The Lost Fort

My Travel and History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times

31 Dec 2008
  Happy New Year

We're close to the beginning of the New Year, and it's time again for making resolutions that won't be kept until January 10th or so. Personally, I've given up on that, but some historical characters have made New Year Resolutions that can be found here and on the blogs of Susan Higginbotham and Nan Hawthorne.

  • Alexander the Great: Come up with other town names than Alexandria.
  • Hannibal: Take some lessons in Italian geography.
  • Arminius: Kick the Romans out of Germania and myself into German legend.
  • Chariovalda: Take swimming lessons.
  • Nero: Win Roman Idol and tour Greece.
  • Septimius Severus: Spend some quality time with my sons.
  • Caracalla: Get a bigger bathroom.
  • Louis the Pious: Tell my sons I'm the king and can send them to bed without supper.
  • Maud: Have an equal opportunity commisioner present at the royal succession debate.
  • Heinrich IV: Rehearse that contrite expression.
  • Richard Lionheart: Be nice to Johnny.
  • Edward I: Take a course in accountancy.
  • William Shakespeare: Do more research.
  • Sir Walter Scott. Stop collecting antiquites. My house is cluttered already.
  • Richard Sharpe: Settle down. Well, maybe..

  • I wish everyone a Happy, Healthy and Prosperous New Year.

    29 Dec 2008
      Summer in the Harz. With Castles

    After all those posts with lots of text and few pictures, I thought I'd go back to some picture posts for a change. Summer impressions on a cold winter day.

    View to the north-eastern Harz foothills

    Seen from Regenstein Castle. Somewhere in the distance lies Quedlinburg

    Michaelstein Monastery, cloister

    Remains of a 12th century Cisterciensian monastery. The cloister and some of the outhouses have been preserved and today house a museum for music instruments, a school, and a restaurant.

    Michaelstein Monastery, herbal garden

    I want a garden like that.

    Falkenstein Castle

    Falkenstein Castle was originally built in 1115 and altered several times during the following centuries. It was never conquered, but in the 18th century it was a ruin until the then owner reconstructed most of the buildings.

    View from Falkenstein Castle to the Selke valley

    Germany can be very green, too.

    Arnstein Castle

    A picturesque ruin. And a nice uphill walk in 30°C summer heat.

    Bode River

    One of the many shots I took of that one. I love running water.

    Rappbode Reservoir

    The sun had given way to some thunderclouds, and the air was very still.

    26 Dec 2008
      Historical Christmas Wishes

    Trust Susan Higginbotham and Nan Hawthorne to come up with some fun. What some historical characters would like to find under the Christmas tree.

  • Varus: To just get OUTTA HERE.
  • Arminius: Roman baths.
  • Segestes: An obedient daughter.
  • Caligula: Shiny new boots.
  • Nero: An e-guitar.
  • Agricola: Caledonia.
  • Calgacus: More PS to my chariot.
  • Maximinus Thrax: More wine.
  • Honorius: Some sheets to hide under until the Visigoths are gone.
  • Charlemagne: A new rearguard.
  • Heinrich I: Fowling equipment. A crown would be nice, too.
  • Heinrich IV: A pope's head or two in a vinegar jar.
  • Heinrich the Lion of Saxony: My lands back.
  • Friedrich Barbarossa: A life jacket.
  • Eleanor of Aquitaine: Marriage counselling for my husband. It's not my fault.
  • Henry II: Family therapy for my wife and sons. It's not my fault.
  • Llywelyn Fawr. Glass windows for Criccieth Castle.
  • Richard III: A horse.
  • William Wallace: The director of Braveheart.
  • Duke of Wellington: Night. Or the Prussians.

  • Here's the reason why Llywelyn wants new windows

    24 Dec 2008
      Frohe Weihnachten

    I wish everyone a Merry Christmas. May Santa Claus, the Christkind or whoever is responsible for the task, bring you lots of books and other presents.


    11 Dec 2008
      Romanesque Ornaments

    I mentioned that one of the features of the Chapter Church in Quedlinburg is the decorative frieze that runs around the main nave. It does so on the outside as well. I got a good view at a piece of it from a window of the abbesses' Renaissance palace that today houses a museum.

    Frieze on the main nave of Quedlinburg Cathedral

    It is an architectural element that found its way from Italy into German buildings. While in Königslutter the monsters and figures are restricted to the apsis, and the other parts of the frieze (they can be seen on these photos) are merely patterned, Quedlinburg Cathedral shows a mix of monsters and ornaments all the way on the outside - the interior frieze has no monsters, though.

    Frieze detail, showing some monsters and animals (partly restored)

    Not all Romanesque churches have such friezes (the Weser abbey churches of Lippoldsberg and Bursfelde don't) whereas others take the ornaments a step further, like the Imperial Cathedral in Speyer with its decorative arcades running around the entire building.

    9 Dec 2008
      Chapter Church Quedlinburg

    The old town of Quedlinburg is dominated by the Chapter Church St. Servatius (also refered to as Quedlinburg Cathedral) on the Castle Hill. There's no exterior shot except the one on the post about the town because of the scaffolding, but I got some nice interior ones.

    Main nave, view to the choir

    The hill had been the site of a palatine castle and a chapel when Mathilde, widow of Heinrich I, commissioned the building of a chapter church to replace the smaller chapel where her husband lay entombed. It took from 997 to 1021 for the church to be finished, and after a fire part of it had to be rebuilt. The present church was consecrated in 1129, in presence of King Lothar of Süpplingenburg, the later Emperor and founder of Königslutter Cathedral.

    View towards the north aisle

    The Romanesque interior shows the so called Niedersächsischer Stützenwechsel (Lower Saxonian Pillar Alternation) with rows of two slender pillars, one square column, two pillars again, one column. The pillars divide the main nave from the lower aisles (basilica style). The west wall holds the Imperial Lodge behind the upper row of interior windows (see post about town) which was proabably used not only by the Emperors during their visits to Quedlinburg but also by the abbesses and ladies of the chapter.

    An example of the Stützenwechsel

    The choir to the east was rebuilt in the Gothic style under the Abbess Jutta von Kranichfeld in 1320. In 1938 an attempt was made to restore the Romanesque interior by adding an apsis wall to the choir. It is a high choir (like in Lippoldsberg) since the crypt is not built into a cellar but on one base with the nave, though using lower vaults - in case of Quedlinburg I suppose the sandstone bedrock was the reason.


    The crypt is undergoing renovation so I could only get a sneak photo through the iron grilled door. I think the two tomb plates in the background are the ones of Heinrich I and Mathilda.

    There is also a relief frieze running around the entire main nave. This as well as the decorations on the pillar capitals and the window frames show a strong Lombardian influence; much the same as Königslutter Cathedral. The ceiling is not a cross grain vault but the older timber cassette structure.

    View to south aisle - you can see the frieze under the upper windows

    The transept has very short wings with separate rooms that today are used to display the famous Domschatz (Cathedral Treasure) parts of which have been given back from the US. Because of the dim light it was almost impossible to get photos, though, and I don't use flash near objects that may react badly to stark light.

    Room in the transept with treasure exhibition

    During a restoration under Ferdinand von Quast in 1882 two 'Romanesque' towers with the wrong sort of gables were added, so that the most outstanding feature of the church is actually the youngest. I hope they use the ongoing renovation as chance to replace those roofs with something more authentic looking.

    4 Dec 2008
      Aberystwyth Impressions

    Aberystwyth was a flyby visit on my way from Pembroke to Caernarfon, though should I ever come to Wales again, I'd like to spend more time there than two hours. It's a lively place because of the many students, but less hectic than Bangor with its connection to the train line to Manchester. James from the Sir Benfro blog (that's not a title, but Welsh for shire, btw.) gave me a qick tour to the promenade and the castle remains.

    View to the Pier at low tide

    The pier had once been 900 feet long, but only about 300 remain today after the sea reclaimed parts of it. The sea tends to do that; Ceredigion Bay is also the location of the legendary Cantre'r Gwaelod, one of the sunken cities that line the coasts - its legends are related to Kêr Ys in Brittany.

    The history of Aberystwyth goes back to the 4th century BC when Iron Age settlers fortified the hilltop called Pen Dinas. The remains of that large hillfort can still be seen. Albeit the Romans had been in the area (there's a stretch of arrow straight road the way I came that stands out among the winding Welsh tracks, and James told me that a few remains of a smaller Roman fortress can be found near where he lives) there is no trace they ever tried to establish a Roman fort on the site.

    Pen Dinas, seen from the castle

    To the far right is a slender pillar; a monument erected in 1852 to honour the Duke of Wellington's victory at Waterloo, paid by public funding. It's interesting to see what people in the 19th century were willing to support financially - we got the misplaced Hermann (Arminius) monument much the same way. Try that today and you'll get laughed at.

    In the foreground are some of the stones that form a bardic circle of 13 standing stones symbolising the 13 old counties, pre the 1974 reform. The castle ruins have become a park today, a change Edward II might have liked better than his father.

    Aberystwyth Castle, one of the towers

    But it was not Edward I who started the castle building at Aberystwyth, it was one of the Gilbert de Clares who erected an earthen and timber ringwork castle down at the river Ystwyth in the 12th century.

    In the early 13th century, after he ousted the de Clares and other Norman chaps, Llywelyn ap Iorweth 'the Great' decided a hill by the sea was a better place for a castle than a valley and built the first one in the present spot. Makes one wonder why he didn't chose Pen Dinas, either. Like so many castle at the time, the one of Aberystwyth changed hands several times after Llywelyn's death as the Norman/Welsh wars moved to and fro.

    Aberystwyth Castle, remains of the inner bailey and hall

    Edward I was the one who got really serious about the castle thing once he conquered the Welsh, and turned Aberystwyth castle into a structure as formidable as Caernarfon or Conwy. Our friend Master James was the official overseer though he soon left his associate Master Giles of St. George in charge and returned to north Wales. The modernising of Aberystwyth castle according to the standards of 1294 cost 'only' some 4,300 pounds.

    The reason the castle is damaged much worse than Ed's other biggies lies in the fact that the sea is only a few yards away, and on a bad day not even that. Add to that the gales and torrents of a typical Welsh day, and even stone and mortar will crumble within time. The castle was beginning to succomb to decay as early as 1343, and the Civil War saw the end of it.

    Old College with Constitution Hill in the background

    What we got here is not a castle or cathedral, though it looks a bit like a mix of both, but the Castle Hotel, built 1872. It soon went bancrupt and was bought by the University College of Wales. It still houses some departments of the university, besides the newer locations at Penglais Campus and Llanbadarn Campus. The students surely got a pretty place to work in, but I wonder how often they'll find the Atlantic in the cellar. Let's hope they at least have a functioning central heating, something the Llywelyns, Owains, Henrys and Edwards will have sorely missed. Maybe that's the reason the Romans stayed away from the rain- and windswept Ceredigion Bay.

    I was lucky, I had a nice day when I visited Aberystwyth.

    The Lost Fort is a travel and history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, the Baltic Countries, and central Europe. It includes virtual town and castle tours with a focus on history, museum visits, hiking tours, and essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, illustrated with my own photos.

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    All texts and photos (if no other copyright is noted) are copyright of Gabriele Campbell.

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    Location: Goettingen, Germany

    I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History, interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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    Historical Places

    - Towns
    - Castles
    - Abbeys and Churches
    - Roman Remains
    - Neolithicum and Bronze Age
    - Museums
    City Trips

    Hiking Tours and Cruises

    United Kingdom
    Baltic Sea

    Historical Places



    Bad Sooden-Allendorf
    Historical Town and Graduation Tower
    Bruchteiche Reservoir

    A Seaside Resort

    Lion Benches in the Castle Square
    The Quadriga

    Mediaeval Erfurt

    Mediaeval Goslar
    Chapel in the Klus Rock

    Churches St.Martin and St.Mary

    St. Mary's Church

    Church of Our Lady: History

    The Temple of Isis and Mater Magna

    Mediaeval Paderborn

    Mediaeval Quedlinburg
    The Chapter Church

    The Cathedral: Architecture
    Jewish Ritual Bath

    The Harbour
    The Old Town

    Mediaeval Lanes and Old Houses

    The Roman Amphitheatre
    The Aula Palatina
    The Imperial Baths
    The Porta Nigra

    Sites of the Weimar Classicism
    The Park at the Ilm

    The Old Harbour

    Roman and Mediaeval Xanten
    The Gothic House


    The Keep

    Altenstein (Werra)
    A Border Castle

    Weser River Reivers

    Brandenburg (Thuringia)
    The Beginnings
    Albrecht II of Thuringia

    Coburg Fortress

    The Marshals of Ebersburg


    History of the Keep


    Hardeg Castle
    The Great Hall


    Heldenburg (Salzderhelden)
    A Welfen Seat

    Hohnstein (Harz)
    The Counts of Hohnstein
    Between Welfen and Staufen
    14th-15th Century

    Built to Protect a Chapel

    The Counts of Everstein
    Later Times

    The Counts of Winzenburg
    The Lords of Plesse

    Polle Castle
    An Everstein Stronghold


    Reichenbach (Hessia)

    Photo Impressions

    From Castle to Convention Centre



    Stauffenburg (Harz)
    A Secret Mistress

    A Little Known Ruin in the Harz

    Photo Impressions

    A Virtual Tour

    Revisiting the Weidelsburg

    Abbeys and Churches

    Early History of the Abbey

    A Romanesque Basilica

    A Romanesque Church

    The Byzantine Crypt

    The Stave Church

    Remains of the Monastery

    Early History of the Abbey
    Interior of the Church

    The Carolingian Gate Hall

    Remains of the Monastery

    Scharzfeld (Harz)
    The Cave Church

    Mediaeval Murals

    The Monastery - Introduction

    Romanesque Church and a Ducal Burial

    Wilhelmshausen (Kassel)
    The Romanesque Church

    Roman Remains

    Augusta Treverorum / Trier
    The Amphitheatre
    The Aula Palatina
    The Imperial Baths
    The Porta Nigra
    The Roman Bridge

    Colonia Ulpia Traiana / Xanten
    Roman Xanten
    The Amphitheatre in Birten

    Limes Fort Aalen
    The Barracks

    Limes Fort Osterburken
    The Discovery
    The Cohort castellum
    The Annex Fort
    The Garrisons

    Limes Fort Saalburg
    A Reconstructed Limes Fort
    Shrine of the Standards

    Romans in North Rhine-Westphalia
    Playmobil Romans, LWL Museum Haltern
    Varus Statue, Haltern am See

    Romans at the Moselle
    The Villa Urbana in Longuich

    Romans at the Rhine
    Boppard - The Roman Baudobriga
    The Villa at Wachenheim

    Neolithicum and Bronze Age

    Neolithic Burials
    Neolithic Burials in the Everstorf Forest and Rugia
    The Necropolis of Oldendorf

    Bronze Age
    Bronze and Iron Age Remains at the Werra

    Museums / Reconstructed Sites

    Palatine Seat Tilleda
    The Defenses

    Viking Settlement Haithabu
    The Nydam Ship

    Open Air Museums
    European Bread Museum Ebergötzen
    Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

    Post-Mediaeval Exhibits
    Historical Guns, Coburg Fortress
    Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg



    Roman and Medieaval Chester

    The Abbey - Introduction
    The Old Gaol

    Clifford Tower
    The Guild Hall
    Monk Bar Gate with Richard III Museum
    Museum Gardens
    Houses in the Old Town
    York Minster: Architecture



    Conquest to King John
    Henry III to the Tudors

    Romans to the Tudors
    Civil War to the Present

    Roman Remains

    Eboracum / York
    Roman Bath in the Fortress

    Wall Fort Birdoswald
    The Dark Age Timber Halls

    Wall Fort Segedunum
    Museum and Viewing Tower
    The Baths

    Other Roman Sites
    The Mithraeum at Brocolita
    The Signal Station at Scarborough



    Views from the Castle

    The Wallace Monument


    A Virtual Tour
    History: The Early Stewart Kings
    History: Royal Dower House

    Duart Castle
    Guarding the Sound of Mull

    An Ancient MacDougall Stronghold
    The Wars of Independence
    The Campbells Are Coming
    Dunstaffnage Chapel

    Robert the Bruce

    Abbeys and Churches

    Arriving at Inchcolm Abbey

    Neolithicum and Bronze Age

    Neolithic Orkney
    Ring of Brodgar
    Skara Brae

    Brochs and Cairns
    Clava Cairns
    The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Introduction

    Picts and Dalriatans
    Dunadd Hill Fort



    Castle and Coast

    The Ffwrwm
    The Roman Amphitheatre
    The Baths in the Legionary Fort

    The Smallest House in Great Britain



    Master James of St.George
    The Castle Kitchens

    From Romans to Victorians

    Beginnings unto Bigod
    Edward II to the Tudors
    Civil War


    Llywelyn's Buildings
    King Edward's Buildings

    The Pleasantest Spot in Wales

    Photo Impressions
    The Caves Under the Castle

    Roman Remains

    Isca Silurum / Caerleon
    The Amphitheatre
    The Baths in the Legionary Fort



    Viking Museum Roskilde
    To come


    Castles and Fortresses

    Akershus Fortress in Oslo
    Kings and Pirates
    The Time of King Håkon V

    Vardøhus Fortress


    The Fram Museum in Oslo


    Neolithicum and Bronze Age

    Gnisvärd Ship Setting


    The Vasa Museum in Stockholm



    Mediaeval Porvoo



    The History of Mediaeval Tallinn



    The History of Mediaeval Riga



    To come



    Gdańsk / Danzig
    History of Mediaeval Gdańsk
    Mediaeval and Renaissance Gdańsk

    The Old Town
    Jewish Kraków - Kazimierz and the Ghetto

    Wrocław / Breslau
    The Botanical Garden
    The Wrocław Dwarfs


    Ogrodzieniec Castle
    A Virtual Tour
    First Castle to the Boner Family



    Cheb / Eger
    The Old Town

    Karlovy Vary / Karlsbad
    Brief History of the Town

    Kutná Hora
    The Sedlec Ossuary
    The Medieaval Town and St.Barbara's Church



    The Old Town

    Mediaeval Bruges

    Mediaeval Ghent

    Mediaeval Buildings

    Roman Remains

    Atuatuca Tungrorum / Tongeren
    Roman Remains in the Town



    Luxembourg City
    A Tour of the Town

    City Trips

    St.Petersburg (Russia)
    Impressions from the Neva River

    Strasbourg (France)
    A Tour of the Town

    Hiking Tours and Cruises


    Baltic Sea Coast
    Flensburg Firth
    Rugia: Jasmund Peninsula and Kap Arkona
    Rugia: Photo Impressions
    Rugia: The Pier of Sellin
    A Tour on the Wakenitz River

    Lüneburg Heath
    Hiking Tours in the Lüneburg Heath

    Harz National Park
    Arboretum (Bad Grund)
    Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
    Devil's Wall
    Ilse Valley and Ilse's Rock
    Oderteich Reservoir
    Rappbode Reservoir
    Views from Harz mountains

    Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
    Bruchteiche / Bad Sooden Allendorf
    Hessian Switzerland

    Nature Park Solling-Vogler
    The Forest Pasture Project
    Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

    Nature Park Reinhardswald
    Old Forest at the Sababurg

    Thuringian Forests
    Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

    Rivers and Lakes
    The Danube in Spring
    Edersee Reservoir
    A Rainy Rhine Cruise
    Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut
    Weser River Ferry
    Weser Skywalk

    Harz Falcon Park
    Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
    Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life
    Red squirrels

    Spring Impressions from Göttingen
    Spring in the Hardenberg Castle Gardens
    Spring in the Meissner
    Memories of Summer
    Summer Hiking Tours 2016
    Autumn in the Meissner
    Autumn at Werra and Weser
    Winter at the 'Kiessee' Lake

    United Kingdom

    The East Coast
    By Ferry to Newcastle
    Highland Mountains: Inverness to John o'Groats
    Some Photos from the East Coast

    Scottish Sea Shores
    Crossing to Mull
    Mull: Craignure to Fionnphort
    Dunollie and Kilchurn: Photo Impressions
    Pentland Firth
    Summer in Oban

    Scotland by Train
    West Highland Railway

    Views of Snowdownia

    Sea Gulls


    Coast of Norway: Hurtigruten-Tour
    A Voyage into Winter
    Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
    Along the Coast of Norway - North of the Polar Circle

    Norway by Train
    From Oslo to Bergen
    From Trondheim to Oslo

    Bearded Seals
    Dog Sledding With Huskies
    Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord

    The Baltic Sea

    A Baltic Sea Cruise

    The Curonian Spit in Lithuania
    Beaches at the Curonian Spit
    Geology of the Curonian Spit

    Mediaeval History

    General Essays

    by Country
    - Germany
    - England
    - Scotland
    - Wales
    - Denmark
    - Norway
    - Sweden
    - Livonia
    - Lithuania
    - Poland
    - Bohemia
    - Luxembourg
    - Flanders

    Roman History

    The Romans at War
    Famous Romans
    Roman Life and Religion

    Other Times

    Neolithicum to Iron Age
    Post-Mediaeval History
    History and Literature

    Mediaeval History

    General Essays

    Mediaeval Warfare


    Late Mediaeval Swords

    Mediaeval Art and Craft

    Mediaeval Art
    The Choir Screen in the Cathedral of Mainz
    The Gospels of Heinrich the Lion
    The Hunting Frieze in Königslutter Cathedral
    Mediaeval Monster Carvings
    The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

    Medical Instruments


    The History of Feudalism
    The Beginnings
    Feudalism in the 10th Century

    Special Cases
    The privilege of the deditio

    The Hanseatic League

    The History of the Hanseatic League
    Introduction and Beginnings

    Hanseatic Architecture
    Examples of Brick Architecture
    Hall Houses (Dielenhäuser)

    Goods and Trade
    Stockfish Trade

    Towns of the Hanseatic League
    Tallinn / Reval

    The Order of the Teutonic Knights

    Wars and Battles
    The Conquest of Danzig
    The Siege of Vilnius 1390

    The Vikings

    Viking Material Culture
    The Viking Treasure of Hiddensee

    Viking Ships
    The Nydam Ship

    Essays by Country



    List of Mediaeval German Emperors
    Anglo-German Marriage Connections

    Kings and Emperors

    The Salian Dynasty
    King Heinrich IV

    Staufen against Welfen
    Emperor Otto IV

    Princes and Lords

    House Welfen
    Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors
    The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
    Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen

    The Landgraves of Thuringia
    The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
    Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

    Dukes and Princes of other Families
    Duke Otto of Northeim
    Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus

    Counts and Local Lords
    The Marshals of Ebersburg
    The Counts of Everstein
    The Counts of Hohnstein
    The Lords of Plesse
    The Counts of Reichenbach
    The Counts of Winzenburg

    Feuds and Rebellions

    Royal Troubles
    Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg

    Local Feuds
    The Lüneburg Succession War
    The Thuringian Succession War
    The Star Wars


    Kings of England

    House Plantagenet
    Richard Lionheart in Speyer
    King Henry IV's Lithuanian Crusade

    Normans, Britons, Angevins

    Great Noble Houses
    The Dukes of Brittany
    The Earls of Richmond

    Contested Borders

    King Stephen's Troubles with King David of Scots


    Kings of Scots

    House Dunkeld
    Malcolm III and Northumbria
    Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
    King David and the Civil War, Part 1
    King David and the Civil War, Part 2

    Houses Bruce and Stewart
    The Early Stewart Kings

    Local Troubles

    Clan Feuds
    MacLeans and MacDonalds
    A Scottish Wedding

    Scotland and England

    The Wars of Independence
    Alexander of Argyll
    The Fight for Stirling Castle


    Welsh Princes

    The Princes of Gwynedd
    The Rise of House Aberffraw

    Wales and England

    A History of Rebellion
    Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


    Kings of Denmark

    House of Knýtlinga
    Harald Bluetooth's Flight to Pomerania

    Danish Rule in the Baltic Sea

    The Duchy of Estonia
    Danish Kings and German Sword Brothers


    Kings of Norway

    Foreign Relations
    King Eirik's Scottish Marriages
    King Håkon V's Swedish Politics
    Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

    Feuds and Rebellions

    Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


    Troubles and Alliances

    Scandinavian Unity
    Beginnings of the Kalmar Union

    (Latvia and Estonia)

    Contested Territories

    Livonian Towns
    The History of Mediaeval Riga
    The History of Mediaeval Tallinn


    Lithuanian Princes

    The Geminid Dynasty
    Troublesome Cousins - Jogaila and Vytautas

    The Northern Crusades

    The Wars in Lithuania
    The Siege of Vilnius 1390


    Royal Dynasties

    The Jagiełłonian Kings
    Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish-Lithuanian Union

    The Northern Crusades

    The Conquest of Pomerania / Prussia
    The Conquest of Danzig


    Royal Dynasties

    The Bohemian Kings of House Luxembourg
    King Sigismund and the Hussite Wars


    House Luxembourg
    King Sigismund


    More to come

    Roman History

    The Romans at War

    Forts and Fortifications

    The German Limes
    The Cavalry Fort Aalen
    Limes Fort Osterburken
    Limes Fort Saalburg

    The Hadrian's Wall
    The Fort at Segedunum / Wallsend

    Border Life
    Exercise Halls
    Mile Castles and Watch Towers
    Soldiers' Living Quarters
    Cavalry Barracks

    Campaigns and Battles

    The Romans in Germania

    The Pre-Varus Invasion in Germania
    Roman Camp Hedemünden
    New Finds in 2008

    The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
    Museum Park at Kalkriese

    The Battle at the Harzhorn

    The Batavian Rebellion
    A Short Introduction

    Roman Militaria

    Early Imperial Helmets
    Late Roman Helmets
    The Negau B Helmet

    Weapon Finds at Hedemünden
    The pilum

    Other Equipment
    Roman Saddles

    Famous Romans

    The Late Empire

    The Legend of Alaric's Burial

    Roman Life and Religion

    Religion and Public Life

    Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms
    Isis Worship
    Memorial Stones
    The Mithras Cult

    Public Life
    Roman Transport: Barges
    Roman Transport: Amphorae and Barrels
    Roman Water Supply

    Roman Public Baths

    Domestic Life

    Roman villae
    Villa Urbana Longuich
    Villa Rustica Wachenheim

    Everyday Life
    Bathing Habits
    Children's Toys
    Face Pots

    Other Times

    Neolithicum to Iron Age


    Development of Civilisation
    European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
    The Hutewald Project in the Solling
    Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

    Neolithic Remains
    Stone Burials of the Funnelbeaker Culture
    The Necropolis of Oldendorf

    Bronze Age / Iron Age
    The Nydam Ship


    Neolithic Orkney
    The Neolithic Landscape of Orkney
    Ring of Brodgar
    Skara Brae
    Life in Skara Brae

    Bronze Age / Iron Age
    Clava Cairns
    The Brochs of Gurness and Midhowe - Their Function in Iron Age Society


    Bronze / Iron Age
    The Ship Setting of Gnisvärd / Gotland

    Post-Mediaeval History

    Explorers and Discoveries

    Fram Expedition to the North Pole
    Fram Expedition to the South Pole

    Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
    Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

    History and Literature


    The Weimar Classicism


    Geological Landscapes: Germany

    Baltic Sea Coast
    Chalk Cliffs on Rugia
    Flint Fields on Rugia

    Harz Mountains
    Bode Valley and Rosstrappe Cliff
    The 'Hübichenstein' Rock
    Karst Formations in Southern Harz
    The Lonau Falls
    The Rhume Springs
    Sandstone Formations: Daneil's Cave
    Sandstone Formations: Devil's Wall
    Sandstone Formations: The Klus Rock

    Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
    Blue Dome near Eschwege
    Diabase and Basalt Formations
    Karst Formations
    Salt Springs at the Werra

    Raised Bog Mecklenbruch
    Hannover Cliffs

    Geological Landscapes: Great Britain

    The Shores of Scotland

    Geological Landscapes: Baltic Sea

    Geology of the Curonian Spit

    Fossils and Other Odd Rocks

    Fossilized Ammonites
    The Loket Meteorite (Czechia)

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