Illustrated Travel Journal with Essays about Roman and Mediaeval History


24/09/2011
  Built Into a Town Wall - The Amphitheatre in Augusta Treverorum (Trier)

Salvete amici, here's Aelius Rufus again. Gabriele asked me to take over today's post. That she had to drag me out of the baths in Augusta Treverorum is just a rumour, though. She caught me on my way to the baths.

Gabriele said she thought her readers were starting to miss posts about the glorious Roman civilization after all that stuff about odd rock formations, and castelli in what some of our geographers refer to as Thule. I'm really glad Tony ... oops, the noble Emperor Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus Pius, never got the idea to conquer that dismal country. Darkness for three months and snow for six is not my idea of fun, and I'm used to some snow from my home in the Alpes. The Romans would mutiny if they got deployed to that Vardøhus place - they didn't even have decent baths there. Definitely worse than the Hadrian's Wall.

So, today we're going to visit the amphitheatre in Augusta Treverorum.

Amphitheatre Trier, main entrance (the south gate)

I mentioned in my post about the Roman Bridge that the Colonia Augusta Treverorum was founded in 17 BC by the Emperor Augustus and soon developed to a rich and prospering town. Most inhabitants were members of the tribe of the Treveri and other Gauls who imitated the Roman lifestyle gladly. Can't blame them; indoor plumbing beats going to the well every morning, especially in winter. And underfloor heating is nice, too. It didn't take long for the first mosaics and frescoes to appear, either. Those wine, pottery, and cloth merchants made a helluva money.

After Vespasian won the civil war in AD 71 and cleaned up both Iudaea and northern Gaul and the German border, he put some effort into making Augusta Treverorum even more beautiful. He had new building sites developed, erected the first stone bridge across the Moselle, and a splendid forum. Gabriele says nothing remains of the latter, though.

Main gate seen from the arena

During the time of Emperor Hadrian (AD 117-138), the government and the central tax office of the province Gallia Belgica were moved to Augusta Treverorum which became the residence of the legatus Augusti pro praetore, and wow did he get a fine office block. Mosaics are not part of government buildings these days, I've heard, they tend to be rather bland. But the amount of clerks and subclerks, and the paperwork were pretty much the same - two copies, please.

Our venerable Antoninus Pius then added a town wall, not for defense since the province is calm these days and the Germans mostly stay put on the other side of the Rhenus, but for show. One of its great gates, the Porta Nigra, has survived 2000 years.

North gate

A town the size of Augusta Treverorum (it was three times as large as the Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensis aka Cologne, neiner, neiner) of course needed an amphitheatre. The Celts are as fond of gladiator fights and animal baitings than the Romans. I know what I'm talking about. *grin*

There had been a timber-built amphitheatre dating to the 2nd half of the 1st century AD, but no self respecting Roman town wanted to keep such an outdated thing around, so a new one was constructed in the last third of the 2nd century. The remains of that one are still visible in the future, Gabriele told me. Roman concrete, I tell ya. :)

(Staircase beside the main entrance, leading to the upper seatings)

About 70 Roman amphitheatres are known; the one of Augusta Treverorum (you know, I'm getting tired of scratching that long name onto my wax tablet every other sentence; I'll use the modern one, Trier, from now on) ranks at number 10 in size. The theatre could hold 18.000 - 20,000 visitors. That makes the 6000 seats of Caerleon look like a provincial arena indeed. But they had the bigger baths.

Ok, ok, back to the amphitheatre it is. The arena measures 47.5 x 71 metres (that makes 2710 m2) and is fenced in with a four metres high wall. The wall is so high because you don't want a hungry lion or bad tempered aurochs jump it and have some spectators for lunch. There was an additonal wooden screen in front of the wall as post holes show. Timber seldom survives the centuries, but archaeologists are good at finding the holes where timber posts once anchored in the earth since the colour and consistency of the soil often is different from its surroundings. And then those archaeologists discuss what the posts in those holes had been good for.

Maybe I should ask my friend Merlinus to do another time travel journey with Gaius Fannius and me to see those people from the future with their little picture boxes, dressing up as Romans and playing gladiator. We don't have picture boxes, only coins with the image of the Emperor so that everyone in the Empire knows what he looks like - if the artist did a decent job. In most cases Tony could probably pass by without being recognised if not for all that staff hanging out with him. Overpaid civilians with illusions about their own importance.

You see that the arena proper isn't larger than in the smaller theatres. The difference in size lies in the structure and number of seatings.

The seatings, in particular their support constructions, are the trickiest part in building an amphitheatre. You don't want the whole shenagian come crushing down - which has happened a few times with the older timber-built theatres. So you either go for huge, solid stone like in Vespasian's amphitheatre in Rome, which cost a fortune and some, or you need to cheat a bit.

View from the north gate across the arena to the south gate

The architects in Trier did cheat. They used the slope of the Petrisberg hill to get a rampart to support the seatings on the eastern side. Then they dug out the earth in front of it to get a nice, flat arena, and heaped that lot up on the other side of the oval. And while they were busy constructing that flashy town wall anyway, they built it so it would bend inward in a semicircle along the theatre, and volià, as the Gauls say, there they had the support wall for the western seatings. Ok, it came out a bit higher than the town wall, to 22 metres (which makes for 26 seat rows), but still it was only half the job. So one inner wall I mentioned above, half an outer one, and a few gates, and that was it. A lot less work than that monster in Rome required.

They made up for that much earth with two splendid stone portals, though, and some smaller entrances. Gabriele caught the still impressive remains with that picture box of hers. As usual, the gates were built in multiple shell technology, with two facing walls filled with a mix of concrete and abris (the latter is what mostly remains, though some of the outer stones can be seen as well). The material used in Trier is limestone for the facing walls and local shale for the filling. The masonry was once whitewashed and decorated with red grout lines.

Vomitorium on the town side

The portals were not used as visitor entrances but for parades and such. The actual entrances and the stairs leading to the higher seatings are located beside the main gates. Today the remains of the gates seem to cut the building into two halves, but once the portals had been roofed in to form an arch, and connected with the upper ranks of the seatings to complete the oval.

Besides the entrances at the portals, there were two additional, smaller entrances in the western side - the town side. This sort of entrance was called vomitorium. It has nothing to do with visitors bringing too much food and wine (though some did that); the name does mean 'spew out', but people, not breakfast. The seatings were divided by walks and a number of stairs to avoid jostling crowds.

(Arena wall with vomitorium and remains of the town wall in the background; one of the doors to gladiator chambers in the foreground)

If you look back to the wall surrounding the arena you will notice 15 doors. Those led to subterranean chambers for the gladiators and animals. The amphitheatre also had a cross-shaped cellar under the arena, with elevators and other technical equipment to add more thrill to the performances. It was added in the 3rd century. The cellar survived because it had been filled with wet clay during the centuries that preserved even part of the timber structures. The place gives a much better impression of the darkness and narrowness of arena cellars than the one of Vespasian's amphitheatre in Rome that today is open to the sky.

Like Caerleon, the amphitheatre in Trier had a drain that collected the rain water and led it through a channel under the south gate into a nearby rivulet.

Thanks to my slightly unsavoury connections (Celtic druids capable of time traveling are not people you mention in front of your centurion) I can also tell you a bit about the history past my time.

Gabriele's ancestors got frisky again in AD 275, overran the border to the Roman Empire and sacked Trier (Aelius, my ancestors were most likely Saxons, not Franks). Well, those Franks and some other Germanic tribes caused Rome enough trouble until Diocletian thoroughly reformed the administration and the military and put a stop to the raids. Trier - then called Treviris, and sometimes nicknamed Roma secunda - became one of the administrative centres of the newly organised Empire in AD 293. The Imperial towns closer to the borders pushed Rome to the second rank.

In the years to follow, Trier flourished; the amphitheatre and baths were rebuilt, a circus for chariot races added, the Imperial Palace got a complete Home Makeover and a new aula. During the 4th century, Trier had 80,000 inhabitants and was the largest town north of the Alpes.

Remains of one of the chambers for gladiators

Constantine the Great gave the last impulse to the building activities, with the Imperial Baths and the Aula Palatina as most outstanding projects. But when he later made Constantinople his residence, he left some half finished buildings behind, and the usual lack of further fundings. The Imperial Baths would become the garrison quarters while the Aula eventually got finished. (Gabriele tells me that her old post about the Aula Palatina is woefully short and that I should get my behind in a chair and scratch a better one onto my wax tablets. *sigh*).

Constantine dealt with some Frankish raider kings he captured, Ascaric and Merogais, and their merry band of robbers by feeding the whole lot to the lions in the amphithreatre. That's at least how the story goes.

Constantine also legitimised the sect of the Christians in AD 313. Those Christians had been around since the time of Tiberius; a small sect back then that believed someone called Jesus, whom Rome had crucified for insurrection down in Iudaea, was a god or the son of a god or something. I know that a few men in the army are Christians, but they never really speak about it because their religion is considered illegal. But it seems those Christians have grown in numbers and power in the future, and Constantine considered them valuable allies in his war against Maxentius.

The cellar under the arena

So when the Roman Empire collapsed and many Roman towns fell into ruins, Trier survived in a better state because it was the seat of a Christian priest, a bishop, and had several temples, what they call churches and cathedrals.

When Constantine left, the amphitheatre, situated in a handy position within the town wall, was turned into a fortress. The place gave shelter to the inhabitants of Trier when the Germans sacked the town in AD 406, the year of the great invasion across the Rhenus.

The Franks eventually conquered Trier and stayed put. They made the Aula Palatina their residence, and since they soon became Christians as well, the cathedral and most churches didn't fare too badly. The amphitheatre fell into ruins, but the vaults of the vomitoria were used as storage rooms.

View from the north across the arena

The stone seats and facing stones eventually made their way into other buildings. There's even a written contract form 1211 allowing the monks of some monastery to use the amphitheatre as quarry. In the 19th century, the place became a vineyeard, and that's almost Roman, heh.

Later, the interest in us Romans grew again, and some archaeologists dug the remains of the amphitheatre out of the earth - the earthen slopes had over time eroded and covered most of the remains. The first digs took place in 1816. The ruins were preserved and the inner wall was rebuilt so that the theatre can be used for performances today (though not involving lions and sharp weapons). The cellar has also been made accessible. Curse tablets which have been found there - what is that about gladiators and curse tablets, lol - can be seen in the Landesmuseum.

Source:
Klaus-Peter Goethert, Römerbauten in Trier. Burgen, Schlösser, Altertümer Rheinland Pfalz, volume 20. Landesmedienzentrum Rheinland-Pfalz, 2005
 
Comments:
Great! Love it. No history like that here :[
http://woodsrunnersdiary.blogspot.com/
 
Fascinating!
 
Great photos, thanks Gabrielle! It's very beautiful, there, and I had never heard of those ruins. Would love to see them some day.
 
What a neat amphitheater! Thanks for the tour, Aeilius Rufus. Love the photos. :)
 
Where is the "Like" button on this blog? :-)
 
Thank you, everyone.

Simon, Trier is definitely worth a visit. Three baths, the amphitheatre, the Porta Nigra, the Aula Palatina, the Roman bridge.... Plus it's a pretty, typical German town with half timbered and step gabled houses, an old cathedral and whatnot.
 
Welcome back, Aelius Rufus :-)
Ingenious, using the town wall for part of the seating. You have to hand it to Roman engineers.
 
Salve, Carla. Yes, those engineers had a few tricks up their sleeve. And the amphitheatre in Trier came much cheaper than the big new on in Rome. The administration appreciates that. ;)
 
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The Lost Fort is a travel journal and history blog based on my travels in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, and other places. It includes essays on Roman and Mediaeval history, as well as some geology, illustrated with my own photos of old castles and churches, Roman remains, and beautiful landscapes.

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I'm a blogger from Germany with a MA in Literature and History which doesn't pay my bills, so I use it to research blogposts instead. I'm interested in everything Roman and Mediaeval, avid reader and sometimes writer, opera enthusiast, traveller with a liking for foreign languages and odd rocks, photographer, and tea aficionado. And an old-fashioned blogger who still hasn't got an Instagram account.
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Roman History

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New Finds in 2008

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Museum Park at Kalkriese

The Battle at the Harzhorn
Introduction

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Limes Fort Saalburg

Roman Frontiers in Britain
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The Batavian Rebellion

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Late Roman Helmets
The Negau B Helmet

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The pilum
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Other Equipment
Roman Saddles

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Religion
The Mithras Cult
Isis Worship
Curse Tablets and Good Luck Charms

Everyday Life
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Children's Toys
Face Pots
Styli and Wax Tablets

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Roman Transport - Amphorae and Barrels
Roman Water Supply

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Villa Rustica Wachenheim

Miscellaneous
Legend of Alaric's Burial


Mediaeval History

Feudalism
Feudalism, Beginnings
Feudalism, 10th Century
The Privilege of the deditio
A Note on handgenginn maðr

The Hanseatic League
Introduction and Beginnings
Stockfish Trade


Germany

Geneaologies

List of Mediaeval German Emperors

Geneaology
Anglo-German Marriage Connections
Heinrich the Lion's Ancestors

Biographies

Kings and Emperors
King Heinrich IV
Emperor Otto IV, Introduction

Princes
Otto the Quarrelsome of Braunschweig-Göttingen
The Dukes of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
Otto of Northeim
The Ludowing Landgraves of Thuringia
Albrecht II and Friedrich I of Thuringia

Counts and Local Lords
The Marshals of Ebersburg
The Counts of Everstein
The Counts of Hohnstein
The Lords of Plesse
The Counts of Reichenbach
The Counts of Winzenburg

Famous Feuds

Local Feuds
The Lüneburg Succession War
The Thuringian Succession War - Introduction
The Star Wars

Royal Troubles
Otto IV and Bishop Adalbert II of Magdeburg


England and Normandy

From the Conquest to King John

Normans, Britons, and Angevins
The Honour of Richmond and the Dukes of Brittany


Scotland

Kings of Scots

House Dunkeld
Malcolm III and Northumbria
Struggle for the Throne: Malcolm III to David I
King David and the Civil War (1)
King David and the Civil War (2)

Houses Bruce and Stewart
Robert the Bruce and Stirling Castle
The Early Stewart Kings

Scottish Nobles and their Quarrels

Clan Feuds
MacLeans and MacDonalds
A Scottish Wedding


Wales

Princes and Rebels

The Princes of Gwynedd
The Rise of House Aberffraw

The Rebellions
From Llywellyn ap Gruffudd to Owain Glyn Dŵr


Scandinavia

Kings and Vikings

Kings of Norway
King Eirik's Scottish Marriages

Famous Nobles and their Feuds
Alv Erlingsson of Tønsberg


Other Times and Miscellanea

Post-Mediaeval History

Discoveries
Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Hemispheres
Raising a Wreck, Now and Then (Vasa Museum in Stockholm)

Explorers
Fram Expedition to the North Pole
Fram Expedition to the South Pole

History in Opera and Literature

Opera

Belcanto and Historicism
Maria Padilla - Mistress Royal
The Siege of Calais in Donizetti's Opera

Historical Ballads

Ballads by Th. Fontane, translated by me
About Theodor Fontane
Archibald Douglas
Gorm Grymme
Sir Walter Scott in Abbotsford
The Tragedy of Afghanistan


Geological Landscapes

The Baltic Sea
Geology of the Curonian Spit

The Harz
Karst Landscape
Karst - Lonau Falls
Karst - Rhume Springs

Meissner / Kaufunger Wald
Blue Dome near Eschwege
Diabase and Basalt Formations
Karst Formations

Solling-Vogler
Raised Bogs
The Hannover Cliffs

The Shores of Scotland
Staffa

Paleontology

Fossils
Ammonites


Fun Stuff

Not So Serious Romans
Aelius Rufus Visits the Future Series
Building Hadrian's Wall
Playmobil Romans

Royal (Hi)Stories
Kings Having a Bad Hair Day
The Case of the Vanished Wine Cask

Historical Memes
Charlemagne meme
Historical Christmas Wishes
New Year Resolutions
Aelius Rufus does a Meme
Rules for Writing Scottish Romances

Funny Sights
Tourist Kitsch in St.Petersburg

My Novels in Progress / Planning

I'm a bit of a writer, too; here are the novel projects on which I'm currently working

Roman Novels (Historical Fiction)
The Saga of House Sichelstein (Historical Fiction)
Kings and Rebels (Fantasy)


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Links leading outside my blog will open in a new window. I do not take any responsibility for the content of linked sites.

History Blogs - Ancient

Roman History Today
Ancient Times (Mary Harrsch)
Bread and Circuses (Adrian Murdoch)
Following Hadrian (Carole Raddato)
Mike Anderson's Ancient History Blog
Mos Maiorum - Der römische Weg
Per Lineam Valli (M.C. Bishop)
Zenobia (Judith Weingarten)

Digging Up Fun Stuff
The Anglo-Saxon Archaeology Blog
Arkeologi i Nord
The Journal of Antiquities (Britain)
The Northern Antiquarian
The Roman Archaeology Blog

History Blogs - Mediaeval

Þaér wæs Hearpan Swég
Anglo Saxon, Norse & Celtic Blog
Casting Light upon the Shadow (A. Whitehead)
Norse and Viking Ramblings
Outtakes of a Historical Novelist (Kim Rendfeld)

Beholden Ye Aulde Blogges
A Clerk of Oxford
Historical Britain Blog (Mercedes Rochelle)
Magistra et Mater (Rachel Stone)
Michelle of Heavenfield (Michelle Ziegler)
Senchus (Tim Clarkson)

Royal and Other Troubles
Edward II (Kathryn Warner)
Henry the Young King (Kasia Ogrodnik)
Piers Gaveston (Anerje)
Lady Despenser's Scribery
Simon de Montfort (Darren Baker)
Weaving the Tapestry (Scottish Houses Dunkeld and Stewart)

A Mixed Bag of History
English Historical Fiction Authors
The Freelance History Writer (Susan Abernethy)
The History Blog
History, the Interesting Bits (S.B. Connolly)
Mediaeval Manuscripts Blog
Mediaeval News (Niall O'Brian)
Time Present and Time Past (Mark Patton)

Thoughts and Images

Reading and Reviews
Black Gate Blog
The Blog That Time Forgot (Al Harron)
Parmenion Books
Reading the Past
The Wertzone

Imaginations
David Blixt
Ex Urbe (Ada Palmer)
Constance A. Brewer
Jenny Dolfen Illustrations
Wild and Wonderful (Caroline Gill)

German Travel Blogs
Alte Steine
Blickgewinkelt
Meerblog
Reiseaufnahmen
Sonne und Wolken
Teilzeitreisender
Travelita
Unterwegs und Daheim

Highland Mountains
The Hazel Tree (Jo Woolf)
Helen in Wales
Mountains and Sea Scotland

The Colours of the World
Shutterbugs


Research

Archaeology
Past Horizons
Archaeology in Europe
Orkneyar

Roman History
Deutsche Limeskommission
Internet Ancient Sourcebook
Livius.org
Roman Army
Roman Britain
The Romans in Britain
Vindolanda Tablets

Not so Dark Ages
Burgundians in the Mist
Viking Society for Northern Research

Mediaeval History
De Re Militari
Internet Mediaeval Sourcebook
Kulturzeit
The Labyrinth
Mediaeval Crusades
Medievalists.Net

Castles
Burgenarchiv
Burgerbe
Burgenwelt
Exploring Castles
The World of Castles

Miscellaneous History
Heritage Daily
The History Files

Mythology
Ancient History
Encyclopedia Mythica

Online Journals
Ancient Warfare
The Heroic Age
The History Files

Travel and Guide Sites

Germany - History
Antike Stätten in Deutschland
Burgenarchiv
Strasse der Romanik

Germany - Nature
HarzLife
Naturpark Meissner
Naturpark Solling-Vogler

England
English Heritage
Visit Northumberland

Scotland
The Chain Mail (Scottish History)
Historic Scotland
National Trust Scotland

Books and Writing

Interesting Author Websites
Bernard Cornwell
Dorothy Dunnett
Steven Erikson
Diana Gabaldon
Guy Gavriel Kay
George R.R. Martin
Sharon Kay Penman
Brandon Sanderson
J.R.R. Tolkien
Tad Williams

Historical Fiction
Historical Novel Society
Historia Magazine

Writing Sites
Absolute Write
TheLitForum.com
National Novel Writing Month


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