traces of the past: the the west towers of the Romanesque abbey church in Bursfelde, surrounded by some former abbey buildings.

A river of history and myth

The leaves begin to turn yellow and red, and on a hazy day, a golden shimmer lies over the woods. We've had the first autumn gale that sent the leaves dancing and the crows swirling towards the town with angry croaks. Mists veil the valleys in the morning, and the air smells of wet leaves and coming frost.

Woods at the Weser

It is my favourite time of the year. Somehow I always wax a lot more poetic when describing fall than spring. Maybe it's the gentle melancholy of this time that responds to my mood, the muted light and warm colours.

A hidden lake

Of course there are other days, too, days of what one website called Varus weather. Torrential rains and icy blasts that make the ground slippery and bend the branches. Days where you want to stay inside with a cup of hot tea and listen to the rain drops singing on the window panes
 




The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, and central / eastern Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.


This blog is non-commercial.

All texts and photos (if no other copyright is noted) are copyright of Gabriele Campbell.

GDPR Privacy Policy
Contact


My Photo
Name:
Location: Goettingen, Germany

I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
(See here for Archives for mobile devices)



Anchor links lead to the respective sub-category in the sidebar

Roman Remains
- Germany
- Belgium and France
- Great Britain

Mediaeval and Other Places
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Finland
- Russia
- Estonia
- Latvia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Czech Republic
- Belgium
- Luxembourg
- France

Hiking Tours and Cruises
- Germany
- United Kingdom
- Scandinavia
- Baltic Sea


Roman Remains

Germany

Traces of a Failed Conquest

Romans at Lippe and Ems
Roman Exhibitions, Haltern am See
Varus Statue, Haltern am See

Romans at the Weser
The Roman Camp at Hedemünden

The Limes and its Forts

Aalen
The Cavalry Fort - Barracks

Osterburken
The Discovery
The Cohort castellum
The Annex Fort
The Garrisons

Saalburg
Introduction
Main Gate
Shrine of the Standards

Temples and Memorials
Mithras Altars in Germania

Romans at Rhine and Moselle

The Villa Rustica in Wachenheim
Introduction
Baths and Toilets
The Cellar

Roman villae at the Moselle
The Villa Urbana in Longuich

Roman Towns

Augusta Treverorum (Trier)
The Amphitheatre
The Aula Palatina
The Imperial Baths
The Porta Nigra
The Roman Bridge

Baudobriga (Boppard)
From Settlement to Fortress

Colonia Ulpia Traiana (Xanten)
History of the Town
The Amphitheatre in Birten

Moguntiacum (Mainz)
The Temple of Isis and Mater Magna


Belgium and France

Roman Towns

Atuatuca Tungrorum (Tongeren)
Roman Remains in Tongeren


Great Britain

Frontiers and Fortifications

The Hadrian's Wall
Introduction
Building the Wall

Wall Forts - Banna (Birdoswald)
The Dark Age Timber Halls

Wall Forts - Segedunum (Wallsend)
Museum, Viewing Tower and Foundations
The Baths

Signal Stations
The Signal Station at Scarborough

Temples and Memorials
The Mithraeum of Brocolita
A Roman Memorial Stone

Roman Towns

Eboracum (York)
Bath in the Fortress
Multiangular Tower

The Romans in Wales

Roman Forts - Isca (Caerleon)
The Amphitheatre
The Baths in the Legionary Fort


Mediaeval and Other Places

Germany

- Towns
- Castles
- Abbeys and Churches
- Reconstructed Sites / Museums

Towns

Braunschweig
Medieaval Braunschweig
Lion Benches in the Castle Square
The Quadriga

Erfurt
Mediaeval Erfurt

Goslar
Mediaeval Goslar

Heiligenstadt
St.Martin's Church
St.Mary's Church

Lübeck
St. Mary's Church, Introduction

Magdeburg
Magdeburg Cathedral
St.Mary's Abbey - An Austere Archbishop
St.Mary's Abbey - Reformation to Reunion

Paderborn
Mediaeval Paderborn

Quedlinburg
Mediaeval Quedlinburg
The Chapter Church

Speyer
The Cathedral: Architecture
Cathedral: Richard Lionheart in Speyer
Jewish Ritual Bath

Stralsund
The Harbour

Treffurt
A Walk through the Town

Wismar
The Old Harbour

Xanten
Mediaeval Xanten
The Gothic House

Castles

Brandenburg (Thuringia)
The Double Castle
Role of the Castle in Thuringian History

Coburg Fortress (Bavaria)
The History of the Fortress
The Architecture

Ebersburg (Harz Mountains)
Power Base of the Thuringian Landgraves
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Architecture

Hanstein (Thuringia)
Introduction
Otto of Northeim
Heinrich the Lion and Otto IV
The Next Generations

Hardenberg (Lower Saxony)
Introduction
Hardenberg Castle Gardens

Harzburg (Harz Mountains)
The Harzburg and Otto IV

Hohnstein (Harz Mountains)
Origins of the Counts of Hohnstein
The Family Between Welfen and Staufen
A Time of Feuds (14th-15th century)

Kugelsburg (Hessia)
The Counts of Everstein
Troubled Times
War and Decline

Plesse (Lower Saxony)
Rise and Fall of the Counts of Winzenburg
The Lords of Plesse
Architecture / Decline and Rediscovery

Regenstein (Harz Mountains)
Introduction
The Time of Henry the Lion

Scharzfels (Harz Mountains)
Introduction
History

Wartburg (Thuringia)
A Virtual Tour

Weidelsburg (Hessia)
The History of the Castle
The Architecture
The Castle After the Restoration

Smaller Castles / Hidden Treasures

Castles in the Harz Mountains
Stauffenburg

Castles in Northern Hessia
Grebenstein
Reichenbach
Sichelnstein
Sababurg and Trendelburg

Castles in Lower Saxony
Adelebsen Castle: The Keep
Grubenhagen: A Border Castle
Hardeg Castle: The Great Hall
Salzderhelden: A Welfen Seat

Castles at the Weser
Bramburg: River Reivers
Krukenburg: Castle and Chapel
Castle Polle: An Everstein Seat

Castles in Thuringia
Altenstein at the Werra
Castle Normanstein: Introduction
Castle Scharfenstein

Abbeys and Churches

Bursfelde Abbey
The Early History

Helmarshausen Monastery
Remains of the Monastery
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion

Königslutter Cathedral
The Exterior Decorations

Lippoldsberg Abbey
The Early History
The Interior of the Church

Walkenried Monastery
From Monastery to Museum

Hidden Treasures

Early Mediaeval Churches
Göllingen Monastery: Traces of Byzantine Architecture
Lorsch Abbey: The Carolingian Gate Hall

Churches in the Harz Mountains
Pöhlde Monastery: The Remaining Church
Steinkirche (Scharzfeld): Development of the Cave Church

Churches in Lower Saxony
Wiebrechtshausen: Nunnery and Ducal Burial

Churches at the Weser
Fredelsloh Chapter Church
Vernawahlshausen: Mediaeval Murals

Reconstructed Sites / Museums

Palatine Seat Tilleda
The Defenses

Viking Settlement Haithabu
Haithabu and the Archaeological Museum Schleswig
The Nydam Ship

Open Air Museums
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Post-Mediaeval Sites
Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg


England

Towns

Chester
Roman and Medieaval Chester

Hexham
The Abbey - Introduction
The Old Gaol

York
Clifford Tower
The Guild Hall
The Minster - Architecture
Monk Bar Gate and Richard III Museum
Museum Gardens
The Old Town
Along the Ouse River

Castles

Alnwick
Malcolm III and the First Battle of Alnwick

Carlisle
Introduction
Henry II and William of Scotland
Edward I to Edward III

Richmond
From the Conquest to King John
From Henry III to the Tudors
The Architecture

Scarborough
From the Romans to the Tudors
From the Civil War to the Present
The Architecture


Scotland

Towns

Edinburgh
Views from the Castle

Stirling
The Wallace Monument

Castles

Doune
A Virtual Tour of the Castle
The Early Stewart Kings
Royal Dower House, and Decline

Duart
Guarding the Sound of Mull

Dunstaffnage
An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
The Wars of Independence
The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

Stirling
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle

Abbeys and Churches

Inchcolm Abbey
Arriving at Inchcolm

Other Historical Sites

Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort
Staffa

Pre-Historic Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae


Wales

Towns

Aberystwyth
Castle and Coast

Caerleon
The Ffwrwm

Conwy
The Smallest House in Great Britain

Castles

Beaumaris
The Historical Context
The Architecture

Caernarfon
Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

Cardiff
From the Romans to the Victorians

Chepstow
Beginnings unto Bigod
From Edward II to the Tudors
Civil War, Restoration, and Aftermath

Conwy
The History of the Castle
The Architecture

Criccieth
Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings

Manorbier
The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

Pembroke
Pembroke Pictures
The Caves Under the Castle


Denmark

Towns

Copenhagen
To come


Norway

Towns

Oslo
The Fram Museum in Oslo

Castles and Fortresses

Arkershus Fortress in Oslo
Introduction
Akershus at the Time of King Håkon V
Architectural Development

Vardøhus Fortress
Defending the North for Centuries


Sweden

Towns

Stockholm
The Vasa Museum

Historical Landscapes

Gotland
Gnisvärd Ship Setting


Finland

Towns

Porvoo
Mediaeval Porvoo


Russia

Towns

St. Petersburg
Isaac's Cathedral
Smolny Cathedral
Impressions from the The Neva River


Estonia

Towns

Tallinn
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Latvia

Towns

Riga
The History of Mediaeval Riga


Lithuania

Historical Landscapes

The Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit


Poland

Towns

Gdańsk / Danzig
The History of Mediaeval Gdańsk
Mediaeval and Renaissance Gdańsk

Wrocław / Breslau
The Botanical Garden
The Wrocław Dwarfs


Czech Republic

Towns

Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
Brief History of the Town

Kutná Hora
The Sedlec Ossuary


Belgium

Towns

Antwerp
The Old Town

Bruges
Mediaeval Bruges

Ghent
Mediaeval Ghent

Tongeren
Roman and Mediaeval Remains


Luxembourg

Towns

Luxembourg City
A Tour of the Town


France

Towns

Strasbourg
A Tour of the Town


Hiking Tours and Cruises

Germany

The Baltic Sea Coast
The Flensburg Firth
Rugia - Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
Rugia - Seaside Ressort Binz
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
Oderteich Reservoir
Rappbode Reservoir
Views from Harz mountains

Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Hessian Switzerland

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
The Hutewald Forest
The Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Thuringian Forests
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

Rivers and Lakes
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
The Moselle
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut
Weser River Ferry
Weser Skywalk

Wildlife
Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life

Seasons
Spring in the Botanical Garden Göttingen
Spring at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Spring in the Rossbach Heath (Meissner)
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Winter Wonderland - Views from my Balcony


United Kingdom

Mountains and Valleys
West Highland Railway

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains - Inverness to John o'Groats
Some Photos from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull - Craignure to Fionnphort
Pentland Firth
Castles Seen from Afar (Dunollie and Kilchurn)
Staffa
Summer Days in Oban
Summer Nights in Oban

Wild Wales - With Castles
Views of Snowdownia
Views from Castle Battlements

Wildlife
Sea Gulls


Scandinavia

The Hurtigruten-Tour / Norway
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Wildlife
Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord


The Baltic Sea

A Baltic Sea Cruise

The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
Beaches at the Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit






Roman History
General Essays

Provinces
- Germania
- Gallia Belgica
- Britannia

Mediaeval History
General Essays

By Country
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Livonia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Bohemia

Other Times
- Prehistoric Times
- Post-Mediaeval History
-
Miscellanea
- Geology


Roman History

General Essays

The Romans at War

Forts and Fortifications
Exercise Halls
Mile Castles and Watch Towers
Soldiers' Living Quarters
Cavalry Barracks

Roman Militaria

Armour
Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapons
Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum
Daggers
Swords

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles

Life and Religion

Religion
The Mithras Cult
Isis Worship
Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms

Public Life
Roman Transport - Barges
Roman Transport - Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots

Miscellaneous Essays

The Legend of Alaric's Burial


Germania

Wars and Frontiers

Maps
Romans in Germania

Traces of the Pre-Varus Conquest
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn
Introduction

Along the Limes
The Cavalry Fort Aalen
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg


Gallia Belgica

The Batavians

The Batavian Rebellion
A Short Introduction


Britannia

Roman Frontiers in Britain

The Hadrian's Wall
Introduction
The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend


Mediaeval History

General Essays

Mediaeval Art and Craft

Mediaeval Art
Carved Monsters
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Medieaval Craftmanship
Goldsmithery
Medical Instruments

Mediaeval Warfare

Mediaeval Weapons
Swords
Trebuchets

Castles and Fortifications
Dungeons and Oubliettes

Essays about Specific Topics

Feudalism

The History of Feudalism
The Beginnings
Feudalism in the 10th Century

Privileges and Special Relationships
The Privilege of the deditio
A Note on handgenginn maðr

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings

Hanesatic Architecture
Examples of Brick Architecture

Goods and Trade
Stockfish Trade

The Order of the Teutonic Knights

Wars and Battles
The Conquest of Danzig
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

The Vikings

Viking Ships
The Nydam Ship


Germany

Geneaology

List of Mediaeval German Emperors

Geneaologies
Anglo-German Marriage Connections
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors

Kings and Emperors

The Salian Dynasty
King Heinrich IV

House Welf and House Staufen
Emperor Otto IV, Introduction

Princes and Lords

Princes
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto of Northeim
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Famous Feuds

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War - Introduction
The Star Wars


England

Kings of England

King Henry IV
King Henry's Lithuanian Crusade

Normans, Britons, Angevins

Great Fiefs - The Honour of Richmond
The Dukes of Brittany and the Honour of Richmond
The Earldom of Richmond and the Duchy of Brittany

Contested Borders

Northumbria
King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


Scotland

Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War, Part 1
King David and the Civil War, Part 2

Houses Bruce and Stewart
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle
The Early Stewart Kings

Scottish Nobles and their Quarrels

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding


Wales

Welsh Princes

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

Rebels

A History of Rebellion
From Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Denmark

Kings of Denmark

House of Knýtlinga
Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

The Duchy of Estonia
Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


Norway

Kings of Norway

Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

A Time of Feuds

Famous Nobles and their Feuds
Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Sweden

Troubles and Alliances

Scandinavian Unity
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union


Livonia
(Latvia and Estonia)

Towns of the Hanseatic League

Riga
The History of Mediaeval Riga

Tallinn
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Lithuania

The Northern Crusades

The Wars in Lithuania
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

Lithuanian Princes

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas


Poland

The Northern Crusades

The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
The Conquest of Danzig

Royal Dynasties

The Jagiełłonian Kings
Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union


Bohemia
(Including Silesia and Moravia)

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
(to come)


Other Times

Prehistoric Times

Germany

Development of Civilisation
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Orkney

Neolithic Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Scandinavia

Gotland
The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd


Post-Mediaeval History

Explorers and Discoveries

Explorers
Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

Discoveries
Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

Biographies

European Nobility
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus


Miscellanea

History in Literature and Music

History in Literature

Biographies of German Poets and Writers
Theodor Fontane

Historical Ballads by Theodor Fontane
(Translated by me)
Archibald Douglas
Gorm Grymme
Sir Walter Scott in Abbotsford
The Tragedy of Afghanistan

History in Opera

Belcanto and Historicism
Maria Padilla - Mistress Royal
The Siege of Calais in Donizetti's Opera

Not so Serious History

Romans
Building Hadrian's Wall
Playmobil Romans

Mediaeval Times
Kings Having a Bad Hair Day
The Case of the Vanished Wine Cask

Other
Rules for Writing Scottish Romances
Tourist Kitsch in St.Petersburg


Geology

Geological Landscapes

The Baltic Sea
Geology of the Curonian Spit
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

The Harz
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in the Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations

Solling-Vogler
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

The Shores of Scotland
Staffa

Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

Fossilized Ammonites
The Loket Meteorite


05/05 / 08/05 / 09/05 / 11/05 / 12/05 / 02/06 / 03/06 / 04/06 / 05/06 / 08/06 / 09/06 / 10/06 / 11/06 / 12/06 / 01/07 / 02/07 / 03/07 / 04/07 / 05/07 / 06/07 / 07/07 / 08/07 / 09/07 / 10/07 / 11/07 / 12/07 / 01/08 / 02/08 / 03/08 / 04/08 / 05/08 / 06/08 / 07/08 / 08/08 / 09/08 / 10/08 / 11/08 / 12/08 / 01/09 / 02/09 / 03/09 / 04/09 / 05/09 / 06/09 / 07/09 / 08/09 / 09/09 / 10/09 / 11/09 / 12/09 / 01/10 / 02/10 / 03/10 / 04/10 / 05/10 / 06/10 / 07/10 / 08/10 / 09/10 / 10/10 / 11/10 / 12/10 / 01/11 / 02/11 / 03/11 / 04/11 / 05/11 / 06/11 / 07/11 / 08/11 / 09/11 / 10/11 / 11/11 / 12/11 / 01/12 / 02/12 / 03/12 / 04/12 / 05/12 / 06/12 / 07/12 / 08/12 / 09/12 / 10/12 / 11/12 / 12/12 / 01/13 / 02/13 / 03/13 / 04/13 / 05/13 / 06/13 / 07/13 / 08/13 / 09/13 / 10/13 / 11/13 / 12/13 / 01/14 / 02/14 / 03/14 / 04/14 / 05/14 / 06/14 / 07/14 / 08/14 / 09/14 / 10/14 / 11/14 / 12/14 / 01/15 / 02/15 / 03/15 / 04/15 / 05/15 / 06/15 / 07/15 / 08/15 / 09/15 / 10/15 / 11/15 / 12/15 / 01/16 / 02/16 / 03/16 / 04/16 / 05/16 / 06/16 / 07/16 / 08/16 / 09/16 / 10/16 / 11/16 / 12/16 / 01/17 / 02/17 / 03/17 / 04/17 / 05/17 / 06/17 / 07/17 / 08/17 / 09/17 / 10/17 / 11/17 / 12/17 / 01/18 / 02/18 / 03/18 / 04/18 / 05/18 / 06/18 / 07/18 / 08/18 / 09/18 / 10/18 / 11/18 / 12/18 / 02/19 / 03/19 / 04/19 / 05/19 / 06/19 / 07/19 / 08/19 / 09/19 / 10/19 /


Powered by Blogger