My History Blog, Focussing mostly on Roman and Mediaeval Times


31/12/2008
  Happy New Year

We're close to the beginning of the New Year, and it's time again for making resolutions that won't be kept until January 10th or so. Personally, I've given up on that, but some historical characters have made New Year Resolutions that can be found here and on the blogs of Susan Higginbotham and Nan Hawthorne.

  • Alexander the Great: Come up with other town names than Alexandria.
  • Hannibal: Take some lessons in Italian geography.
  • Arminius: Kick the Romans out of Germania and myself into German legend.
  • Chariovalda: Take swimming lessons.
  • Nero: Win Roman Idol and tour Greece.
  • Septimius Severus: Spend some quality time with my sons.
  • Caracalla: Get a bigger bathroom.
  • Louis the Pious: Tell my sons I'm the king and can send them to bed without supper.
  • Maud: Have an equal opportunity commisioner present at the royal succession debate.
  • Heinrich IV: Rehearse that contrite expression.
  • Richard Lionheart: Be nice to Johnny.
  • Edward I: Take a course in accountancy.
  • William Shakespeare: Do more research.
  • Sir Walter Scott. Stop collecting antiquites. My house is cluttered already.
  • Richard Sharpe: Settle down. Well, maybe..


  • I wish everyone a Happy, Healthy and Prosperous New Year.
     


    29/12/2008
      Summer in the Harz. With Castles

    After all those posts with lots of text and few pictures, I thought I'd go back to some picture posts for a change. Summer impressions on a cold winter day.

    View to the north-eastern Harz foothills

    Seen from Regenstein Castle. Somewhere in the distance lies Quedlinburg


    Michaelstein Monastery, cloister

    Remains of a 12th century Cisterciensian monastery. The cloister and some of the outhouses have been preserved and today house a museum for music instruments, a school, and a restaurant.

    Michaelstein Monastery, herbal garden

    I want a garden like that.


    Falkenstein Castle

    Falkenstein Castle was originally built in 1115 and altered several times during the following centuries. It was never conquered, but in the 18th century it was a ruin until the then owner reconstructed most of the buildings.

    View from Falkenstein Castle to the Selke valley

    Germany can be very green, too.


    Arnstein Castle

    A picturesque ruin. And a nice uphill walk in 30°C summer heat.


    Bode River

    One of the many shots I took of that one. I love running water.


    Rappbode Reservoir

    The sun had given way to some thunderclouds, and the air was very still.
     


    26/12/2008
      Historical Christmas Wishes

    Trust Susan Higginbotham and Nan Hawthorne to come up with some fun. What some historical characters would like to find under the Christmas tree.

  • Varus: To just get OUTTA HERE.
  • Arminius: Roman baths.
  • Segestes: An obedient daughter.
  • Caligula: Shiny new boots.
  • Nero: An e-guitar.
  • Agricola: Caledonia.
  • Calgacus: More PS to my chariot.
  • Maximinus Thrax: More wine.
  • Honorius: Some sheets to hide under until the Visigoths are gone.
  • Charlemagne: A new rearguard.
  • Heinrich I: Fowling equipment. A crown would be nice, too.
  • Heinrich IV: A pope's head or two in a vinegar jar.
  • Heinrich the Lion of Saxony: My lands back.
  • Friedrich Barbarossa: A life jacket.
  • Eleanor of Aquitaine: Marriage counselling for my husband. It's not my fault.
  • Henry II: Family therapy for my wife and sons. It's not my fault.
  • Llywelyn Fawr. Glass windows for Criccieth Castle.
  • Richard III: A horse.
  • William Wallace: The director of Braveheart.
  • Duke of Wellington: Night. Or the Prussians.


  • Here's the reason why Llywelyn wants new windows
     


    24/12/2008
      Frohe Weihnachten

    I wish everyone a Merry Christmas. May Santa Claus, the Christkind or whoever is responsible for the task, bring you lots of books and other presents.

     


    11/12/2008
      Romanesque Ornaments

    I mentioned that one of the features of the Chapter Church in Quedlinburg is the decorative frieze that runs around the main nave. It does so on the outside as well. I got a good view at a piece of it from a window of the abbesses' Renaissance palace that today houses a museum.

    Frieze on the main nave of Quedlinburg Cathedral

    It is an architectural element that found its way from Italy into German buildings. While in Königslutter the monsters and figures are restricted to the apsis, and the other parts of the frieze (they can be seen on these photos) are merely patterned, Quedlinburg Cathedral shows a mix of monsters and ornaments all the way on the outside - the interior frieze has no monsters, though.

    Frieze detail, showing some monsters and animals (partly restored)

    Not all Romanesque churches have such friezes (the Weser abbey churches of Lippoldsberg and Bursfelde don't) whereas others take the ornaments a step further, like the Imperial Cathedral in Speyer with its decorative arcades running around the entire building.
     


    09/12/2008
      Chapter Church Quedlinburg

    The old town of Quedlinburg is dominated by the Chapter Church St. Servatius (also refered to as Quedlinburg Cathedral) on the Castle Hill. There's no exterior shot except the one on the post about the town because of the scaffolding, but I got some nice interior ones.

    Main nave, view to the choir

    The hill had been the site of a palatine castle and a chapel when Mathilde, widow of Heinrich I, commissioned the building of a chapter church to replace the smaller chapel where her husband lay entombed. It took from 997 to 1021 for the church to be finished, and after a fire part of it had to be rebuilt. The present church was consecrated in 1129, in presence of King Lothar of Süpplingenburg, the later Emperor and founder of Königslutter Cathedral.

    View towards the north aisle

    The Romanesque interior shows the so called Niedersächsischer Stützenwechsel (Lower Saxonian Pillar Alternation) with rows of two slender pillars, one square column, two pillars again, one column. The pillars divide the main nave from the lower aisles (basilica style). The west wall holds the Imperial Lodge behind the upper row of interior windows (see post about town) which was proabably used not only by the Emperors during their visits to Quedlinburg but also by the abbesses and ladies of the chapter.

    An example of the Stützenwechsel

    The choir to the east was rebuilt in the Gothic style under the Abbess Jutta von Kranichfeld in 1320. In 1938 an attempt was made to restore the Romanesque interior by adding an apsis wall to the choir. It is a high choir (like in Lippoldsberg) since the crypt is not built into a cellar but on one base with the nave, though using lower vaults - in case of Quedlinburg I suppose the sandstone bedrock was the reason.

    Crypt

    The crypt is undergoing renovation so I could only get a sneak photo through the iron grilled door. I think the two tomb plates in the background are the ones of Heinrich I and Mathilda.

    There is also a relief frieze running around the entire main nave. This as well as the decorations on the pillar capitals and the window frames show a strong Lombardian influence; much the same as Königslutter Cathedral. The ceiling is not a cross grain vault but the older timber cassette structure.

    View to south aisle - you can see the frieze under the upper windows

    The transept has very short wings with separate rooms that today are used to display the famous Domschatz (Cathedral Treasure) parts of which have been given back from the US. Because of the dim light it was almost impossible to get photos, though, and I don't use flash near objects that may react badly to stark light.

    Room in the transept with treasure exhibition

    During a restoration under Ferdinand von Quast in 1882 two 'Romanesque' towers with the wrong sort of gables were added, so that the most outstanding feature of the church is actually the youngest. I hope they use the ongoing renovation as chance to replace those roofs with something more authentic looking.
     


    04/12/2008
      Aberystwyth Impressions

    Aberystwyth was a flyby visit on my way from Pembroke to Caernarfon, though should I ever come to Wales again, I'd like to spend more time there than two hours. It's a lively place because of the many students, but less hectic than Bangor with its connection to the train line to Manchester. James from the Sir Benfro blog (that's not a title, but Welsh for shire, btw.) gave me a qick tour to the promenade and the castle remains.

    View to the Pier at low tide

    The pier had once been 900 feet long, but only about 300 remain today after the sea reclaimed parts of it. The sea tends to do that; Ceredigion Bay is also the location of the legendary Cantre'r Gwaelod, one of the sunken cities that line the coasts - its legends are related to Kêr Ys in Brittany.

    The history of Aberystwyth goes back to the 4th century BC when Iron Age settlers fortified the hilltop called Pen Dinas. The remains of that large hillfort can still be seen. Albeit the Romans had been in the area (there's a stretch of arrow straight road the way I came that stands out among the winding Welsh tracks, and James told me that a few remains of a smaller Roman fortress can be found near where he lives) there is no trace they ever tried to establish a Roman fort on the site.

    Pen Dinas, seen from the castle

    To the far right is a slender pillar; a monument erected in 1852 to honour the Duke of Wellington's victory at Waterloo, paid by public funding. It's interesting to see what people in the 19th century were willing to support financially - we got the misplaced Hermann (Arminius) monument much the same way. Try that today and you'll get laughed at.

    In the foreground are some of the stones that form a bardic circle of 13 standing stones symbolising the 13 old counties, pre the 1974 reform. The castle ruins have become a park today, a change Edward II might have liked better than his father.

    Aberystwyth Castle, one of the towers

    But it was not Edward I who started the castle building at Aberystwyth, it was one of the Gilbert de Clares who erected an earthen and timber ringwork castle down at the river Ystwyth in the 12th century.

    In the early 13th century, after he ousted the de Clares and other Norman chaps, Llywelyn ap Iorweth 'the Great' decided a hill by the sea was a better place for a castle than a valley and built the first one in the present spot. Makes one wonder why he didn't chose Pen Dinas, either. Like so many castle at the time, the one of Aberystwyth changed hands several times after Llywelyn's death as the Norman/Welsh wars moved to and fro.

    Aberystwyth Castle, remains of the inner bailey and hall

    Edward I was the one who got really serious about the castle thing once he conquered the Welsh, and turned Aberystwyth castle into a structure as formidable as Caernarfon or Conwy. Our friend Master James was the official overseer though he soon left his associate Master Giles of St. George in charge and returned to north Wales. The modernising of Aberystwyth castle according to the standards of 1294 cost 'only' some 4,300 pounds.

    The reason the castle is damaged much worse than Ed's other biggies lies in the fact that the sea is only a few yards away, and on a bad day not even that. Add to that the gales and torrents of a typical Welsh day, and even stone and mortar will crumble within time. The castle was beginning to succomb to decay as early as 1343, and the Civil War saw the end of it.

    Old College with Constitution Hill in the background

    What we got here is not a castle or cathedral, though it looks a bit like a mix of both, but the Castle Hotel, built 1872. It soon went bancrupt and was bought by the University College of Wales. It still houses some departments of the university, besides the newer locations at Penglais Campus and Llanbadarn Campus. The students surely got a pretty place to work in, but I wonder how often they'll find the Atlantic in the cellar. Let's hope they at least have a functioning central heating, something the Llywelyns, Owains, Henrys and Edwards will have sorely missed. Maybe that's the reason the Romans stayed away from the rain- and windswept Ceredigion Bay.

    I was lucky, I had a nice day when I visited Aberystwyth.
     




    The Lost Fort is a history blog based on my journeys in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, and other places. It includes essays on Roman and Mediaeval history and architecture, as well as some geology, illustrated with my own photos of old castles and churches, Roman remains, pretty towns and beautiful landscapes.

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    I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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    Regenstein
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    The Caves Under the Castle

    Welsh Castles

    Criccieth
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    King Edward's Buildings


    Scandinavia

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    Defense over the Centuries
    Akershus Fortress: Middle Ages
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    Vardøhus Fortress

    Sweden

    Towns

    Stockholm
    The Vasa Museum


    Russia

    The Splendour of St.Petersburg

    Cathedrals
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    The Neva
    Impressions from the The Neva River


    Poland and the Baltic States

    Lithuania

    Historical Landscapes
    The Curonian Spit


    Belgium and Luxembourg

    Belgium / Flanders

    Towns

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    A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Bruges

    Ghent
    A Virtual Tour through Mediaeval Ghent

    Tongeren
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    Luxembourg

    Luxembourg City

    A Virtual Town Tour


    France

    Strasbourg
    A Virtual Walk through the Town


    Other Times

    Prehistoric Times to Iron Age

    Ages of Stone and Bronze

    Development of Civilization
    European Bread Museum, Ebergötzen
    Open Air Museum Oerlinghausen

    From Stone to Bronze
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    Gnisvärd Ship Setting on Gotland

    Pre-Historic Orkney
    Ring of Brodgar - Introduction
    Ring of Brodgar - The Neolithic Landscape
    Skara Brae
    Life in Skara Brae


    Post-Mediaeval Times

    Powder and Steam

    Development of Weapons
    Historical Guns

    Steampunk and Beyond
    The Fram Museum in Oslo
    Vintage Car Museum, Wolfsburg


    - Germany
    - United Kingdom
    - Scandinavia
    - Baltic Sea


    Beautiful Germany

    The Baltic Sea Coast
    From the Bay of Wismar to Hiddensee
    The Flensburg Firth
    A Tour on the Wakenitz River

    Harz National Park
    Arboretum (Bad Grund)
    Bode Valley, Rosstrappe and Devil's Wall
    Cave Dwellings in Langenstein
    Harzburg and the Ilsetal
    Oderteich Reservoir
    Views from Harz mountains

    Nature Park Meissner-Kaufunger Wald
    Sea Stones, Kitzkammer, Heldrastein
    'Hessian Switzerland'
    Karst Dolines and Kalbe Lake

    Nature Park Solling-Vogler
    The Hutewald Forest
    The Raised Bog Mecklenbruch

    Rivers and Lakes
    The Danube in Spring
    Edersee Reservoir
    A Rainy Rhine Cruise
    River of the Greenest Shores - The Moselle
    Vineyards at Saale and Unstrut

    Parks and Palaces
    Botanical Garden Göttingen
    Forest Botanical Garden, Göttingen
    Hardenberg Castle Gardens
    Junkerberg Cemetary
    Wilhelmsthal Palace and Gardens

    Other Landscape Sites
    Oberderdorla and Hainich National Park

    Seasons and More

    Spring
    Spring on my Balcony
    Spring at the Kiessee Lake
    Spring in the Rossbach Heath

    Summer
    Memories of Summer
    Summer Hiking Tours 2016
    Summer Thunderstorms

    Autumn
    Autumnal Views from Castle Windows
    Autumn Photos from Harz and Werra
    Autumn in the Meissner
    Autumn at Werra and Weser

    Winter
    Advent Impressions
    Christmas Decorations from the Ore Mountains
    Winter at the Kiessee Lake
    Winter Wonderland
    Winter 2010

    Wildlife
    Birds at the Feeder
    Harz Falcon Park
    Ozeaneum Stralsund: The Baltic Sea Life
    Ozeaneum Stralsund: The North Sea Life

    Experimental
    Alien Architecture
    Carved Monsters in Cathedrals
    Llama, Llama
    Odd Angles
    Spectacular Sunset
    Carved Animals


    Across the Channel - United Kingdom

    Mountains, Valleys, and Rivers
    Sheep Grazing Among Roman Remains
    A Ghost Cruise on the Ouse River
    West Highland Railway

    The East Coast
    By Ferry to Newcastle
    Highland Mountains - Inverness to John o'Groats
    Some Photos from the East Coast

    Scottish Sea Shores
    Crossing to Mull
    Mull - Craignure to Fionnphort
    Pentland Firth
    Staffa
    Summer Days in Oban
    Summer Nights in Oban

    Wild Wales - With Castles
    Hazy Views with Castles
    Shadows and Strongholds
    Views from Castle Battlements

    Wildlife
    Sea Gulls


    Land of Light and Darkness - Scandinavia

    Norway

    The Hurtigruten-Tour
    A Voyage into Winter
    The Farthest North
    Culture and Nature in Norway
    Along the Coast of Norway - Light and Darkness
    Along the Coast - North of the Polar Circle

    Norway by Train
    From Oslo to Bergen
    From Trondheim to Oslo

    Wildlife
    Bearded Seals
    Dog Sledding With Huskies
    Eagles and Gulls in the Trollfjord


    Shores of History - The Baltic Sea

    Baltic Sea Cruise

    Lithuania

    Nida and the Curonian Spit
    Beaches at the Curonian Spit




    Historia
    Geologia
    Delectatio (Fun Stuff)
    Comblogium (Blog Roll)
    Conexiones (Links)

    - Roman History
    - Mediaeval History
    - Other Times and Miscellanea


    Roman History

    Wars and Frontiers

    Maps
    Romans in Germania

    Traces of the Pre-Varus Conquest
    Roman Camp Hedemünden
    New Finds in 2008

    The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
    Museum Park at Kalkriese

    The Battle at the Harzhorn
    Introduction

    Along the Limes
    Limes Fort Osterburken
    Limes Fort Saalburg

    Roman Frontiers in Britain
    Hadrian's Wall

    Rebellions
    The Batavian Rebellion

    Roman Militaria

    Armour
    Early Imperial Helmets
    Late Roman Helmets
    The Negau B Helmet

    Weapons
    The pilum
    Daggers
    Swords

    Other Equipment
    Roman Saddles

    Life and Religion

    Religion
    The Mithras Cult
    Isis Worship
    Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms

    Everyday Life
    Bathing Habits
    Children's Toys
    Face Pots
    Styli and Wax Tablets

    Public Life
    Roman Transport - Barges
    Roman Transport - Amphorae and Barrels
    Roman Water Supply

    Roman villae
    Villa Rustica Wachenheim

    Miscellaneous
    Legend of Alaric's Burial


    Mediaeval History

    Feudalism
    Feudalism, Beginnings
    Feudalism, 10th Century
    The Privilege of the deditio
    A Note on handgenginn maðr

    The Hanseatic League
    Introduction and Beginnings
    Stockfish Trade


    Germany

    Geneaologies

    List of Mediaeval German Emperors

    Geneaology
    Anglo-German Marriage Connections
    Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors

    Biographies

    Kings and Emperors
    King Heinrich IV
    Emperor Otto IV, Introduction

    Princes
    Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen
    The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
    Otto of Northeim
    The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
    Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

    Counts and Local Lords
    The Marshals of Ebersburg
    The Counts of Everstein
    The Counts of Hohnstein
    The Lords of Plesse
    The Counts of Reichenbach
    The Counts of Winzenburg

    Famous Feuds

    Local Feuds
    The Lüneburg Succession War
    The Thuringian Succession War - Introduction
    The Star Wars

    Royal Troubles
    Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg


    England and Normandy

    From the Conquest to King John

    Normans, Britons, and Angevins
    The Dukes of Brittany and the Honour of Richmond

    From Henry III to the War of the Roses

    Great Fiefs
    The Earldom of Richmond and the Duchy of Brittany


    Scotland

    Kings of Scots

    House Dunkeld
    Malcolm III and Northumbria
    Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
    King David and the Civil War (1)
    King David and the Civil War (2)

    Houses Bruce and Stewart
    Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle
    The Early Stewart Kings

    Scottish Nobles and their Quarrels

    Clan Feuds
    MacLeans and MacDonalds
    A Scottish Wedding


    Wales

    Princes and Rebels

    The Princes of Gwynedd
    The Rise of House Aberffraw

    The Rebellions
    From Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


    Scandinavia

    Kings and Vikings

    Kings of Norway
    King Eirik's Scottish Marriages

    Famous Nobles and their Feuds
    Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


    Other Times and Miscellanea

    Post-Mediaeval History

    Discoveries
    Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
    Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

    Explorers
    Fram Expedition to the North Pole
    Fram Expedition to the South Pole

    History in Opera and Literature

    Opera

    Belcanto and Historicism
    Maria Padilla - Mistress Royal
    The Siege of Calais in Donizetti's Opera

    Historical Ballads

    Ballads by Th. Fontane, translated by me
    About Theodor Fontane
    Archibald Douglas
    Gorm Grymme
    Sir Walter Scott in Abbotsford
    The Tragedy of Afghanistan


    Geological Landscapes

    The Baltic Sea
    Geology of the Curonian Spit

    The Harz
    Karst Landscape
    Karst - Lonau Falls
    Karst - Rhume Springs

    Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
    Blue Dome near Eschwege
    Diabase and Basalt Formations
    Karst Formations

    Solling-Vogler
    Raised Bogs
    The Hannover Cliffs

    The Shores of Scotland
    Staffa

    Paleontology

    Fossils
    Ammonites


    Fun Stuff

    Not So Serious Romans
    Aelius Rufus Visits the Future Series
    Building Hadrian's Wall
    Playmobil Romans

    Royal (Hi)Stories
    Kings Having a Bad Hair Day
    The Case of the Vanished Wine Cask

    Historical Memes
    Charlemagne meme
    Historical Christmas Wishes
    New Year Resolutions
    Aelius Rufus does a Meme
    Rules for Writing Scottish Romances

    Funny Sights
    Tourist Kitsch in St.Petersburg

    My Novels in Progress / Planning

    I'm a bit of a writer, too; here are the novel projects on which I'm currently working

    Roman Novels (Historical Fiction)
    The Saga of House Sichelstein (Historical Fiction)
    Kings and Rebels (Fantasy)


    *********************

    Links leading outside my blog will open in a new window. I do not take any responsibility for the content of linked sites.

    History Blogs - Ancient

    Roman History Today
    Ancient Times (Mary Harrsch)
    Bread and Circuses (Adrian Murdoch)
    Following Hadrian (Carole Raddato)
    Mike Anderson's Ancient History Blog
    Mos Maiorum - Der römische Weg
    Per Lineam Valli (M.C. Bishop)
    Zenobia (Judith Weingarten)

    Digging Up Fun Stuff
    The Anglo-Saxon Archaeology Blog
    Arkeologi i Nord
    The Journal of Antiquities (Britain)
    The Northern Antiquarian
    The Roman Archaeology Blog

    History Blogs - Mediaeval

    Þaér wæs Hearpan Swég
    Anglo Saxon, Norse & Celtic Blog
    Casting Light upon the Shadow (A. Whitehead)
    Norse and Viking Ramblings
    Outtakes of a Historical Novelist (Kim Rendfeld)

    Beholden Ye Aulde Blogges
    A Clerk of Oxford
    Daily Medieval
    Historical Britain Blog (Mercedes Rochelle)
    Magistra et Mater (Rachel Stone)
    Michelle of Heavenfield (Michelle Ziegler)
    Senchus (Tim Clarkson)

    Royal and Other Troubles
    Edward II (Kathryn Warner)
    Henry the Young King (Kasia Ogrodnik)
    Piers Gaveston (Anerje)
    Lady Despenser's Scribery
    Simon de Montfort (Darren Baker)
    Weaving the Tapestry (Scottish Houses Dunkeld and Stewart)

    A Mixed Bag of History
    English Historical Fiction Authors
    The Freelance History Writer (Susan Abernethy)
    The History Blog
    History, the Interesting Bits (S.B. Connolly)
    Mediaeval Manuscripts Blog
    Mediaeval News (Niall O'Brian)
    Time Present and Time Past (Mark Patton)

    Thoughts and Images

    Reading and Reviews
    Black Gate Blog
    The Blog That Time Forgot (Al Harron)
    Parmenion Books
    Reading the Past
    The Wertzone

    Imaginations
    David Blixt
    Ex Urbe (Ada Palmer)
    Constance A. Brewer
    Jenny Dolfen Illustrations
    Wild and Wonderful (Caroline Gill)

    German Travel Blogs
    Alte Steine
    Blickgewinkelt
    Meerblog
    Reiseaufnahmen
    Sonne und Wolken
    Teilzeitreisender
    Travelita
    Unterwegs und Daheim

    Highland Mountains
    The Hazel Tree (Jo Woolf)
    Helen in Wales
    Mountains and Sea Scotland

    The Colours of the World
    Shutterbugs


    Research

    Archaeology
    Past Horizons
    Archaeology in Europe
    Orkneyar

    Roman History
    Deutsche Limeskommission
    Internet Ancient Sourcebook
    Livius.org
    Roman Army
    Roman Britain
    The Romans in Britain
    Vindolanda Tablets

    Not so Dark Ages
    Burgundians in the Mist
    Viking Society for Northern Research

    Mediaeval History
    De Re Militari
    Internet Mediaeval Sourcebook
    Kulturzeit
    The Labyrinth
    Mediaeval Crusades
    Medievalists.Net

    Castles
    Burgenarchiv
    Burgerbe
    Burgenwelt
    Exploring Castles
    The World of Castles

    Miscellaneous History
    Heritage Daily
    The History Files

    Mythology
    Ancient History
    Encyclopedia Mythica

    Online Journals
    Ancient Warfare
    The Heroic Age
    The History Files

    Travel and Guide Sites

    Germany - History
    Antike Stätten in Deutschland
    Burgenarchiv
    Strasse der Romanik

    Germany - Nature
    HarzLife
    Naturpark Meissner
    Naturpark Solling-Vogler

    England
    English Heritage
    Visit Northumberland

    Scotland
    The Chain Mail (Scottish History)
    Historic Scotland
    National Trust Scotland

    Books and Writing

    Interesting Author Websites
    Bernard Cornwell
    Dorothy Dunnett
    Steven Erikson
    Diana Gabaldon
    Guy Gavriel Kay
    George R.R. Martin
    Sharon Kay Penman
    Brandon Sanderson
    J.R.R. Tolkien
    Tad Williams

    Historical Fiction
    Historical Novel Society
    Historia Magazine

    Writing Sites
    Absolute Write
    TheLitForum.com
    National Novel Writing Month


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