The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times


29 May 2010
  5 Years of Blogging

I almost missed this anniversary. I started my blog back in May 2005, so that makes it five years of blogging, and a number of photos I didn't even count. I've met online friends through this blog (some I even met in real life), and photographing - something I always liked doing - is even more fun when I know I can share the pictures with my readers.

I hope I'll be around for the next five years with more interesting posts about the Romans, Mediaeval emperors, old castles, and beautiful cathedrals. And I hope you'll stay with me, because readers are the ones who bring a blog to life. Thank you for that.

Pshaw

Found this particularly haughty looking lion outside the Romanesque church in Boppard. I don't know how old the statue is, but he really amused me.

A note about Followers: I don't use the widget showing the followers that many bloggers display in the sidebar because it doesn't work under Classic templates. But I can see who's following my blog on the dashboard. I for my part follow (= read regularly) all the blogs I've listed on my sidebar.
 


26 May 2010
  A Rainy Rhine Cruise

The Rhine between Koblenz (the ancient Confluentes, where the Moselle confluences into the Rhine) and Mainz (where the Main river joins up with his big brother) is considered the most scenic. Because of the mountains, the river could not be straightened like it was done in other places to make naval transport easier; only some of the riffs and sandbanks that made travel on this part of the Rhine dangerous in Roman and Medieaval times have been eliminated, albeit the sandbanks are an ongoing problem that has to be dealt with regularly.

One of the cruise ships

There are a number of cruise ships that travel this part of the Rhine. I picked one from Boppard somewhat upriver of Koblenz to Bingen near Mainz; a trip that took four hours (it's some 25 minutes by train). The fleet is called Köln-Düsseldorfer which is a bit of a joke, because the towns of Köln and Düsseldorf (both further north) are old rivals. There were not many people onboard due to the bad weather.

Leaving Boppard

Boppard is a pretty little town like so many along that part of the river - there's no space to develop into big, ugly cities. Most of them have a long history dating back to Medieaval or Roman times and some, like Boppard, are even older.

There's a bit of sunshine, but you can see the dark clouds ominously gathering over the mountains.

Dark waters and dark sky

It didn't take long for the rain to pour down, and it more or less stalked us - I suppose bad weather uses river valleys as highways. Photographing became a challenge because of the light, or lack thereof, and the rain that made the pics blurry. It can be a veil indeed. The few tourists on the upper deck vanished downstairs, but I ordered a hot tea and held out until St.Goar to take photos. But it was too cold to stay outside the entire 4 hours, so during the later part of the journey I only went up for special sights.

A meandering river

In former times, the Rhine meandered like that from its origins in Switzerland to the North Sea; it's the Rhine the Romans knew. Today it has been straightened where possible, leaving old bends as lakes in some places (the Altrheinarme), while they were filled up in others. Part of the flood problems is caused by those changes.

A cargo vessel

The Rhine is an important shipping route and the transport ships are long, unwieldy things with houses at one end where the shipper and his family live. Complete with curtains and potted plants in the windows, and a car parking on the upper deck.

Amnis viridissime ripas

When the sky lit up a bit one could see how green those mountains are, covered with woods and vineyards. A 'river of the greenest shores' indeed, even though Ausonius said that about the Moselle. I remembered his poem I came to know when I visited Trier at the Moselle back in 2006.

I wonder if any Roman ever waxed poetic about the Rhine. It was mostly a frontier for them, and an unruly one at that.

Shoals and currents

I mentioned that the most dangerous rocks have been blasted and currents diverted, like the (in)famous Binger Loch, but there are still a few left outside the fairway. I would not recommend to cross the Rhine by swimming, and not only because of all the ships. There are whirls that can suck you in and you'll find yourself on the ground, playing with the Daughters of the Rhine to Wagner's music.

A glimpse of sunshine

That's how the tour may look on sunny days. Though there's a flip side to it; I'm sure the ship would have been full of tourists.

The mountains along the Rhine are littered with castles; some genuinely old ones, but most of them have been altered in the 18th and 19th centuries, and a few even built only then. They look more like Victorian (now with Extra! turrets and oriels) versions than Medieaval German castles. But I took a series of photos from the ship, so there will be a castle post.

Lorelei

The bend in the river here was one of the dangerous spots of old. And not only that; there sat a beautiful maid on the top of that mountain, combing her long, blond hair and singing enticing songs, so the sailors would only look up to her and not care about the right course, and they'd end up in the currents and whorls and drown together with their boats. The maid is called Lorelei and can still be spotted sometimes today. Though obviously not during bad weather. There's a song about the legend that was played on the ship as it passed. Safely.

A paddle steamer

Most of the ships of the fleets that offer Rhine cruises are modern, but there are also more nostalgic ones around, like this paddle steamer. Not quite the Mississippi tour, but still nice. Some of the larger ships offer cabins for a longer journey, including a luxury variant with lots of gold, mahoganny, and velvet.

Another transport barge

I didn't catch the entire barge, there are some metres missing at the bow. Except for the cabin part, they are very low profile though sometimes the cargo is higher than the railing, with the covers remaining open.

Another cruise ship

Another of the cruise ships going downstream. In the background is one of the many castles along the Rhine, Ehrenfels, framed by vineyards. There's even a bit of blue sky. In a way, it's the archetypical Rhine picture.
 


20 May 2010
  Back, With a Bunch of Photos and a Cold

Suitcases have been unpacked, dinner eaten, and I took a look at my photo collection. An impressive number again, but a lot of photos I took inside dark cathedrals and museums, and I bet there'll be a bunch that will end up deleted. A few teaser pics are in the post below.

Isn't that chap a cutie? His name is Hugo, and he's quite a star in front of the camera. He and some fellow birds (falcons, and an eagle who didn't feel like posing for pictures when I was there) were one of the attractions at the Siegfriedspektakel, a medieaval market, or renfair as it's called in the US, taking place in Xanten while I was there. Lucky coincidence, because it turned out the largest and most fun I ever attended. Since there was also a small Roman reenactment group camping in the Archaeological Park, I was a happy camper myself.

BTW, my hair style is called Wind Blown Witch. *grin*

The weather was less fun. Horizontal rain is no longer a monopoly of the UK; Germany can do that quite well, too, thank you very much. Well, some days were at least dry-er, but still rather cold. There was basically one nice and sunny day in a week. Sigh. No wonder I managed to catch a cold in that weather. But I enjoyed most of the tour nevertheless.

I changed one point of my plan and didn't visit Rheinfels Castle. When the cruise ship passed it before stopping at St.Goar, I thought it looked too ugly and 17-18th century to be worth the hassle, and instead took the ship all the way down to Bingen which gave me a number of beautiful views of the most spectacular part of the Rhine valley.

The Rhine had been the border between the Roman Empire and 'free' Germania until the empire collapsed in the 5th century (I'll leave out the Limes intermezzo at this point), and Roman remains on the western, or left, shore of the river are plenty. I hunted down a few fine examples of Roman architecture, plus some Romanesque churches.

And now I'll take something for that cough and go to bed.
 


  Some Things I Found on the Way

Here's the usual teaser post with some first impressions from my Rhine tour. The sky is grey on most of them because the weather tried its best to fulfill all clichés the Romans had about Germany - wet, cold, dark, and full of trees (yes, the latter belong to the weather because they throw branches at Romans, *grin*).

-- Reconstructed Roman buildings

Harbour Temple, Archaeological Park Xanten

The Archaeological Park Xanten (APX), with a number of completely or partly reconstructed buildings of the Roman town Colonia Ulpia Traiana is definitely worth a visit. Judging from some photos I had seen I suspected it might be a bit like a Roman Disneyland, but it's not like that at all, but a genuine glimpse into a Roman town with spotlights onto some chosen buildings.

-- Remains of Roman buildings:

Römersteine, Mainz

The Römersteine (Roman Stones) are the real thing: remains of a row of pillars that once supported the aquaeduct delivering fresh water to the town of Moguntiacum. The outer layer of smothely hewn stones has found its way into other buildings centuries ago, but the inner part made of opus cementitium, the Roman concrete mixed with stones or sometimes pottery shards, has survived until today. Something you can't say about most modern concrete.

-- Bling:

Golden horse figure, 5-6th century, APX Museum Xanten

There's a new museum in the APX (opened last year, in time for the Varus Battle Anniversary) which has an interestingly presented display of all things Roman. Besides the Roman bling (and other Roman finds) I also discovered some Celtic and Merovingian shinies in other museums.

-- Churches and cathedrals:

St.Martin Cathedral, Mainz

The Rineland has a good number of old churches. Often the later Romans introduced Christianity into the area and built the first churches. Larger places like Xanten or Mainz would soon develop into religious centres and erect churches to match their importance. Most of them have been rebuilt on the foundations of older chapels, enlarged and altered over time, but you can still find some genuine Romansque and Gothic cathedrals. And even smaller towns often have pretty, old churches.

-- Rain at the Rhine:

Cruise ship on the Rhine

Rain showers at the Rhine can compete with the Scottish ones any day. I stayed on the upper deck nevertheless - fortunately part of it had a roof though no protections on the sides. I suspect it was that day that gave me the nasty cold, and I could blame my readers and their greed for photos, but I'll be honest and blame myself for not bringing the warmer jacket. When the sun came out - which she surprisingly did a few times - it was quite warm, though.
 


1 May 2010
  The Newest Booty

On my bookshelves. I don't post every book I purchase, but sometimes I can't resist showing a few particularly yummy catches. *grin*

A new biography of Richard Lionheart (in German, sorry Sharon) which is said to take a critical view on Richard. It's from the Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft that usually publishes well researched books, so I have high hopes for that one.

The Harold Lamb book, Swords from the West, is a collection of stories taking place during the crusades. Lamb is a classic of Sword and History / Sorcery / Planet stories like RE Howard or Burroughs. It promises some good battle scenes.



The third book is Christian Meier's biography of Caesar, considered a Must Have for people interested in Romam history. It's another addition to the series of biographies of famous Romans I collect. So far I have Augustus, Hadrian (the Birley one), Marc Aurel, Septimius Severus, Constantine the Great, and Theodoric - if you can call the latter a Roman.

This brings my library of books about Rome and the Roman army to 65. And I still got some from our university library which are simply too expensive to buy.

Anyone else got some interesting books recently?
 




The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, and central / eastern Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.


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Location: Goettingen, Germany

I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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Belgium and France

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Roman Towns

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Bath in the Fortress
Multiangular Tower

The Romans in Wales

Roman Forts - Isca (Caerleon)
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Mediaeval and Other Places

Germany

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Medieaval Braunschweig
Lion Benches in the Castle Square
The Quadriga

Erfurt
Mediaeval Erfurt

Goslar
Mediaeval Goslar

Heiligenstadt
St.Martin's Church
St.Mary's Church

Lübeck
St. Mary's Church, Introduction

Magdeburg
Magdeburg Cathedral
St.Mary's Abbey - An Austere Archbishop
St.Mary's Abbey - Reformation to Reunion

Paderborn
Mediaeval Paderborn

Quedlinburg
Mediaeval Quedlinburg
The Chapter Church

Speyer
The Cathedral: Architecture
Cathedral: Richard Lionheart in Speyer
Jewish Ritual Bath

Stralsund
The Harbour

Treffurt
A Walk through the Town

Wismar
The Old Harbour

Xanten
Mediaeval Xanten
The Gothic House

Castles

Castles in Bavaria

Coburg Fortress
The History of the Fortress
The Architecture

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Power Base of the Thuringian Landgraves
The Marshals of Ebersburg
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Harzburg
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Hohnstein
Origins of the Counts of Hohnstein
The Family Between Welfen and Staufen
A Time of Feuds (14th-15th century)

Regenstein
Introduction
The Time of Henry the Lion

Scharzfels
Introduction
History

Other Castles
Stauffenburg

Castles in Hessia

Kugelsburg
The Counts of Everstein
Troubled Times
War and Decline

Weidelsburg
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The Castle After the Restoration

Castles in Northern Hessia
Grebenstein
Reichenbach
Sichelnstein

Castles in Lower Saxony

Hardenberg
Introduction
Hardenberg Castle Gardens

Plesse
Rise and Fall of the Counts of Winzenburg
The Lords of Plesse
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Castles at the Weser
Bramburg
Krukenburg
Castle Polle
Two Fairy Tale Castles - Sababurg and Trendelburg

Other Castles
Adelebsen Castle - The Keep
Grubenhagen - A Border Castle
Hardeg Castle - The Great Hall
Salzderhelden - A Welfen Seat

Castles in Thuringia

Brandenburg
The Double Castle
Role of the Castle in Thuringian History

Hanstein
Introduction
Otto of Northeim
Heinrich the Lion and Otto IV
The Next Generations

Normanstein
Introduction

Wartburg
A Virtual Tour

Other Castles
Altenstein at the Werra
Castle Scharfenstein

Churches and Cathedrals

Churches in the Harz

Pöhlde Monastery
The Church

Steinkirche near Scharzfeld
Development of the Cave Church

Walkenried Monastery
From Monastery to Museum

Churches in Hessia

Abbey of Lorsch
The Gate Hall

Churches in Lower Saxony

Königslutter
Exterior Decorations
Cloister

Wiebrechtshausen
Nunnery and Ducal Burial

Churches in Thuringia

Göllingen Monastery
Traces of Byzantine Architecture

Churches at the Weser

Bursfelde Abbey
Early History

Helmarshausen Monastery
Remains of the Monastery
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion

Lippoldsberg Abbey
Early History
The Interior

Other Churches
Fredelsloh Chapter Church
Vernawahlshausen - Mediaeval Murals

Reconstructed Sites / Museums

Palatine Seat Tilleda
The Defenses

Viking Settlement Haithabu
Haithabu and the Archaeological Museum Schleswig
The Nydam Ship

Open Air Museums
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Post-Mediaeval Sites

Powder and Steam
Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg


England

Towns

Chester
Roman and Medieaval Chester

Hexham
The Abbey - Introduction
The Old Gaol

York
Clifford Tower
The Guild Hall
The Minster - Architecture
Monk Bar Gate and Richard III Museum
Museum Gardens
The Old Town
Along the Ouse River

Castles

Alnwick
Malcolm III and the First Battle of Alnwick

Carlisle
Introduction
Henry II and William of Scotland
Edward I to Edward III

Richmond
From the Conquest to King John
From Henry III to the Tudors
The Architecture

Scarborough
From the Romans to the Tudors
From the Civil War to the Present
The Architecture


Scotland

Towns

Edinburgh
Views from the Castle

Stirling
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Doune
A Virtual Tour of the Castle
The Early Stewart Kings
Royal Dower House, and Decline

Duart
Guarding the Sound of Mull

Dunstaffnage
An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
The Wars of Independence
The Campbells Are Coming
Dunstaffnage Chapel

Stirling
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle

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Inchcolm Abbey
Arriving at Inchcolm

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Picts and Dalriatans
Dunadd Hill Fort
Staffa

Pre-Historic Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae


Wales

Towns

Aberystwyth
Castle and Coast

Caerleon
The Ffwrwm

Conwy
The Smallest House in Great Britain

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Beaumaris
The Historical Context
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Caernarfon
Master James of St.George
The Castle Kitchens

Cardiff
From the Romans to the Victorians

Chepstow
Beginnings unto Bigod
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Conwy
The History of the Castle
The Architecture

Criccieth
Llywelyn's Buildings
King Edward's Buildings

Manorbier
The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

Pembroke
Pembroke Pictures
The Caves Under the Castle


Denmark

Towns

Copenhagen
To come


Norway

Towns

Oslo
The Fram Museum in Oslo

Castles and Fortresses

Arkershus Fortress in Oslo
Introduction
Akershus at the Time of King Håkon V
Architectural Development

Vardøhus Fortress
Defending the North for Centuries


Sweden

Towns

Stockholm
The Vasa Museum

Historical Landscapes

Gotland
Gnisvärd Ship Setting


Finland

Towns

Porvoo
Mediaeval Porvoo


Russia

Towns

St. Petersburg
Isaac's Cathedral
Smolny Cathedral
Impressions from the The Neva River


Estonia

Towns

Tallinn
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Latvia

Towns

Riga
The History of Mediaeval Riga


Lithuania

Historical Landscapes

The Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit


Poland

Towns

Gdańsk / Danzig
The History of Mediaeval Gdańsk
Mediaeval and Renaissance Gdańsk

Wrocław / Breslau
The Botanical Garden
The Wrocław Dwarfs


Czech Republic

Towns

Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
Brief History of the Town

Kutná Hora
The Sedlec Ossuary


Belgium

Towns

Antwerp
The Old Town

Bruges
Mediaeval Bruges

Ghent
Mediaeval Ghent

Tongeren
Roman and Mediaeval Remains


Luxembourg

Towns

Luxembourg City
A Tour of the Town


France

Towns

Strasbourg
A Tour of the Town


Hiking Tours and Cruises

Germany

The Baltic Sea Coast
The Flensburg Firth
Rugia - Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
Rugia - Seaside Ressort Binz
A Tour on the Wakenitz River

Harz National Park
Arboretum (Bad Grund)
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
Oderteich Reservoir
Rappbode Reservoir
Views from Harz mountains

Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
Hessian Switzerland

Nature Park Solling-Vogler
The Hutewald Forest
The Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

Thuringian Forests
Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

Rivers and Lakes
The Danube in Spring
Edersee Reservoir
A Rainy Rhine Cruise
The Moselle
Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut
Weser River Ferry
Weser Skywalk

Wildlife
Harz Falcon Park
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life

Seasons
Spring in the Botanical Garden Göttingen
Spring at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Spring in the Rossbach Heath (Meissner)
Memories of Summer
Summer Hiking Tours 2016
Autumn in the Meissner
Autumn at Werra and Weser
Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake
Winter Wonderland - Views from my Balcony


United Kingdom

Mountains and Valleys
West Highland Railway

The East Coast
By Ferry to Newcastle
Highland Mountains - Inverness to John o'Groats
Some Photos from the East Coast

Scottish Sea Shores
Crossing to Mull
Mull - Craignure to Fionnphort
Pentland Firth
Castles Seen from Afar (Dunollie and Kilchurn)
Staffa
Summer Days in Oban
Summer Nights in Oban

Wild Wales - With Castles
Views of Snowdownia
Views from Castle Battlements

Wildlife
Sea Gulls


Scandinavia

The Hurtigruten-Tour / Norway
A Voyage into Winter
Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

Norway by Train
From Oslo to Bergen
From Trondheim to Oslo

Wildlife
Bearded Seals
Dog Sledding With Huskies
Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord


The Baltic Sea

A Baltic Sea Cruise

The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
Beaches at the Curonian Spit
Geology of the Curonian Spit






Roman History
General Essays

Provinces
- Germania
- Gallia Belgica
- Britannia

Mediaeval History
General Essays

By Country
- Germany
- England
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Norway
- Sweden
- Livonia
- Lithuania
- Poland
- Bohemia

Other Times
- Prehistoric Times
- Post-Mediaeval History
-
Miscellanea
- Geology


Roman History

General Essays

The Romans at War

Forts and Fortifications
Exercise Halls
Mile Castles and Watch Towers
Soldiers' Living Quarters
Cavalry Barracks

Roman Militaria

Armour
Early Imperial Helmets
Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

Weapons
Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
The pilum
Daggers
Swords

Other Equipment
Roman Saddles

Life and Religion

Religion
The Mithras Cult
Isis Worship
Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms

Public Life
Roman Transport - Barges
Roman Transport - Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

Roman villae
Villa Urbana Longuich
Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Everyday Life
Bathing Habits
Children's Toys
Face Pots

Miscellaneous Essays

The Legend of Alaric's Burial


Germania

Wars and Frontiers

Maps
Romans in Germania

Traces of the Pre-Varus Conquest
Roman Camp Hedemünden
New Finds in 2008

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn
Introduction

Along the Limes
The Cavalry Fort Aalen
Limes Fort Osterburken
Limes Fort Saalburg


Gallia Belgica

The Batavians

The Batavian Rebellion
A Short Introduction


Britannia

Roman Frontiers in Britain

The Hadrian's Wall
Introduction
The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend


Mediaeval History

General Essays

Mediaeval Art and Craft

Mediaeval Art
Carved Monsters
The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
Mediaeval Monster Carvings
The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

Medieaval Craftmanship
Goldsmithery
Medical Instruments

Mediaeval Warfare

Mediaeval Weapons
Swords
Trebuchets

Castles and Fortifications
Dungeons and Oubliettes

Essays about Specific Topics

Feudalism

The History of Feudalism
The Beginnings
Feudalism in the 10th Century

Privileges and Special Relationships
The Privilege of the deditio
A Note on handgenginn maðr

The Hanseatic League

The History of the Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings

Hanesatic Architecture
Examples of Brick Architecture

Goods and Trade
Stockfish Trade

The Order of the Teutonic Knights

Wars and Battles
The Conquest of Danzig
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

The Vikings

Viking Ships
The Nydam Ship


Germany

Geneaology

List of Mediaeval German Emperors

Geneaologies
Anglo-German Marriage Connections
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors

Kings and Emperors

The Salian Dynasty
King Heinrich IV

House Welf and House Staufen
Emperor Otto IV, Introduction

Princes and Lords

Princes
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto of Northeim
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Famous Feuds

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War - Introduction
The Star Wars


England

Kings of England

King Henry IV
King Henry's Lithuanian Crusade

Normans, Britons, Angevins

Great Fiefs - The Honour of Richmond
The Dukes of Brittany and the Honour of Richmond
The Earldom of Richmond and the Duchy of Brittany

Contested Borders

Northumbria
King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


Scotland

Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War, Part 1
King David and the Civil War, Part 2

Houses Bruce and Stewart
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle
The Early Stewart Kings

Scottish Nobles and their Quarrels

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding


Wales

Welsh Princes

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

Rebels

A History of Rebellion
From Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Denmark

Kings of Denmark

House of Knýtlinga
Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

The Duchy of Estonia
Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


Norway

Kings of Norway

Foreign Relations
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

A Time of Feuds

Famous Nobles and their Feuds
Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Sweden

Troubles and Alliances

Scandinavian Unity
Beginnings of the Kalmar Union


Livonia
(Latvia and Estonia)

Towns of the Hanseatic League

Riga
The History of Mediaeval Riga

Tallinn
The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


Lithuania

The Northern Crusades

The Wars in Lithuania
The Siege of Vilnius 1390

Lithuanian Princes

The Geminid Dynasty
Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas


Poland

The Northern Crusades

The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
The Conquest of Danzig

Royal Dynasties

The Jagiełłonian Kings
Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union


Bohemia
(Including Silesia and Moravia)

The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
(to come)


Other Times

Prehistoric Times

Germany

Development of Civilisation
European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

Orkney

Neolithic Orkney
The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
Ring of Brodgar
Skara Brae
Life in Skara Brae

Scandinavia

Gotland
The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd


Post-Mediaeval History

Explorers and Discoveries

Explorers
Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

Discoveries
Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

Biographies

European Nobility
Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus


Miscellanea

History in Literature and Music

History in Literature

Biographies of German Poets and Writers
Theodor Fontane

Historical Ballads by Theodor Fontane
(Translated by me)
Archibald Douglas
Gorm Grymme
Sir Walter Scott in Abbotsford
The Tragedy of Afghanistan

History in Opera

Belcanto and Historicism
Maria Padilla - Mistress Royal
The Siege of Calais in Donizetti's Opera

Not so Serious History

Romans
Building Hadrian's Wall
Playmobil Romans

Mediaeval Times
Kings Having a Bad Hair Day
The Case of the Vanished Wine Cask

Other
Rules for Writing Scottish Romances
Tourist Kitsch in St.Petersburg


Geology

Geological Landscapes

The Baltic Sea
Geology of the Curonian Spit
Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
Flint Fields on Rugia

The Harz
Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
Karst Formations in the Southern Harz
The Lonau Falls
The Rhume Springs

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations

Solling-Vogler
Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
Hannover Cliffs

The Shores of Scotland
Staffa

Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

Fossilized Ammonites
The Loket Meteorite


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